Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Chemical Engineering : Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Dyestuff Industry

The dyestuff industry plays important role in the overall growth of chemical industry. The preparation and usage of dyestuff is one the oldest forms of human activities. The usage of natural dyestuff dates back to the bronze age. Dye flax fibres have been found in the Republic of Georgia dated back in a prehistoric cave 36,000 BP. Archeological evidence shows that particularly In India and Phoenicia, has been extensively carry out for over 5000 years. The dyes were obtains from animal, vegetable or mineral origin with no or little processing. First synthetic organic dye, mauveine, was discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856 .

There is also mention of dye in the Bible and other works of classical antiquity. It was in 2600 BC when earliest written records of the use of dyestuffs were found in China. Synthetic dyestuffs now available in several hues are amongst the oldest chemicals produced by man [Lalbhai, 2007]. Textile, carpet and garment industry is one of the largest and most prominent sectors as major portion of the dyes are used in textile industry, growth of the textile industry has a direct impact on the growth of dyes stuff industry.

Textile dyestuff had a worldwide market of around US $ 5.7 billion. Largest categories are reactive and disperse dyes that accounts for about 44% of total value. Asia pacific represents largest share and accounts for about 40% global share. At a production of 130,000 MT per annum, Indian due stuff industry contribute to just 7% of the world’s global production. Installed and production capacity of dyes and dyestuffs are given in Table M-IX 2.1.  Dyes are the coloured, ionizing and aromatic organic compounds which has affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution which may also require a mordant for improving the fastness of the material on which it is applied. Classification of dyes is given in Table M-IX 2.2.

Colors are an integral part of human perception and life. Much before the invention of synthetic dyestuffs, natural and vegetable colors were in use in India for centuries. Chromphone in Important Class of Dyes is given Table M-IX 2.3 . Perkins development of the first synthetic dye in 1856 led to the birth of European dyestuffs industry and use of synthetics dyes widely extended to all textiles substrates. The well-development textile industry in India soon started use of synthetic dyes and depended on imported organic dyestuffs till forties. The start up of Arlabs ltd., in 1940, followed by other dyestuffs companies in fifties and sixties led to the establishment of the indigenous industry. In the development phase that followed subsequently, India slowly emerged as the supplier of dyestuffs.

Demand and Supply

The overall production capacity of dyestuffs is 200,000 tonnes per annum. With the ever increasing standards of quality and reliability, Indian dyestuffs industry meets more than 95% of the domestic requirement, out of which textile industry consumes nearly 60% and the remaining is shared by paper, leather & other consumer industries. As far as pigments are concerned, the market size is 115,000 tonnes. Production of pigments and major dyes is shown in Figure M-IX 2.1. The main consumer industries are printing inks, paints, plastics, rubber, etc., accounting for 70% of the end use. Table M-IX 2.5 shows various dyes intermediate and their structure, methods of preparation and their uses.

Pigments Production, India (‘000 tonnes) Production of Major Dyes (‘000 tonnes)

Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-IX 2.1: Production of Pigments and Major Dyes

Table M-IX 2.1: Installed and Production of Dyes and Dyestuffs (000’ MT)

Major Groups/Products

Installed Capacity (2009-10)

Production

(2010-11)

DYES AND DYESTUFFS

 

 

Azo Dyes

8.70

2.80

Disperse Dyes

6.50

0.53

Fast Colour Bases

0.60

0.09

Ingrain Dyes

0.50

0.70

Optical Whitening Agents

3.40

3.04

Organic Pigment Colours

11.00

21.83

Pigment Emulsions

6.30

5.63

Reactive Dyes

7.90

2.40

Sulphur Dyes (Sulphur Black)

3.30

8.60

Vat Dyes

3.00

1.60

Solubilised Vat Dyes

0.10

0.04

Napthols

3.60

0.07

TOTAL

54.90

47.33

 
 
Classification of Dyes:  
 
Dyes can be classified in various ways based on origin, dyeing process, chromophores and application. Classification of dyes based on application has been commonly used [Table M-IX 2.4].
Table M-IX 2.2: Classification of Dyes 
 

Based on origin of dyes

Natural or synthetic dyes

 

Organic or Inorganic

Based on the dyeing Process

Acid dyes, Basic dyes, direct or substantive dyeing, vat dyes,

reactive dyes, disperse dyes, azo-dye, sulphur dyes, fluorescent birightening agent

Based on chromophore

Acridined yes,

Anthraquinone dyes,

Aryl metahne dyes,

Azo dyes

Cyanine dyes,

Diazonium, dyes,

Nitroso dyes,

Phthalocyanine dyes,

Quinoneiimine dyes( azine dyes, Indamins, Indophenols, oxazone, Thiazin).Thiazole dyes, Xanthate dyes

Based on application

Food , cosmetics and drug dyes, Laser dyes, Leather dyes,

Solvent dyes, Contrast dye, Carbine dyes.

Based on Colour index

Colour index recognizes 26 types of dyes by chemical classification

 
 
Table M-IX 2.3: Chromphone in Important Class of Dyes
 

Dye

Chromophore

Azo dyes

-N+N-

Nitro

-NO2

Nitroso

-NO(or =N-OH

Ethylene

Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Carbonyl grouo

Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

 

 

 

Carbon nitrogen group

Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Carbon sulphur groups

Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

TableM-IX 2.4 Process  Application Based Dyes

Acid dyes

Acid dyes are water souble anionic dyes and insoluble in acid bath. acid dyes are used for dying of wool, silk ,nylon, acrylic fibre, paper, leather

Basic dyes

Basic dyes are water soluble cationic dyes. Basic dyses are mostly amino and substituted amino compounds. Basic dyseare used for dyeing, acrylic fibre, cotton, wool, paper

Direct dyes

Direct dyes are used in a neutral or slightly alkaline dye bath without addition of mordant. Direct dyes are used for dyeing cotton, wool, silk, paper, nylon.. They are generally azo dyes.

Disperse dyes

Disperse dyes are used for dyeing for dyeing synthetic fibre like cellulose aacetate, plyesters, nylon and acrylic fibres. . these dues are applied as finely divided materials in presence of dispersing agent

Vat dyes

Vat dyes have highly complex structures and are insoluble in water and

are used after reduction in alkaline liquor which produces water soluble alkali salt.

Reactive dyes

Reactive dyes react to form covalent bond which directly react with the

fibre and provide excellent wash resistance.eg. Procin MX,Cibacron F and Drimarene K

Mordant dyes

Some dye combine with metallic salt (mordant) which improve the

fastness of dye. e.g Chrome dyes. Potassium dichromate is used as mordrant

Azoic dyeing

In azoic dyeing, colours are made on the fibre by coupling diatozized materials while on contact with fibre.final colour is controlled by the choice of diazoic and coupling components

Sulphur dyes

Sulphur Black dye is most commonly used sulphur dyes colour is produced by reacting sulphide and polysulphides with chlorinated aromatics. It is used for cotton cloth

Food dyes

Food dyes can be direct, mordant and vat dyes and are manufactured with high purity and precaution to meet the required standards

 

Dyes Intermediate: Various Dyes Intermediate and their Structure, Methods of Preparation and their Uses is given in Table M-IX 2.4 

Table M-IX 2.5: Various Dyes Intermediate and their Structure, Methods of Preparation and their Uses 

ProductDerivativesStructureMethod of pr ep arationPurpose
Benzene 4-aminobenzene (sulfonic acid) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevSulfanilic acid is a grey crystalline solid produced from sulfonation of aniline It is used to make dyes and sulpha drugs 
 N-N-Dimethyl aniline (DMA)Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev1. Initially it was prepared by heating aniline and iodomethane. 2. Industrially it was produced by alkylation of aniline with methanol in the presence of an acid catalyst. derivative of aniline DMA is a key precursor to commercially important triarylmethane dyes such as Malachite green and Crystal violet 
Toluene Ortho chloro Benzoic acid Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev1. It may be synthesized by the oxidation of 2-chloro toluene with potassium permanganate. 2. It can also be synthesized by diazotation which fallows Sandmeyer reaction. As an intermediate in manufacture of drugs especially Mefenamic Acid & also in the manufacture of dyes & pigments.
  P-Nitro-benzoic acid Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev1. It is prepared by oxidation of 4-nitrotoluene using oxygen or nitric acid as an oxidant.  2. Alternatively it can also be prepared by nitration of ploy styrene fallowed by oxidation of alkyl substituent. as a dye intermediate, dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent and pesticides and manufacturing other compounds 
 5-amino-2- chlorotoluene-4-sulfonic acid(Cacid) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevp-toluenesulfonic acid, undergo nitrification followed by reduction so after that filtrate hydrochloride acid was crystallized into 2-amino5-chloro-p-toluenesulfonic acid It is an important Intermediate of manufacturing red organic pigments (C.I. Pigment red 48:2) and some dyestuffs.
Naphthale ne α- naphthol (1-naphthol) or  1-Hydroxylnaphthalene Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev1. α- napthol is manufactured by heating 1-nathalenesulfonic acid with caustic alkali or  2. heating 1-napthylamine with water under pressure.directly in making several dyes and are converted into numerous dye intermediates, as well as into tanning agents, antioxidants, and antiseptics 
 β-naphthol 2-hydroxy naphthalene Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevβ-napthol is manufactured by fusing 2-nathalenesulfonic acid with caustic soda.  
  1-amino-8- napthol-4, 6-disulfonic acid(K-acid) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev1-naphthylamine -4,6,8-3 acid with sodium carbonate solution and in three naphthylamine sodium and at 178-184° C using sodium hydroxide solution for alkali fusion  As azo dyes, reactive dyes and organic pigments intermediates, mainly used in the production of cationic dyes, reactive red K-2G other
  1-amino-8- napthol-3, 6-disulfonic acid(H-acid) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevan important dye intermediate, is produced from naphthalene by a combination of the unit processes of sulfonation, nitration, reduction, and hydrolysis.H Acid is used in the manufacture of a large number of azo dyes and pigments. 
  1-napthyl amine- 8 sulfonic acid (Peri Acid) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevNaphthylamine is an aromatic amine which can be obtained from nitronaphthalene (with iron and hydrochloric acid) or naphthol with sodium acetate, ammonium chloride.  Is used directly in making several dyes and converted into numerous dye intermediates, as well as into tanning agents.
  1-napthyl amine- 6-sulfonic acid (cleve's acid) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev  
 1-napthyl amine- 7-sulfonic acid(1, 7-Cleve's Acid)Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev  
  5-amino-2- chlorotoluene-4-sulfonic acid(Cacid) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevp-toluenesulfonic acid, undergo nitrification followed by reduction so after that filtrate hydrochloride acid was crystallized into 2-amino5-chloro-p-toluenesulfonic acid  It is an important Intermediate of manufacturing red organic pigments (C.I. Pigment red 48:2) and some dyestuffs. 
 2-napthol-3,6-two sodium salt(R acid) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevIts produced from naphthalene by a combination of the unit processes of sulfonation, nitration, reduction, and hydrolysis. R-salt is an important dye intermediate used in the manufacture of a large number of azo dyes and pigments.
Anthraqui none 1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone (quinizarin or Solvent Orange 86) Dyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev1. It is prepared by reaction of phthalic anhydride and 4-cholorophenol fallowed by hydrolysis of the chloride. 2. It can also be prepared less efficiently from phthalic anhydride and hydroquinone. an intermediate for the synthesis of indanthrene- and alizarin-derived dyes 
 1,4-diamino anthraquinoneDyestuff Industry (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev1,4-
Diaminoanthraquinone is reacted with sodium dithionite to produce 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone. 
ananthraquinone dye used with Disperse Red 9 in colored smoke to introduce a violet color. It is also used in dyes and marine flares. 
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