Elastomers: Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR), Poly Butadiene (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Chemical Engineering : Elastomers: Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR), Poly Butadiene (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

The document Elastomers: Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR), Poly Butadiene (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev is a part of the Chemical Engineering Course Chemical Technology.
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Elastomers: Styrene Butadiene Rubber (Sbr), Poly Butadiene, Nitrile Rubber 

Elastomers are used in wide variety of industrial, medical and household products and major portion of elastomers consumption goes into tyres next largest product sector is latex goods. There are two major types of elastomers; natural rubber a product of tropical tree Hevea brasiliens is and synthetic rubber- a family of materials derived from petrochemical feed stocks . Major producers of natural rubber are natural rubber producing country are Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Latin America, Brazil, Cambodia, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Thailand, India.

Demand for natural is estimated to have been around 10.9 million tones in 2011 out of which around 45 percent was from Asia. About 92 percent of natural rubber is produced from Asian countries. The demand for natural rubber globally is projected to grow by 3-4 percent through 2013 .  Synthetic rubbers have slowly replaced natural rubbers and have undergone various developments for applications in automotives, chemical industry, energy generation, sports, aerospace industry etc.

Naturalandsyntheticrubber

1525 Elastic ball reported by Mexico tribal people

1735 First scientific study of rubber by Charles de la Condamine

1820 First planting of rubber in India at Travancore

1832  Rosburg factory was set up for rubber goods with non –vulcanized rubber

145 R.W Thomson invented the Pneumatic tire

1902 First commercial plantation

1910 First large scale commercial production of butadiene rubber

1914-18 Methyl isoprene rubber in Germany

1930 Organic po lysulphide ru bber

1931 Neoprene production started

1932 First synthetic rubber plant in USSR

1933 BUNA-S made in USSR

1936 First automatic tyre factory (Dunlop) in India

1963 First synthetic rubber plant in India

1976 First nitrile rubber by Synthetics Chemicals

1978 First polybutadiene plant in India by IPCL

Petro based synthetic rubber 20 percent India, 80 percent in developed countries. Annual growth rate7 percent 

Natural Rubber  

Christopher Columbus voyage to Haiti 1496

Tree: Cau-achu  Weeping wood

Priestley (1770), Rubber Rub-off

1839 Vulcanising of Rubber

1840 Henry Wickham smuggled 70,000 Herca tree seed to England planted at London. 

Synthetic Rubber 

With the availability of petrochemical feedstocks there has been tremendous increase in the production of synthetic rubber. World synthetic rubber market and its production is given in Figure M-VIII 4.1 and Figure M-VIII 4.2 respectively. Synthetic rubber may be classified as general purpose rubber, specialty rubbers, thermoplastic rubber or liquid processing rubber (eg. silicon rubber, liquid polysulphide rubber). Classification of synthetic rubber is given in MVIII 1.4. Forecast of synthetic rubber and natural rubber consumption in India is given in Table M-VIII 4.3. 

Table M-VIII 4.1: Synthetic and Natural rubber consumption scenario 

 

India

2005

2010

2015

Capacity

85

113

-

Consumption

233

406

613

Oversupply/ (Shortage)

(148)

(293)

-

Source: IISRP (2011) TSRC Corporation 

Elastomers: Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR), Poly Butadiene (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRevElastomers: Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR), Poly Butadiene (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Capacity (2011) by Region (15,965 kmta) Consumption (2011) by Region (14,540 mta)
 Figure M-VIII 4.1: World Synthetic Rubbers Market by Region

Elastomers: Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR), Poly Butadiene (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-VIII 4.2: World Rubber Production
 

Table M-VIII 4.3: Indian Consumption of Synthetic Rubber (SR) and Natural  Rubber (NR) Forecast 

                                                                                                                                                                          Unit: 000’ metric ton 

 

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

NR, Tyre

Sector

661

680

772

783

850

897

950

1010

1046

1093

1152

NR, Non­Tire Sector

283

284

295

308

329

342

358

383

397

414

447

Sub-total

944

964

1017

1091

1179

1239

1308

1393

1443

1507

1599

SR, Tyre

Sector

145

143

156

164

166

178

189

210

214

221

248

SR, Non-Tire

Sector

261

285

342

414

452

513

570

625

636

661

687

Sub-total

406

428

498

578

618

691

759

835

850

882

935

Total of

Rubber

Consumptio

n

1350

1392

1515

1669

1797

1930

2067

2228

2293

2389

2534

 
 
Styrene Butadiene Rubber (Sbr) 
 
Styrene butadiene rubber is most widely used elastomer in the world.SBR is used forboth tire and non-tire application Styrene butadiene rubber known as Buna-S was first prepared by I.G. Farbenindustrie in Germany. There has been significant development in the process technology of styrene butadiene rubber manufacture. Amongst the various processes, emulsion polymerisation of SBR is most commonly used. The cold process of emulsion polymerisation process has replaced the hot polymerisation process. In India, first SBR manufacture was started by Synthetic and Chemicals, Bareilly in 1963, however, the unit has been closed presently.
 
Although butadiene is recovered from cracker plant, it can be also made from ethanol route. Styrene is made from ethyl benzene by alkylation of benzene with ethylene which can be also recovered from FCC gases. 

SBR is made by emulsion polymerisation at 50oC. Initiation occurs through reaction of potassium peroxydisulphate with n-dodecyl mercaptan. Chain propagation occurs by the growing chain free radical of mercaptyl attaching either butadiene or styrene. The reaction is terminated at 60-75 percent of completion. Unreacted butadiene and styrene were recovered. Antioxidant is added followed by coagulation, washing and drying. It is used as elastomer, emulsion and solution. Used in tyres and tyre-related product, mechanical goods, automotive uses, adhesive, shoe products.

Styrene Butadiene Styrene Rubber (Sbr)  

SBR is a hard rubber which is uses for soles of shoes, tire treads and other places where durability is important. It is a type of copolymer called a block copolymer. Its backbone chain is made of three segments- first segment polystyrene, second polybutadiene and third polystyrene. Polystyrene is tough hard plastic and this gives SBS its durability. Process flow diagram of SBR Manufacture is given in Figure M-VIII 4.2

Elastomers: Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR), Poly Butadiene (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-VIII 4.2: Process flow Diagram of SBR Manufacture 

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