Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Chemistry for JEE

Class 11 : Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

The document Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 11 Course Chemistry for JEE.
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Types of Reagent

1. Electrophilic reagent: All electron-deficient atom or group of atoms is known as Electrophilic reagent, the electrophile attacks at the electron-rich centre.

(a) all positively charged species are electrophiles.

H , NO2 , Br , Cl , etc.

 

(b) The compound in which the octet of central atom is not complete

BF3, AlCl3, ZnCl2, etc.

 

(c) all the compounds in which the central atom can expand its octet

SnCl4, SiCl4, etc.

 

(d) all polarising functional group are electrophiles as well as nuelophiles

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

 

Nucleophile :

All electron rich compounds are nucleophiles and attack at the electron deficient centre.

(a) all negatively charged species

H-, Cl-, NO2-, Br-, CH3- etc.

 

(b) the compound in which the central atom has lone pair of electron.

NH3, H2O, Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev etc.

 

(c) all organometallic compounds are nucleophiles

R - Mgx, RLi, R2Cd.

 

(d) The compound having p edensity, CH2 = CH2, etc.

 

Nucleophilicity :

The power of nucleophile is known as nucleophilicity .

→ The nucleophilicity of negative charge is greater than the nucleophilicity of lone pair

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

→ If lone pair or -ve charge is present on the different atoms then less electronegativity, more will be the nucleophilicity.

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev , Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

 

Nucleophilicity: Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

→ NH3 < PH3 < AsH3 < SbH3 < BiH(Nucleophilicity)

→ If -ve charge or lone pair of electron is present on the same atom then the less stable -ve charge will be the better nucleophile

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (nucleophilicity)
 

 Activator & deactivator

The groups in benzene which show M effect or I effect increases the electron density on benzene it means they activate the ring towards electrophile and known as activator.

 

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev, -CH3, -OR, -NHMe, Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

The groups which shows -M or -I effect (resultant) decreases the e- density from benzene ring. It means they deactivate the ring towards electrophile.

 

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

 

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev, Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev, Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev etc.


Ortho, Para & meta director:

The groups which shows +I (resultant) or +M effect then negative charge is developed at the ortho & para position. Therefore electrophile attack at the ortho & para position and the groups are known as OP director.

 

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

The groups which shows -M effect or - I effect (resultant) then -ve charge is developed at the ortho & para position this means electron density is minimum at the ortho & para positions and electrophile will attack at the meta position the groups are known as meta director.

 

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev , Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev,

 

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRevElectrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

 

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev


Heat of hydrogenation(H.O.H)

It is the amount of energy released when one mole of H2 is added to any unsaturated system.

CH2 = CH2 + H2 → CH3 - CH3 

HOH is exothermic process DH = - ve 

*HOH ≈ No. of p-bonds in compound

If no. of p-bonds is same then

*HOH ≈ Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

In case of alkene,

**Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

 

Ex. Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev

b > c > a

 

Energy

 

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev


 

Some examples of Aromatic(A), Non-aromatic(NA) and Anti-aromatic(AA)

 

(1) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (A)  (2) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (AA)  (3) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (AA)

 

(4) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (NA)  (5) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (AA)  (6) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (A)

 

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(9) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (A) (2pe)  (10) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (A) (6pe)  (11) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles Class 11 Notes | EduRev (NA)

 

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