Evolution 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

Biology 28 Years NEET/AIPMT Question Papers of Class 12

NEET : Evolution 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

The document Evolution 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev is a part of the NEET Course Biology 28 Years NEET/AIPMT Question Papers of Class 12.
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Q.1. From his experiments, S.L. Miller produced amino acids by mixing the following in a closed flask:   [NEET 2020]
(a) CH4, H2, NH3 and water vapor at 600°C
(b) CH3, H2, NH3 and water vapor at 600°C
(c) CH4, H2, NH3 and water vapor at 800°C 
(d) CH3, H2, NH4 and water vapor at 800°C

Correct Answer is Option (C)
S.L. Miller conducted an experiment to prove the theory of chemical origin. In their experiment, the conditions of primitive earth were created in the laboratory. The electric discharge was stimulated into a closed flask containing CH4, H2, NH3 and water vapour at 800ºC. This proved that life originates from non-living components.


Q.2. Which of the following refer to correct example(s) of organisms which have evolved due to changes of the environment brought about by anthropogenic action?[NEET 2020]
(i) Darwin’s Finches of Galapagos islands.
(ii) Herbicide-resistant weeds
(iii) Drug-resistant eukaryotes.  
(iv) Man-created breeds of domesticated animals like dogs.
(a)
(ii),(iii) & (iv)
(b) only (iv)
(c) only (i)
(d) (i) & (iii)

Correct Answer is Option (A)
Evolution by Anthropogenenic action is because of the interference by human beings. Anthropogenenic shows herbicide resistant weeds, drug resistant eukaryotes and mancreated breeds of domesticated animals like dogs and darwin’s Finches of Galapagos islands is an example of natural selection.


Q.3. Embryological support for evolution was disapproved by:      [NEET 2020]
(a) Charles Darwin
(b) Oparin
(c) Karl Ernst von Baer
(d) Alfred Wallace

Correct Answer is Option (C)
Karl ernst von baer proposed four rules to explain the observed pattern of embryonic development in different species.


Q.4. Variations caused by mutation, as proposed by Hugo de Vries, are    [NEET 2019]
(a) Small and directionless
(b) Random and directional
(c) Random and directionless
(d) Small and directional

Correct Answer is Option (C)
Hugo de Vries (1901) put forward the theory of evolution called mutation theory. He believed that mutation causes evolution. Mutations are discontinuous variations that are random and directionless.


Q.5. A gene locus has two alleles A, a. If the frequency of dominant allele A is 0.4, then what will be the frequency of homozygous dominant, heterozygous and homozygous recessive individuals in the population?    [NEET 2019]
(a) 0.16 (AA); 0.36 (Aa); 0.48 (aa)
(b) 0.36 (AA); 0.48 (Aa); 0.16 (aa)
(c) 0.16 (AA); 0.24 (Aa); 0.36 (aa)
(d) 0.16 (AA); 0.48 (Aa); 0.36 (aa)

Correct Answer is Option (D)
Frequency of dominant allele (A) = 0.4
Applying Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; p + q = 1
q = 1 - 0.4 = 0.6 ; p2 + q2 + 2pq = 1
Frequency of homozygous dominant genotype
(p∴ AA)= (0.4)2 = 0.16
Frequency of heterozygous genotype
(2pq Aa) = 2 x 0.4 x 0.6 = 0.48
Frequency of homozygous recessive genotype
(q∴ aa) = (0.6)2 = 0.36


Q.6. In a species, the weight of a newborn ranges from 2 to 5 kg. 97% of the newborn with an average weight between 3 to 3.3 kg survive whereas 99% of the infants born with weights from 2 to 2.5 o r 4.5 to 5 kg die. Which type of selection process is taking place?    [NEET 2019]
(a) Cyclical selection
(b) Directional selection
(c) Stabilising selection
(d) Disruptive Selection

Correct Answer is Option (C)
Stabilising selection is a balancing type of natural selection that favours average-sized individuals and eliminates extreme individuals.


Q.7. Match the hominids with their correct brain size.  [NEET 2019] 
Evolution 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev
Select the correct option.
Evolution 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

Correct Answer is Option (D)

Homo Habilis- 650- 800 cc
Homo Neanderthalensis- 1400 cc

Homo Erectus- 900 cc

Homo Sapiens- 1350 cc


Q.8. Which of the following statements is correct about the origin and evolution of men?    [NEET 2019]
(a) Agriculture came around 50,000 years back.
(b) The Dryopithecus and Ramapithecus primates existing 15 million years ago, walked like men.
(c) Homo habilis probably ate meat.
(d) Neanderthal man lived in Asia between 1,00,000 and 40,000 years back.

Correct Answer is Option (D)

  • The Neanderthal man with a brain size of 1400c.c. lived in near East and Central Asia between 1,00,000 - 40,000 years back. 
  • They used hides to protect their body and buried their dead.
  •  It is established that Neanderthal man appeared later than Ramapithecus and Homo erectus.


Q.9. The similarity of bone structure in the forelimbs of many vertebrates is an example of    [NEET 2018]
(a) Homology
(b) Analogy
(c) Convergent evolution
(d) Adaptive radiation.

Correct Answer is Option (A)

  • Homologous organs are those organs that have the same fundamental structure but are different in functions. 
  • Wings of birds and forelimbs of horse show homology because skeletal parts of their forelimbs are similar in structure and arrangement but have different functions.


Q.10. Among the following sets of examples for divergent evolution, select the incorrect option.    [NEET 2018]
(a) Forelimbs of man, bat and cheetah
(b) Heart of bat, man and cheetah
(c) Brain of bat, man and cheetah
(d) Eye of octopus, bat and man

Correct Answer is Option (D)
Eye of octopus, bat and man are examples of analogous organs showing convergent evolution.


Q.11. According to Hugo de Vries, the mechanism of evolution is    [NEET 2018]
(a) Multiple-step mutations
(b) Saltation
(c) Phenotypic variations
(d) Minor mutations

Correct Answer is Option (B)
As per mutation theory given by Hugo de Vries, the evolution is a discontinuous phenomenon or saltatory phenomenon (single step large mutation).


Q.12. Artificial selection to obtain cows yielding higher milk output represents   

[NEET 2017]
(a) Directional as it pushes the mean of the character in one direction
(b) Disruptive as it splits the population into two, one yielding higher output and the other lower output
(c) Stabilization followed by disruptive as it stabilizes the population to produce higher-yielding cows
(d) Stabilising selection as it stabilizes this character in the population

Correct Answer is Option (A)

  • A natural selection where an extreme phenotype is favoured over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype is known as directional artificial selection. 
  • In order to achieve the cow yielding higher milk directional selection is used as it pushes the mean of the frequency of the selected individual in one direction.


Q.13. Genetic drill operates in    [NEET 2016]
(a) Small isolated population
(b) Large isolated population
(c) non-reproductive population
(d) Slow reproductive population

Correct Answer is Option (A)

  • The random changes in gene frequencies in a population occurring by chance alone rather than by natural selection are called genetic drift or Sewall Wright effect. 
  • The effects of genetic drift are most marked in a very small isolated population, although it occurs in all populations.


Q.14. In the Hardy-Weinberg equation, the frequency of heterozygous individual is represented by   [NEET 2016]
(a) p2
(b) 2pq
(c) pq
(d) q2

Correct Answer is Option (B)
In a stable population, for a gene with two alleles, ‘A’ (dominant) and ‘a’ (recessive), if the frequency of‘A’ is p and the frequency of‘a’ is q, then the frequencies of the three possible genotypes (AA, Aa and aa) can be expressed by the Hardy-Weinberg
equation:    A
p2 + 2pq + q2= 1
where
p2 = Frequency of AA (homozygous dominant) individuals
q2 = Frequency of aa (homozygous recessive) individuals
2pq = Frequency of Aa (heterozygous) individuals


Q.15. The chronological order of human evolution from early to the recent is    [NEET 2016]
(a) Australopithecus → Ramapithecus → Homo habit is → Homo erectus
(b) Ramapithecus → Australopithecus → Homo habilis → Homo erectus
(c) Ramapithecus → Homo habilis → Australopithecus → Homo erectus
(d) Australopithecus → Homo habilis → Ramapithecus → Homo erectus

Correct Answer is Option (B)

  • Australopithecus are the Southern apes found in Africa about 4.2 to 1.9 million years ago. It was first discovered in 1924 in Taung, Africa as a type specimen. There were similarities of about 35% between the brains of Australopithecus and humans. They had 32 teeth like humans including canine, molar etc but had less interlocking pattern. 
  • Unlike other apes, they possess thick enamel in their teeth. They ate only vegetables, fruits or other tubers.
  • Homo habilis were also called handyman. They were found in the era Pleistocene about 2.3 to 1.64 million years ago. Homo habilis are supposed to evolve from Homo erectus. They had a comparatively larger brain than Australopithecus and possessed teeth with smaller premolar and molar.
  • Ramapithecus also called Sivapithecus is one of the ancient extinct apes. They were found about 12.2 million years ago in the 19th-century Miocene era. They were like a jaw and had evolved into humans gradually. Their length was about 1.5 meter and had similarities with Orangutan. They ate only tough foods like savanna grasses, solid fruits etc.
  • Homo erectus is also an extinct ape found in the era of Pleistocene of about 1.5 to 2 million years ago. As the fossils were discovered from Central Jawa, it was also called the Jawa man. It was supposed to be the first one who began to use fire as their need.


Q.16. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the origin of life?   

I. Formation of protobionts
II. Synthesis of organic monomers
III. Synthesis of organic polymers
IV. Formation of DNA-based genetic systems   [NEET 2016] 
(a) I, II, III, IV
(b) I, III, II, IV
(c) II, III, I, IV
(d) II, III, IV, I

Correct Answer is Option (C)

The sequence of the origin of life events is as follows-
  • The organic monomers were synthesised first and then the formation of the organic polymers took place.
  • All these organic compounds were then aggregated together and surrounded by a feeble membrane. 
  • This structure was known as the protobionts.
    Much more  complex DNA based genetic system evolved after that
    SO, the correct option is 'II, III, I, IV'


Q.17. Which of the following structures is homologous to the wing of a bird?   [NEET 2016]
(a) Hindlimb of rabbit
(b) Flipper,of whale
(c) Dorsal fin of a shark
(d) Wing of a moth

Correct Answer is Option (B)
Homologous organs have same fundamental structure but different functions. The wing of a bird and flipper of a whale are structurally forelimbs, which consist of humerus, radius-ulna, carpals, metacarpals and digits but they perform different functions. The wings of birds help them to fly while flipper helps the whale to swim.


Q.18. Analogous structures are a result of    [NEET 2016]
(a) Shared ancestry
(b) Stabilising selection
(c) Divergent evolution
(d) Convergent evolution

Correct Answer is Option (D)
The organs which have similar functions but are different in their structural details and origin are called analogous organs. The analogous structures arc the result of convergent evolution.


Q.19. Following are the two statements regarding the origin of life.  [NEET 2016]
(A) The earliest organisms that appeared on the earth were non-green and presumably anaerobes,
(B) The first autotrophic organisms were the chemo-autotrophs that never released oxygen.

Of the above statements which one of the following options is correct?    
(a) Both (A) and (B) are correct.
(b) Both (A) and (B) are false.
(c) (A) is correct but (B) is false.
(d) (B) is correct but (A) is false.

Correct Answer is Option (A)

  • The earliest organisms that appeared on the earth were non-green and presumably anaerobes.
  • The first beings were probably much like coacervates. As a group, these bacteria are called heterotrophic anaerobes.
  • Because there was virtually no oxygen in the atmosphere at this time, these bacteria were necessarily anaerobic, meaning they did not breathe oxygen.
  • Heterotrophs, meaning "other feeders", are simply organisms that cannot make their own food. 
  • So, "heterotrophic anaerobes" means they were creatures which ate some naturally occurring food and did not breathe oxygen.
  • The first autotrophic organisms were the chemoautotrophs that never released oxygen. Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments. 


Q.20. Which of the following structures is homologous to the wing of a bird?    [NEET 2016]  
(a) Dorsal fin of a Shark
(b) Wing of a Moth
(c) Hind limb of Rabbit
(d) Flipper of Whale

Correct Answer is Option (D)
Wings of a bird and flippers of a whale are modified forelimbs.


Q.21. Following are the two statements regarding the origin of life    [NEET 2016] 
(a) The earliest organisms that appeared on the earth were non-green and presumably anaerobes.
(b) The first autotrophic organisms were the chemo-autotrophs that never released oxygen.

Of the above statements which one of the following options is correct?
(a) (a) is correct but (b) is false.
(b) (b) is correct but (a) is false.
(c) Both (a) and (b) are correct.
(d) Both (a) and (b) are false.

Correct Answer is Option (C)
Both statements are correct because primitive atmosphere was reducing and chlorophyll appeared later on. Chemoautotrophs were the first autotrophic organisms unable to perform photolysis of water and never released oxygen.


Q.22. Analogous structures are a result of    [NEET 2016] 
(a) Divergent evolution
(b) Convergent evolution
(c) Shared ancestry
(d) Stabilizing selection

Correct Answer is Option (B)
Analogous structures are those that have the same function, but they are not derived from a common ancestor and have undergone different patterns of development ie., Convergent evolution which is natural selection that favors the same type of structure in different ancestors.


Q.23. Which of the following had the smallest brain capacity?    [NEET 2015] 
(a) Homo sapiens
(b) Homo neanderthalensis
(c) Homo habilis
(d) Homo erectus

Correct Answer is Option (C)
Brain capacity in decreasing order:- Homo sapiens (1300 - 1600 c.c) Homo neander thalensis (approx. 1400 cc) Homo erectus (600 - 700 c.c.) Homo habilis (550 - 687 c.c.) Thus the lowest brain capacity is of Homo habilis as shown above. Homo habilis lived in early pleistocene period and used tools of chipped stones.


Q.24. Forelimbs of cat, lizard used in walking; forelimbs of whale used in swimming and forelimbs of bats used in flying are an example of:    [NEET 2014]  
(a) Analogous organs
(b) Adaptive radiation
(c) Homologous organs
(d) Convergent evolution

Correct Answer is Option (C)
Organs that have a common fundamental anatomical plan and similar embryonic origin whatever varied functions they may perform are regarded as homologous organs. For examples, the flippers of a whale, a bats wing, the fore-limb of a horse, a bird's wings and the forelimbs of a human are structurally as well as functionally different.


Q.25. Which one of the following are analogous structures?    [NEET 2014] 
(a) Wings of Bat and Wings of Pigeon.
(b) Gills of Prawn and Lungs of Man.
(c) Thorns of Bougainvillea and Tendrils of Cucurbita
(d) Flippers of Dolphin and Legs of Horse

Correct Answer is Option (B)
Analogous organs are those that perform similar functions but have entirely different embryonic origins.

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