Extra Question & Answers (Part - 2) - Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 9

Class 9 : Extra Question & Answers (Part - 2) - Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes | EduRev

The document Extra Question & Answers (Part - 2) - Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
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54) Describe the term 'NFWP'.

Answer:  (i) This scheme is known as the National Food for Work Programme, launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country.

(ii) The programme is open to all rural people who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual unskilled work.
(iii) It is implemented as a 100 per cent centrally sponsored scheme and food grains are provided free of cost to the states. 

55) What is the status of poverty in scheduled caste, or scheduled tribe?  

Answer: (i) 50 per cent of casual workers in urban areas are below poverty line. About 50 per cent of landless agricultural workers and 43 per cent of scheduled caste are also poor. (ii) The double disadvantage of being a landless casual wage labour household in the socially disadvantaged social groups of the scheduled caste or the scheduled tribe population highlights the seriousness of the problem.
(iii) Some recent studies have shown that except for scheduled tribe households all the other three groups that is, scheduled caste, rural agricultural labour and the urban casual labour have seen a decline in poverty.
56) How is the poverty line determined? Or Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.

Answer: (i) In India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirement, etc., are determined for subsistence.
(ii) These things are multiplied by their prices in rupees.
(iii) The desired calorie requirements are seen depending on age, sex and the type of work that a person does.
(iv) The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2,400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2,100 calories per person per year in urban areas.
(v) Since people living in rural areas are considered to be higher than urban areas.
(vi) The monetary expenditure per capita needed for buying these calorie requirements is revised time to time, keeping in mind the rise in prices.
(vii) On the basis of these calculations, for the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at ` 328 per month for the rural areas and ` 454 for the urban areas.  

57) Which groups are most vulnerable to poverty? Or Identify social and economic groups are most vulnerable to poverty in India.

Answer:  (i) The social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty are those belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
(ii) Among the economic groups, the most vulnerable groups are the rural agricultural labour households and the urban casual labourers.
(iii) About 51 out of 100 people belonging to the Scheduled Tribes are not able to meet their basic needs.
(iv) Similarly, 50 per cent of the casual workers in urban areas are below the poverty line.  

58) What is the global poverty scenario?

Answer:Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences.
(i) Poverty declined substantially in China and south-east Asian colonies as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development.
(ii) In the south Asian countries, the decline has not been as rapid. Despite decline in the percentage of poor, the number of poor has declined from 475 million in 1981 to 428 million in 2001.
(iii) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact rose from 41 per cent in 1981 to 46 per cent in 2001.
(iv) In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same.
(v) Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia.  

59) What are the main causes of poverty? Or Describe the major reasons for poverty in India.

Answer: The main causes of widespread poverty are:
(i) The low level of economic development under the British colonial administration was one of the main causes of poverty. The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged the development of industries like textiles.
(ii) High growth rate of population also contributed towards rise in poverty levels. It made the growth rate of per capita income very low.
(iii) With the growth in irrigation and the Green Revolution, many job opportunities were created in the agricultural sector. But the effects were limited to some parts of India.
(iv) Unable to find proper jobs in cities, many people started working as rickshaw pullers, vendors, construction workers, domestic servants, etc., with irregular and small income. These people lived in slums on the outskirts of the cities.  

60)   What is the current anti-poverty strategy of the government for the promotion of economic growth?

Answer:  (i) Over a period of thirty years lasting up to the early eighties, there was little per capita income growth and not much reduction in poverty.
(ii) Since the eighties, India's economic growth has been one of the fastest in the world. (iii) The growth rate jumped from an average of about 3.5 per cent a year in the 1970s to about 6 per cent.
(iv) Higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. So, there is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction. However, the poor may not be able to take direct advantage from the opportunities created by economic growth.  

61) Mention some anti-poverty programmes undertaken by the government.

Answer: (i) The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was passed in September 2005. The act provides 100 days assured employment every year, to every rural household, in 200 districts.
(ii) The central government will also establish National Employment Guarantee Funds. Similarly, state governments will establish State Employment Guarantee Funds for implementation of the scheme.
(iii) Under the programme, if an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days he or she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.
(iv) Another scheme is the National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) which was launched in 2004, in 150 most backward districts of the country. The programme is open to all rural people who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual unskilled work. Under this scheme, food grains are provided free of cost to the states. 

62) State the various Poverty Alleviation Programmes introduced by the government to remove poverty.

Answer: (i) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY): It is a scheme started in 1993. The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns. They are helped in setting up small businesses and industries.
(ii) Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP): It was launched in 1995. The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns. A target for creating 25 lakh new jobs has been set for the programme.
(iii) Swamajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY): It was launched in 1999. The programme aims at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organising them into self-help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.
(iv) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY): It was launched in 2000. Under this programme, additional Central assistance is given to states for basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification. 

63) What is the concept of poverty line? How does it vary with time and place?

Answer: (i) A poverty line is an indicator of poverty, i.e., it is a level of income which barely meets sustenance. A common method used to measure poverty is based on the income or consumption level.
(ii) A person is considered poor, if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given 'minimum level' necessary to fulfil basic needs.
(iii) What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries.
(iv) Therefore, poverty line may vary with time and place. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.
(v) For example, a person not having a car in the US may be considered poor. In India, owing of a car is still considered a luxury.  

64)   What is the methodology of calculating poverty line?  

Answer:  (i) On the basis of calorie intake for the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at ` 328 per month for the rural areas and ` 454 for the urban areas.
(ii) Despite less calorie requirement, the higher amount for urban areas has been fixed because of high prices of many essential products in urban centres.
(iii) In this way in the year 2000, a family of five members living in rural areas and earning less than about 1,640 per month was below the poverty line.
(iv) A similar family in the urban areas needed a minimum of `2,270 per month to meet their basic requirements.
(v) The poverty line is estimated periodically by conducting sample surveys. Many international organisations like the World Bank use a uniform standard for the poverty line.  

65) How is the poverty line determined? Or Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.

Answer:  (i) In India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirement, etc., are determined for subsistence.
(ii) These things are multiplied by their prices in rupees.
(iii) The desired calorie requirements are seen depending on age, sex and the type of work that a person does.
(iv) The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2,400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2,100 calories per person per year in urban areas.
(v) Since people living in rural areas are considered to be higher than urban areas.
(vi) The monetary expenditure per capita needed for buying these calorie requirements is revised time to time, keeping in mind the rise in prices.
(vii) On the basis of these calculations, for the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at ` 328 per month for the rural areas and ` 454 for the urban areas.  

66)   Which groups are most vulnerable to poverty? Or Identify social and economic groups are most vulnerable to poverty in India.

Answer:  (i) The social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty are those belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
(ii) Among the economic groups, the most vulnerable groups are the rural agricultural labour households and the urban casual labourers.
(iii) About 51 out of 100 people belonging to the Scheduled Tribes are not able to meet their basic needs.
(iv) Similarly, 50 per cent of the casual workers in urban areas are below the poverty line.  

67) What is the global poverty scenario?

Answer: Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences.
(i) Poverty declined substantially in China and south-east Asian colonies as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development.
(ii) In the south Asian countries, the decline has not been as rapid. Despite decline in the percentage of poor, the number of poor has declined from 475 million in 1981 to 428 million in 2001.
(iii) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact rose from 41 per cent in 1981 to 46 per cent in 2001. (iv) In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same.
(v) Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia.  

68)   What are the main causes of poverty? Or Describe the major reasons for poverty in India.

Answer:  The main causes of widespread poverty are:
(i) The low level of economic development under the British colonial administration was one of the main causes of poverty. The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged the development of industries like textiles.
(ii) High growth rate of population also contributed towards rise in poverty levels. It made the growth rate of per capita income very low.
(iii) With the growth in irrigation and the Green Revolution, many job opportunities were created in the agricultural sector. But the effects were limited to some parts of India.
(iv) Unable to find proper jobs in cities, many people started working as rickshaw pullers, vendors, construction workers, domestic servants, etc., with irregular and small income. These people lived in slums on the outskirts of the cities.  

69) What is the current anti-poverty strategy of the government for the promotion of economic growth?

Answer:  (i) Over a period of thirty years lasting up to the early eighties, there was little per capita income growth and not much reduction in poverty.
(ii) Since the eighties, India's economic growth has been one of the fastest in the world. (iii) The growth rate jumped from an average of about 3.5 per cent a year in the 1970s to about 6 per cent.
(iv) Higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. So, there is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction. However, the poor may not be able to take direct advantage from the opportunities created by economic growth.  

70) Mention some anti-poverty programmes undertaken by the government.

Answer: (i) The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was passed in September 2005. The act provides 100 days assured employment every year, to every rural household, in 200 districts.
(ii) The central government will also establish National Employment Guarantee Funds. Similarly, state governments will establish State Employment Guarantee Funds for implementation of the scheme.
(iii) Under the programme, if an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days he or she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.
(iv) Another scheme is the National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) which was launched in 2004, in 150 most backward districts of the country. The programme is open to all rural people who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual unskilled work. Under this scheme, food grains are provided free of cost to the states.  

71)   State the various Poverty Alleviation Programmes introduced by the government to remove poverty.

Answer: (i) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY): It is a scheme started in 1993. The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns. They are helped in setting up small businesses and industries.
(ii) Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP): It was launched in 1995. The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns. A target for creating 25 lakh new jobs has been set for the programme.
(iii) Swamajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY): It was launched in 1999. The programme aims at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organising them into self-help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.
(iv) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY): It was launched in 2000. Under this programme, additional Central assistance is given to states for basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.  

72) What is the concept of poverty line? How does it vary with time and place?

Answer:  (i) A poverty line is an indicator of poverty, i.e., it is a level of income which barely meets sustenance. A common method used to measure poverty is based on the income or consumption level.
(ii) A person is considered poor, if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given 'minimum level' necessary to fulfil basic needs.
(iii) What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries.
(iv) Therefore, poverty line may vary with time and place. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.
(v) For example, a person not having a car in the US may be considered poor. In India, owing of a car is still considered a luxury.  

73)   What is the methodology of calculating poverty line?  

Answer:  (i) On the basis of calorie intake for the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at ` 328 per month for the rural areas and ` 454 for the urban areas.
(ii) Despite less calorie requirement, the higher amount for urban areas has been fixed because of high prices of many essential products in urban centres.
(iii) In this way in the year 2000, a family of five members living in rural areas and earning less than about 1,640 per month was below the poverty line.
(iv) A similar family in the urban areas needed a minimum of `2,270 per month to meet their basic requirements.
(v) The poverty line is estimated periodically by conducting sample surveys. Many international organisations like the World Bank use a uniform standard for the poverty line.  

74) Give five indicators of poverty.

Answer:  (i) Landlessness
(ii) Unemployment
(iii) Illiteracy
(iv) Child labour
(v) Malnutrition. 

75)   What is the criteria for poverty measurement in India?

Answer: (i) Low level of nutrition
(ii) Minimum level of subsistence does not exist
(iii) Calorie intake is low
(iv) Per capita income is low
(v) Basic needs should be satisfied. 

76)   Can you give five measures taken by the government to alleviate poverty?

Answer: (i) MGNREGA
(ii) Food for Work Programme
(iii) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
(iv) Pradhanmantri Gramodaya Yojana
(v) Antodaya Anna Yojana.  

77) What challenges do you think India faces in years to come?  

Answer: (i) Healthcare
(ii) Job security
(iii) Gender discrimination
(iv) Human misery
(v) Education. 

78) On the basis of the survey 2000, the poverty line of a person in India was fixed at: (a) ` 328 per month for the rural areas and at ` 454 for the urban areas. (b) ` 320 per month for the rural areas and at ` 454 for the urban areas. (c) ` 318 per month for the rural areas and at ` 454 for the urban areas. (d) ` 322 per month for the rural areas and at ` 454 for the urban areas.

Answer:B 

79)  In which of the following states there is a significant decline in poverty? (a) West Bengal (b) Assam (c) Bihar (d) Tripura

Answer:A  

80)   Among which of the following countries, did the ratio of poverty remain the same? (a) India (b) South America (c) China (d) None of these

Answer:B

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