81) The full form of NFWP is (a) National Fund for Work Pvt. Ltd. (b) National Food for Work Programme (c) National Food for World Programme (d) None of these
82) What is the average number of calories required per person per day in rural areas of India?
Answer: The average number of calories required per person per day in rural areas of India is 2400.
83) When was the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) passed?
Answer: The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was passed in September 2005.
84) Why is the calorie requirement of people higher in rural areas compared to urban areas?
Answer: The calorie requirement of people in rural areas is higher because the rural people are engaged in more physical labour than people in urban areas. Physical labour is more energy consuming than mental work.
85) Which state out of Bihar, Odisha, Punjab and Assam has the highest poverty ratio?
Answer: Odisha has the highest poverty ratio of 47.2%, as per Economic Survey of 2001-02.
86) Which state out of West Bengal Maharashtra, Assam and Uttar Pradesh has a poverty ratio below the national average?
Answer:The national average poverty ratio was 26.1%. Only Maharashtra, out of the given four states, with a poverty ratio of 25%, was better.
87) In what part of the world has poverty remained the same between 1981 to 2001?
Answer: Poverty has remained the same between 1981 to 2001 in Latin America and the Caribbean Nations.
88) What are the major reasons for ineffectiveness of anti-poverty measures in India?
Answer: The major reasons for ineffectiveness of anti-poverty measures in India are lack of proper implementation of the programmers, overlapping of schemes and lack of right targeting of people.
89) Which section of the population is the target for REGP and AAY anti-poverty programmes?
Answer: The target group for REGP is unemployed rural youth and the target group for AAY is the rural and urban poor families.
90) Which section of the population is the target for SGSY and NREGA programmes?
Answer:The target for SGSY is rural poor households and the target for NREGA is rural households.
91) Is it correct that India has the largest concentration of poor in the world?
Answer:Yes, India has about 260 million people who live in poverty, as per an estimate made in the year 1999-2000.
92) Can social exclusion cause poverty in rural areas?
Answer:Yes, social exclusion of the Scheduled Castes (SCs) in rural areas is a major cause of their poverty.
93) What do we mean by the term 'vulnerability to poverty?
Answer: 'Vulnerability to poverty' means the chances of some communities or persons to become poor or remain poor in the future.
94) Which agency conducts the periodical sample surveys for estimating the poverty line in India?
Answer: The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) conducts these surveys,
95) Which indicators out of quantity of milk consumed, amount of pocket money received, illiteracy level and the number of shoes people have, are social indicators of poverty?
Answer: Only the illiteracy level. All the others are not social indicators.
96) Which groups out of the categories of landless agricultural labourers, daily wage construction labourers or teachers in government schools are likely to face poverty in urban areas?
Answer: Only the daily wage construction labourers are likely to face poverty in urban areas. Landless agricultural labourers are in rural areas, not in urban. Teachers in government schools are regularly employed and so will not face poverty.
97) Which major anti-poverty programme was launched in the year 2000?
Answer:The Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) programme was launched in 2000.
98) In which year was the National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) launched?
Answer:The National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) was launched in the year 2004.
99) Which method is used to estimate the poverty line in India?
Answer: The daily income and consumption method are used in India to estimate the poverty line.
100) Which region of the world has witnessed an increase in poverty during the period 1981-2001?
Answer: The region of Sub-Saharan Africa has witnessed an increase in poverty from about 41% in 1981 to about 46% in 2001.
101) Which indicators out of illiteracy level, lack of access to healthcare, inadequate safe drinking water and ample job opportunities are not social indicators of poverty?
Answer:Lack of access to healthcare is the only indicator which is not considered as a social indicator of poverty. All other indicators mentioned are social indicators.
102) Which economic groups out of rural agricultural labour households. Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) households, urban casual labour households and female daily wagers are vulnerable to poverty?
Answer:Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) households are a social group, not an economic group. All the other groups mentioned are economic groups which are vulnerable to poverty.
103) Is it true that the state of Kerala has reduced poverty by distribution of foodgrains at highly subsidised prices?
Answer:No, the state or Kerala has used human resource development as a means for reducing poverty.
104) By what method has the state of West Bengal reduced rural poverty?
Answer:Proper implementation of land reforms have helped to reduce rural poverty in West Bengal.
105) Which of the government anti-poverty programmes are not employment or self-employment related?
Answer:Only the AAY (Antyodaya Anna Yojana) ensures food security to the poorest of the poor by providing food grains at highly subsidised rates. It is not concerned with employment or self-employment.
106) What are the factors of human poverty?
Answer: There are many factors of human poverty like not having job security, discrimination due to caste, having inadequate access to education, shelter or food and so on.
107) How is regular growth of population one of the major causes of poverty?
Answer: High population growth rate increases the rate of depletion of resources. Due to this, pressure on resources increases. More people will be able to avail of a smaller share of resources, thus bringing more people below the poverty line.
108) Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India. Or Explain some ways by which the poverty line is estimated in India.
Answer: A person is considered below the poverty line if his / her income or consumption level falls below a 'minimum level' necessary to fulfil basic needs. While determining the poverty line, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel, light, educational and medical requirements, etc are determined for subsistence. Estimating the poverty line is also based on the desired calories requirement. It is 2400 calories per person per day in the rural areas and 2100 calories in the urban areas.
109) Mention the social and economic groups which are more vulnerable to poverty in India. Or Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.
Answer: The social groups are the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes households. The Scheduled Castes are not allowed to avail the facilities given to others due to the prevailing caste system, leading to poverty. The economic groups are the rural agricultural labour and the urban casual labour households. The rural agricultural labour have no land of their own and are thus not able to earn enough to meet their daily needs, leading to poverty.
110) "India has been witnessing high population growth since years." Your school principal has constituted a team of boys to spread awareness about the ill-effects of high population growth in the slum area. You are the team leader. Which issue will you suggest to your fellow members to focus on awareness drive?
Answer: The following issues can be suggested to focus on awareness drive (i) Few members ? less expense ? better care. (ii) Small family - more peaceful life. (iii) Two children-better healthcare-better education-quality life. (iv) Small family?better care for old people.
111) (a) 'In poor families, all suffer, but some suffer more than others'. Explain. Or Who are the poorest of the poor? (b) What values/lesson have you learnt from the given question?
Answer:(a) Within a poor household, the wage earners and male members are given special treatment. They have the first right of consumption over the available resources. Other members of the family have to manage on the remaining resources. This group consists of women, elderly people and female children. They will be considered as the poorest of the poor. (b) From the given question, I have learnt that in the poor families everyone has to suffer, so we should help the poor instead of refusing them. By this I have learnt the value of compassion.
112) Explain colonial rule and income inequalities as causes of poverty.
Answer:One of the historical reasons for poverty is the low level of economic development under the British Colonial Administration. The policies of the Colonial Government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles. Income inequalities have resulted from non-availability of land to rural landless labourers. Thus they are forced to work for low wages for the large farmers, causing poverty to them, as they are not able to meet their daily needs with their meagre earnings.
113) Which circumstances compelled the government to start targeted anti-poverty programmes? Mention the names of any two such programmes.
Answer: Following circumstances compelled the government to start targeted anti-poverty programmes (i) Since the poor are not able to take advantage from the opportunities created for them, the growth in the agriculture sector is much below expectations. In agriculture sector, a large number of poor people are employed therefore, the need for targeted anti-poverty programmes was felt. (ii) Such programmes are as follows · National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 · National Employment Guarantee Funds· National Food for Work Programme · " PMRY ,SGSY, PMGY or AAY
114) Describe the poverty trends in India since 1973.
Answer: The trends in poverty since 1973 are (i) There is substantial decline in poverty ratio from 55% in 1973 to 36% in 1993 and 26% in 2000. (ii) Rural poverty has declined sharply from 56% in 1973 to 27% in 2000 and the numbers from 261 million to 193 million. (iii) The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the total urban and rural number of poor to be about 260 million, down from 321 million in 1973.
115) (a) Mention the two planks on which the current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based. (b) Why were the poverty alleviation programmes not successful in most parts of India?
Answer: (a) The two planks on which the current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based are (i) Promotion of economic growth (ii) Targeted anti-poverty programmes (b) The poverty alleviation programmes were not successful in most parts of India because (i) Lack of proper implementation and right targeting (ii) There has been a lot of overlapping of schemes. (iii) Every year a huge number is added to the population pool of the country. This renders the scheme ineffective (iv) Despite good intentions, the benefits of these schemes do not fully reach to the deserving poor.
116) Give one factor responsible for reduction in poverty in the following states (a) Punjab (b) Kerala (c) Paschim Banga (d) Andhra Pradesh Or Why has there been a significant decline in poverty in some states of India? Mention any four reasons.
Answer: There has been a significant decline in poverty in some states due to the following reasons High agricultural growth in Punjab and Haryana. Focus on human resource development in Kerala. Implementation of land reform measures in Paschim Banga. (iv) Effective Public Distribution System in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
117) What do you understand by human poverty?
Answer:Human poverty is a concept that goes beyond the limited view of poverty as lack of income. It refers to the denial of political, social and economic opportunities to an individual to maintain a 'reasonable' standard of living. Illiteracy, lack of job opportunities, lack of access to proper healthcare and sanitation, caste and gender discrimination etc are all components of human poverty.
118) Give a brief description of the global poverty trends.
Answer: Proportion of people living in developing countries in extreme economic poverty has fallen from 28% in 1990 to 21% in 2001. But it is marked with regional differences in decline in poverty e.g., China. Poverty has decreased in percentage but the number of poor continues to be almost the same. In Sub-Saharan Africa poverty rose form 41% in 1981 to 46% in 2001.
119) State the most responsible factor for the significant decline in poverty in the State of Kerala, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.
Answer:Following are the factor that helped Haryana, Kerala and West Bengal in reducing poverty (i) Haryana It has succeeded in reducing poverty with the help of high agricultural growth rates. In fact, it is one of the Indian states that benefited the most from the Green Revolution. (ii) Kerala It succeeded in reducing poverty by investing on human resource development. Kerala is one of the highest literate states of the country. (iii) West Bengal In West Bengal, land reform measures have helped in reducing poverty.
120) Describe one factor each for the success of Haryana, Kerala and West Bengal in reducing poverty.
Answer: Poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in a poor surrounding with other poor people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better off people in better surroundings. Social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty in the usual sense. Broadly, it is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others (their "betters") enjoy. A typical example is the working of the caste system in India in which people belonging to certain castes are excluded from equal opportunities. Social exclusion thus may lead to, but can cause more damage than, having a very low income.
121) How far is it correct to say that social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty? Explain
Answer: Poor people have to go through various human sufferings. No body would like to live in poverty. So, for the following reasons we can say poverty is curse on humanity (i) It leads to hunger and lack of shelter. They live in unhygienic conditions and invite host of diseases. (ii) They lack medical facilities and die of diseases in want of timely and proper treatment. (iii) Poor people are in a situation in which they are ill-treated at almost all places. Each time they are left with scars on their spirit of self-respect. (iv) They live with the sense of helplessness. (v) Poor parents are not able to send their children to school. This leaves them un awakened and unaware. (vi) The children of poor people have to earn their livelihood, even then they are not able to get their two square meals.
122) "Poverty is a curse upon humanity". Explain.
Answer: (a) To satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms. (b) The two common methods to measure poverty lines are (i) Consumption method Determining the poverty line in India is based on the desired calorie requirement. The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas. (ii) Income method For the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at 328 per month for the rural areas and 454 for the urban areas. (c) National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) conducts sample surveys to estimate poverty lines.
123) What is poverty line? What are the different ways to estimate poverty? Who conducts the sample surveys to estimate poverty lines?
Answer: Proportion of poor not being the same in every state has the following reasons (i) The success of reducing poverty varies from state to state. (ii) 20 states have poverty ratio less than national average. (iii) Odisha and Bihar continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratios of 47 and 43% respectively. (iv) There is significant dicline in poverty in Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and some other states. (v) With the help of high agricultural growth rates, states like Punjab and Haryana have succeeded in reducing poverty to a large extent. (vi) Proper organisation of Public Distribution System in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu has also helped to take the problem of poverty.
124) "The proportion of poor people is not the same in every state" Justify the statement. Or Why is the population of poor people not the same in every state? Explain in three points.
Answer: Proportion of poor people is not same in every state in India. The following facts disclose about the inter-state disparity of poverty in India. (i) The success rate of reducing poverty varies from state to state. Poverty is still a serious problem in some of the states such as Onssa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, etc. (ii) In 20 states and Union Territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average. There is a significant decline of poverty in Kerala and s Jammu and Kashmir. (iii) Odisha and Bihar continue to be the two poorest stares with poverty ratio of 47% and 43% respectively. Illiteracy, social backwardness, etc are the causes. (iv) Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab have the lowest poverty ratio of 3.5% and 6% respectively. This is because of high agricultural growth and growth of tourism industry in the states.