72) Write a few lines to show what you know about ? Kulaks ? The Duma ?Women Workers between 1900 and 1930 ?The Liberals ?Stalin's Collectivisation Programme.
Ans: Kulaks Kulak is the Russian name for well to do peasants. In 1927-28 Stalin took the decision to develop modern farms and run them along industrial lines. For this purpose, it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks. Many Kulaks were raided.
Under Stalin's collectivisation programme, land of Kulaks was taken away and converted into large modern farms. This programme was severely resisted by the Kulaks, many of whom destroyed their livestock. Those who resisted collectivisation were punished; many Kulaks were deported and exiled.
The Duma The Duma was the elected consultative Parliament set-up after the Revolution of 1905. Its members were charged with the responsibility of making laws. The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and re-elected the second Duma within three months. The Tsar did not want any questioning of his power. He changed the voting laws and packed the third Duma with conservative politicians.
Finally in February, 1917, the Duma was suspended. Many members of the Duma became a part of the provisioal government. Women Workers between 1900 and 1930 In Russia, the women workers constituted 31 per cent of the factory labour force. They were paid less than their men counterparts.
In most of the factories, they were paid between half and three-quarters of a man's wage. During the February Revolution, (23rd February, 1917) women led the way to strikes in many factories. Thus, 23rd February was known as the International Women's Day. The Liberals One of the groups which looked to change society were the liberals. They were opposed to the uncontrolled power of the Dynastic rulers.
They preferred religious tolerance and wanted to safeguard individual rights. They favoured parliamentary system of government and an independent judiciary. They did not believe in universal adult franchise. They wanted voting rights to be restricted to men of property only. Stalin's Collectivisation Programme.
In 1927-28, Soviet Russia was facing an acute problem of grain supplies. The peasants refused to sell the grains at the price fixed by the government. Stalin believed that the peasants had surplus grain, but were holding it back, expecting higher prices. So, he introduced the concept of collective farms (Kolkhoz). To develop these farms, it was necessary to 'eliminate Kulaks', take away land from peasants and establish state controlled large farms.
From 1929, all peasants were forced to work in Kolkhoz. The Kolkhoz profit was shared by all the peasants who worked on the land. Those who resisted collectivisation were severely punished. Stalin's government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such peasants unsympathetically.
73) When did Lenin persuade the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik party to agree to a socialist seizure of power?
Ans: On 16th October, 1917 Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik party to agree to a socialist seizure of power.
74) List two differences between the capitalist and socialist ideas of private property.
Ans: The two differences are as follows
(i) The capitalists believed that individuals owned private property whereas the socialists believed that all property belonged to the society as a whole, i.e., to the state.
(ii) The capitalists believed that the profits from the property should belong to the property's owners, whereas the socialist believed that profits are due to the workers' labour and so should be shared by them.
75) Imagine that a meeting has been called in your area to discuss the socialist idea of doing away with private property and introducing collective ownership. Write the speech you would make at the meeting if you are
(a) A poor labourer working in the fields
(b) A medium-level landowner
(c) A house owner
Ans: Sample speeches are given below
(a) A Poor Labourer Working in the Fields Dear friends, nature has not done any partiality in providing resources to everyone and so some people owning more land than others is incorrect. All the profits from our crops are the result of hard work done by people like me in planting seeds, watering the crops, keeping them free from weeds and harvesting them. So, I think we labourers should share in the profits made from sale of crops, instead of getting a subsistence wage. To enable this, private ownership of property needs to be abolished and collective ownership of the fields by all the labourers who are working on it introduced. Thank you.
(b) A Medium-Level Landowner Respected friends, I do not agree that private ownership of property should be removed. It is not rational and will reduce the crop production. You will not try to increase crop production if the whole profit is not going to you. In fact, what should be done is the equitable distribution of land to all, so that only some people do not own large tracts of land, while others have to manage with small areas of land, or are deprived completely of any land ownership. So, all should be landowners so that everybody benefits. Thank you.
(c) A House Owner Friends, I think everybody should have the basic necessities of life like food, shelter and clothing, but not at the expense of other people's property. Those who do not have land should be given the means to earn their livelihoods in whatever manner is convenient. We have earned our property through the sincere efforts of our ancestors and so we should not be deprived of the labour and wisdom of our forefathers in acquiring land. I think this is very reasonable.
76) Why were there revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905? What were the demands of revolutionaries?
Ans: The causes of the revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905 were
(i) Due to Russia's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, prices of essential goods rose dramatically, so that real wages declined by 20 per cent.
(ii) At the Putilov Iron Works, dismissal of some workers caused a strike. During the subsequent events, a procession of workers was attacked by police in which 100 workers died. This was known as 'Bloody Sunday'.
(iii) Subsequently, strikes took place all over the country, resulting in the creation of an elected Parliament or Duma. The revolutionaries demanded a reduction in daily working hours to eight, increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
77) Look at Source A and Women in the February Revolution and answer the following questions
(a) List five changes in the mood of the workers.
(b) Place yourself in the position of a woman who has seen both situations and write an account of what has changed.
Alexander Shiyapnikov, a socialist worker of the time, gives us a description of how the meetings were organised: Propaganda was done in the plants and shops on an individual basis. There were also discussion' circles... Legal meetings took place on matters concerning [official issues], but this activity was skilfully integrated into the general struggle for the liberation of the working class. llegal meetings were ... arranged on the spur of the moment but in an organised way during lunch, in evening break, in front of the exit, in the yard or, in establishments with several floors, on the stairs. The most alert workers would form a "plug" in the doorway, and the whole mass piled up in the exit. An agitator would get up right there on the spot. Management would contact the police on the telephone, but the speeches would have already been made and the necessary decision taken by the time they arrived ....' Alexander Shiyapnikov, On the Eve of 1917. Reminiscences from the Revolutionary Underground. Women in the February Revolution 'Women workers, often ... inspired their male co-workers ... At the Lorenz telephone factory, ... Marfa Vasileva almost single handedly called a successful strike. Already that morning, in celebration of Women's Day, women workers had presented red bows to the men ... Then Marfa Vasileva, a milling machine operator stopped work and declared an impromptu strike. The workers on the floor were ready to support her... The foreman informed the management and sent her a loaf of bread. She took the bread but refused to go back to work. The administrator asked her again why she refused to work and she replied, "I cannot be the only one who is satiated when others are hungry". Women workers from another section of the factory gathered around Marfa in support and gradually all the other women ceased working. Soon the men downed their tools as well and the entire crowd rushed onto the street.' From: Choi Chatterji, Celebrating Women .
Ans: (a) The changes in the mood of the workers were
(i) Earlier only meetings were being held in an organised manner. Now the workers just stopped work to press for their rights, like Marfa Vasileva did.
(ii) Earlier there is no mention of any women workers. But now a woman worker initiated the strike by stopping work.
(iii) Earlier there was no demonstration of unity between men and women workers. Now the women presented red bows to the men, showing the unity. Also, the men downed tools in support of the women who had gone on strike.
(iv) The mood of the workers was more determined now. They took action instead of just talking.
(v) Earlier work used to go on due to workers being afraid of some counter action from the management side, but now the work was stopped, showing the fearlessness of the workmen.
(b) I have seen both situations and I feel that although earlier the workers gave vent to their problems by organizing meetings only, now they are fearless, willing to sacrifice their job, rebellious and supporting each other's action as well as cutting across gender differences.
78) Read the two views on the revolution in the countryside. Imagine yourself to be a witness to the events. Write a short account from the standpoint of an owner of an Estate (b) a small peasant (c) journalist
Ans:Sample accounts of the revolution are given below
(a) An Owner of an Estate My property was taken over by my farm labourers. They spared me and my family, but now I am totally dependent on their mercy. They are not telling me anything about whether my property will be returned to me in the future or not.
(b) A Small Peasant I am happy that together all of us labourers on this farm have taken it over and can now earn more by sharing the profits from the sale of the grain produced by us. Earlier the profits were all taken by the landowner without him doing any work. I salute the revolution, which has made our lives better.
(c) A Journalist The news of the uprising has been welcomed in the rural areas by the peasants overpowering the landowners and taking over the running of the farms jointly. The orchards have been divided among the peasants who worked on them earlier, so that they can enjoy the profits from them. Surely the revolution has ushered in prosperity for the common man at the expense of the landowners.
79) Why did people in Central Asia respond to the Russian Revolution in different ways?
Ans: The people in Central Asia responded enthusiastically to the February 1917, Revolution because it freed them from the oppression of the Tsar's reign so that they were masters of their land again. They expected to regain their autonomy. However, they responded negatively to the October Revolution, as it brought violence, pillage, extra taxes and another dictatorial power to rule over them. They feared now that their autonomy would be lost.
80) Compare the passages written by Shaukat Usmani and Rabindranath Tagore. Read them in relation to Sources C, D and E and answer the following questions
(a) What did Indians find impressive about the USSR?
(b) What did the writers fail to notice?
Dreams and Realities of a Soviet Childhood in 1933 Dear grandfather Kalinin .... My family is large, there are four children. We don't have a father - he died, fighting for the worker's cause, and my mother... is ailing... I want to study very much, but I cannot go to school. 1 had some old boots, but they are completely torn and no one can mend them. My mother is sick, we have no money and no bread, but 1 want to study very much... there stands before us the task of studying, studying and studying. That is what Vladimir Ilich Lenin said. But I have to stop going to school. We have no relatives and there is no one to help us, so I have to go to work in a factory, to prevent the family from starving. Dear grandfather, 1 am 13,1 study well and have no bad reports. I am in Class 5. Letter of 1933 from a 13-year-old worker to Kalinin, Soviet President From: V. Sokolov [ed], Obshchestvo I V last, v 1930-ye gody [Moscow, 1997). Source I) Official view of the opposition to collectivisation and the government response 'From the second half of February of this year, in various regions of the Ukraine... mass insurrections of the peasantry have taken place, caused by distortions of the Party's line by a section of the lower ranks of the Party and the Soviet apparatus in the course of the introduction of collectivisation and preparatory work for the spring harvest. Within a short time, large scale activities from the above- mentioned regions carried over into neighbouring areas ... and the most aggressive insurrections have taken place near the border. The greater part of the peasant insurrections have been linked with outright demands for the return of collectivised stocks of grain, livestock and tools... Between 1st February and 15th March, 25,000 have been arrested ... 656 have been executed, 3,673 have been imprisoned in labour camps and 5,580 exiled ...' Report of KM Karlson, President of the State Police Administration of the Ukraine to the Central Committee of the Communist Party, on 19 March 1930. From: V. Sokolov [ed], Obshchestvo I V last, v 1930-ye gody Source E This is a letter written by a peasant who did not want to join the collective farm. To the newspaper Krestianskaia Gazeta [Peasant Newspaper]... 'I am a natural working peasant born in 1879 ... there are 6 members in my family, my wife was born in 1881, my son is 16, two daughters 19, all three go to school, my sister is 71. From 1932, heavy taxes have been levied on me that I have found impossible. From 1935, local authorities have increased the taxes on me ... and 1 was unable to handle them and all my property was registered: my horse, cow, calf, sheep with lambs, all my implements, furniture and my reserve of wood for repair of buildings and they sold the lot for the taxes. In 1936, they sold two of my buildings... the kolkhoz bought them. In 1937, of two huts 1 had, one was sold and one was confiscated ....' Afanasii Dedorovich Frebenev, an independent cultivator. From : V. Sokolov [ed], Obshchestvo I V last, v 1930-ye gody
Ans:(a) At the time when both wrote these passages, India was ruled with an iron hand by the British. There were vast caste and class differences and the people were ignorant and backward. They were impressed by the fact that all persons in Russia were treated equally. In spite of them not being very prosperous, they were happily going about their work. Asians and Europeans mingled freely in Russia, whereas it was unthinkable in India at that time.
(b) What the two writers failed to notice was that essentially the people were not free to do as they liked. The Bolsheviks ruled like dictators and followed repressive policies to develop the nation quickly. The hard lives and poor working conditions of the people went unnoticed by these travelers.
81) Who were 'liberals'?
Ans: Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers.
82) Who were called 'radicals'?
Ans: Radicals were the one who wanted a nation in which govt. was based on the majority of a country's population. They opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners.
83) What were the ideals of 'Conservatives'?
Ans:They were opposed to radicals and liberals. They believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.
84) What problems were brought by Industrialisation?
Ans:Work hours were often long and wages were poor and unemployment created problems for them and housing and sanitation problems were also growing rapidly.
85) Who all wanted revolutions to put an end to monarchical system?
Ans:Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted to overthrow monarchy.
86) What was the thinking of nationalists regarding existing monarchy?
Ans:Nationalists wanted revolutions that would create 'nations' where all citizens would have equal rights.
87) Give one characteristic of a socialist.
Ans: Socialists are against private property and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time.
88) Who was Robert Owen?
Ans:Robert Owen was a leading English manufacturer who sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA).
89) Who was Louis Blanc?
Ans:Louis Blanc was also a nationalist who wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.
90) Name two famous socialists who introduced a communist system.
Ans: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
91) What was a communist society according to Karl Marx?
Ans: Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled.
92) Name the socialist international body which coordinated their efforts.
Ans: The Second International
93) Which socialist parties were formed in Germany, Britain and France?
Ans: (i) Germany ? The Social Democratic Party (SPD)
(ii) Britain ? Labour Party
(iii) France ? Socialist Party.
94) What is 'Russian Revolution'?
Ans:The fall of monarchy in February 1917 and the events of October are normally called the Russian Revolution.
95) Which territories were included in Russian Empire?
Ans:Russian Empire included current day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. It also included today's central Asian states as Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
96) Which religions were followed in Russian Empire?
Ans: The majority religion was Russian Orthodox Christianity but there were Catholics, Protestants, Muslims and Buddhists also.
97) What was the main occupation of Russians?
Ans: About 85 percent of the Russian Empire's population earned their living from agriculture.
98) Who owned most properties in Russian Empire?
Ans:The nobility, the king himself and the Orthodox Church owned large properties.
99) How were Russian peasants different from other European peasants?
Ans:They pooled their land together periodically & their commune divided it according to the needs of the individual families.