Animal Husbandry :
The scientific management of domesticated animals dealing with their feeding, breeding and health is known as "Animal Husbandry" .
Main elements of animal husbandry are
1. Proper feeding of animals
2. Providing good shelter to animals
3. Proper health of animals
4. Proper breeding of animals
The practice of keeping and breeding animals for specific purposes is calleddomestication of animals and such animals are called domestic animals.
Nutritional Values of Animals Products
Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes milk production and draught labour
for agricultural work viz. tilling, irrigation and carting.
Milk producing female cattle are called milch or dariy animals ; whille male cattle engaged in labour are called draught animals.
Indian cattle, cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bos bubalis) are most important forms of domestic animals.
The milk of buffalo contains more fat than cow's milk.
Breeds of Cattle :
Depending upon the utility, cattle are classified into the following groups :-The best known breeds of Indian buffaloes are :- Nagpuri, Surti, Mehsana,Jaffrabadi, Murrah, Nili, Bhadawari.
Exotic (Foreign) breeds of milch cows are :-
1. Holstein-Friesian from Holland
2. Jersey from USA
3. Ayrshire from Scotland
4. Brown-Swiss from Switzerland
5. Red Dane from Denmark
High milk yielding cross-breeds Cows
1. Karan-Swiss (Brown-Swiss × Sahiwal)
2. Karan-Fries (Holstein-Friesian × Tharparkar)
3. Friesian-Sahiwal (Frieswal) (Holstein-Friesian × Sahiwal)
Lactation period : is the period during which dairy (milch) animals produce milk, this is between birth of a youngone and the next pregnancy. Milk production depends, to some extent, on the duration of lactation period.
Farm Management Practices :
Shelter : A good animal shelter not only increases the production of milk but also improves the health of animals as well. A good animal shelter should have the following characteristics :
(i) It should protect animal from heat, cold and rain.
(ii) It should be clean, dry airy and well ventilated.
(iii) It should be spacious so as to provide enough space for each animal to stay comfortably.
(iv) It should have a sloping floor for the hygienic disposal of animal excreta.
Grooming (i) Regular brushing of animals to remove dirt and loose hair. (ii) External parasites are removed.
Feeding :- The food is given to animals is called 'feed'.
The food requirements is of two types :
(A) Maintenance requirements which support the basic functions of life.
(B) Milk-Producing requirements which increase the milk-yield.
For dairy animals, feed constitutes two main components :
(i) Roughage : It contain large amount of fibre which has low nutrient contents. It includes hay fibre silage, fodder and legumes like barseem, lucrene and cowpea.
(ii) Concentrate : It is a mixture of cereals like maize, oat, barley, jowar broken grams, rice polish, cotton seeds, gram bran, molasses and oilseed cake moistened in water. These are rich in proteins, highly palatable and easily digestible.
The dairy animals are required balanced ration. A ration is the amount of food, which is given to the animals during a day (24 - hour period).
Dr. V. Kurien is the founder chairman of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Gujarat in 1965 and started "Operation Flood" which was the world's largest dairy development programme in 1970, to provide milk to one and all. Dr. Kurien is called the "Architect of India's Modern Dairy Industry" means huge increase in milk production by using improved high milk-yielding crossbreeds of milch animals. Also known as Father of White Revolution in India.
Silver Revolution :- Related to increase egg production.
Blue Revolution :- Related to increase fish production
Cattle breeders select and mate best type of cattle for a particular purpose.
The breeding of cattle is done by two methods -
(A) Natural Breeding
(B) Artificial Breeding
(A) Natural Breeding :
(i) Random Breeding :
Here some pedigree bulls are kept along with grazing cows.
(ii) Controlled Breeding :
Breeding of native cows are crossed with supeior quality of imported bulls. Hybrid cows yield more milk and hybrid oxen are comparatively more active and energetic.
Some improved hybrids are Karanfries, Frieswal, KaranSwiss.
(B) Artificial Breeding : (Artificial insemination)
The introduction of semen (sperm) of a good breed male animal in the body (vagina) of a healthy female animal by artificial means is called artificial insemination.
Cattle Diseases :- A healthy animal can be recognised by its regular feeding, normal posture, a definite body temperature normal pulse rate and normal respiration rate.
Bacterial diseases :- Anthrax,.
Viral diseases :- Cowpox, Foot & mouth, Rinderpest.
Fungal diseases :- Ringworm, Aspergillosis
Parasitic diseases :- Amoebiasis
Prevention of diseases :
(1) The animal-shelters should be spacious, airy and proporly lighted.
(2) The animal-shelter should be cleaned regularly.
(3) Nutritive feed and fresh water should be provided.
(4) The animals should be compulsorily vaccinated to immunise them against infectious diseases
Poultry is the branch of animal husbandry concerned with rearing of birds for eggs and meat.
It includes chickens (fowls), ducks, geese turkeys, guinea-fowls, peafowls, pigeons and quails.
The egg laying poultry bird is called egger or layer, while the one reared for obtaining meat is called chicken or broiler.
India is the 5th largest country in the world of poultry prodution after China, Russia, USA and Japan.
Indian state with maximum broiler and egg production is Andhra Pradesh.
The cross-breeding programmes between Indian (e.g. Aseel) and exotic (e.g. Leghorn) breeds for variety improvement are focused on to develop new varieties for the following desirable traits :-
(i) number and quality of chicks.
(ii) dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production
(iii) summer adaption capacity or tolerance to high temperature
(iv) low maintenance requirements
(v) reduction in the size of the egg-laying bird with ability to utilise more fibrous cheaper diets formulated using agricultural by products.
Poultry Breeds :-
|Indigenous breeds||Exotic breeds||Cross breeds|
|Aseel or Indian game||White Leghorn||IBL - 80|
|Ghagus||Rhode Island Red||B-77|
Differences between layers and broilers
1. Layers are egg laying birds. They are 1. They are maintained for getting maintained for getting eggs. meat.
2. They start producing eggs at the age 2. They are raised upto 6-7 weeks in of 20 weeks poultry farms and then sent to market for sale.
3. They need feed rich in vitamins, 3. They require feed rich in proteins, fats minerals and micronutrients and vitamin A and K
4. They required enough space and adequate 4. They require conditions to grow fast with lighting for proper growth low mortality
Egg and Broiler Production
There are two basic targets of poultry farming :-
(i) obtaining more and more eggs,
(ii) getting flesh
Broiler chickens are feed with vitamin-rich supplementary feed for good growth rate and better feed efficiency.
The housing, nutritional and environmental requirements of broilers are somewhat different from those of egg layers.
The ration for broilers is protein rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamin A and K is kept high in the poultry feeds.
Vegetarian eggs are infertile eggs, produce by without presence of cock
Poultry care (management practices) :- For good production of poultry birds
Maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions in poultry housings
Prevention and control of diseases and pests.
Diseases of poultry (chickens)
Viral diseases - Ranikhet, Fowpox, Dermatities,
Bacterial diseases - Fowl cholera, Fowl typhoid
Fungal diseases - Mycotic, candidiasis
Control of diseases :
(2) Proper cleaning sanitation and spraying of disinfectants at regular intervals.
The Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Uttaranchal prepares vaccine against Ranikhet disease.
(1) Name two indigenous and two exotic breeds of fowls.
(2) Which is the most common viral disease of chickens ?
(3) What are vegetarian eggs ?
(4) Define poultry farming.
The rearing and breeding of fish scientifically by man in ponds, lacks is, known as pisciculture/fish farming/fishery.
Fish and other sea-foods are the source of animal protein and are consumed by a large section of our population.
Fish liver oil is particularly rich in vitamin-A and vitamin-D.
There is a vast scope for producing fish is our country as there are about 1.6 million hectares of inland water areas (fresh water bodies) and a long coastline of 7,500 kms (marine water).
Types of fish-farming :
(A) On the basis of nature of source of fishes :
(i) Capture fisheries - Fish is caught directly from their natural resources
(ii) Culture fisheries - Fish is cultivated in artificial water bodies called breeding ponds.
(B) On the basis of nature of water sources :
(i) Marine fisheries - Fish production in marine (sea) water.
(ii) Inland fisheries - Fish production in fresh water system and brackish waters like estuaries and lagoons (where sea water gets mixed with fresh water).
(C) On the basis type of fishes :
(i) Fin fisheries - includes capturing and management of true fishes.
(ii) Shell fisheries - includes capturing and management of crustaceans (prawns, crabs) molluscs (oysters, mussels) and seaweeds.
Oysters are also cultivated for the pearls they make, like mullets, bhetki and pearl spots.
Mariculture : Culture of marine fishes, shell fishes and sea weeds.
As marine fish stocks are getting deplected, the demand for more fish can only be met by mariculture.
Marine Fisheries : India's marine fishery resources include 7500 km of coastline and the deep seas beyond it.
Marine fishes such as pomphret, mackerel, tuna, sardines, Bombay duck, hilsa, salmon, Eel.
These are caught by various methods :-
(i) Fishing nets (ii) Fishing boats (iii) Echo-Sounders (iv) Use of Satellites
Inland Fisheries :
It includes fisheries in canals, ponds, reservoirs and rivers and brackish water.
Main fresh water fish culture systems are :-
(i) Composite fish culture or polyculture (ii) Paddy-cum-fish culture
Composite fish culture :
- In this culture, a combination of five or six species is used, in a single fishpond
- These fishes have different food habits and do not compete with each other for food.
- These fishes utilize food available in different parts of ponds.
e.g. Catla is a surface feeder, Rohu feeds in the middle (column feeder),
Mrigal and Common Carp feed at the bottom and Grass Carp and silver carp feed on aquatic plants in the pond.
On problem with such composite fish culture is that many of these fish breed only during monsoon. Other major problem in fish farming is the lack of availability of good quality seeds.
To overcome this problem, these fishes are bred in different ponds using hormonal stimulation.
This has ensured the supply of fish seed in desired quantities.
Varieties of fishes :
Indigenous fresh water fishes :
e.g. Catla, Rohu, Mrigal
Exotic fresh water fishes :
e.g. Silver Carp, Common Carp, Grass Carp
Marine fishes :
e.g. Bombay duck, Pomphret
1. Which vitamins are found in liver oil of fishes ?
2. Name two marine fishes.
3. Name two fresh water fishes.
4. Differentiate capture fisheries and culture fisheries.
Apiculture is the process of rearing of honey bees in the artificial hives, for the production of honey at commercial level.
Speices of Honey Bees :
(a) Indigenous species :
(i) Apis dorsata - Rock bee or Giant bee
(ii) Apis indica - Indian bee
(iii) Apis florae - Little bee
(b) Exotic species
(i) Apis mellifera - Italian bee
Honey bee colony and social organization :
- Honey bees are social and polymorphic insects.
- Their living place is called beehive or hive which has small compartments-combs.
In a colony, there are three types of bees which are structurally and functionally different from one another, so polymorphism is associated with division of labour. These types are :-
Importance of apiculture :
(a) Products of honey bees :
(i) Honey :
- It is produced by the worker from collected nector.
- It is formed of levulose, dextrose, maltose, minerals (rich in iron and calcium), enzymes.
- It has medical importance, used against disorders of digestion, dysentry, vomiting and stomach and liver problems. Also used as antiseptic.
(ii) Bee wax - used is cosmetics, paints, ointments.
(iii) Bee venom - used to cure gout and arthritis.
(iv) Royal jelly - used as tonic to heart patients
(b) Honey bees are chief cross-pollinating agents.
(c) It provides additinal income generating activity to the farmers.
- Quality of honey depends on the plants (flora) available for the collection of nectar and pollen.
- Common flora are - Mango, Coconut, Almond, Tamarind, apple, Litchi, cotton, Shisham. Mahua, Coriander berseem.
Apiary or Bee hive :
- An artificial and movable bee hive, called apiary.
Swarming : Is the mass emigration of the bees of a bee hive to settle down elsewhere in order to form a new hive.
Sericulture : Is the rearing of silk worms for the production of raw silk.
Silk worm - Bombyx mori