Foot and mouth disease
Cattle, buffaloes, swine, sheep and goats
Running sores in the
mouth and between the toes.
Reduced milk flow and loss of body weight
Cattle, sheep and goats
Fever, ulcers in the mucousu (cattle plague) membrane of elimentary tract causing severe diarrhoea. Discharges from mouth, nose and eyes
Virus (transmitted by mosquitoes)
High temperature (104° to 108°F). Haemorrhagic inflammation of buccal mucosa. Cyanosis (blue appearance) and swelling of the tongue Cow pox (Vaccinia) Vaccinia virus Cattle Eruption of papules and pustules on the udder and teats
Ranikhet disease (New castle disease)
Chickens and other Loss of appetite, diarrhoea and domestic and wild birds respiratory symptoms and finally paralysis
Paralysis of legs and wings, Development of lymphoid tumours
Chickens, domestic and wild birds
High temperature, oedema of the head, nasal and rapid death
Fowl pox (Avian diphtheria)
Chickens and other birds
Wart-like nodules on the comb and wattle, blisters on the skin; Eyes, nose and mouth covered by a yellow cheese - like discharge
Bacteria (transmitted by infected milk and milk products)
Symptoms vary according to the organ involved.
Lungintermittant or continuous fever with dry husky cough, general emaciation. In testine-persistant diarrhoea.
Udders-glands enlarged, milk rendered thin and watery
Anthrax (splenic fever)
Fever; vesicles on the skin. Swelling on the body and neck, reduction in milk secretion
Blackquarter (black leg)
Cattle and sheep
Fever and usually crepitant swelling of the infected chauvoei muscle
Mastitis Johne’s disease
Inflammation of mammary glands
Chronic dysentery, progressive paratuberculosis emaciation and death in many cases
Brucellosis (Bang’s disease)
Cattle, sheep, goat and even man
Severe infection in uterus and testis leads to sterility; causes abortion in all these animals
Salmonella dublin and S. typhimurium
Cattle and man
High temperature; diarrhoea with blood clots in stool
A suppurative infec-Fusiformis nodosus tion between the horn and the sensitive corium of the hoof of sheep causing lameness
Haemorrhagic disease (Bovine pasteurellosis; shipping fever; shipping pneumonia)
Cattle and sheep
High fever, pneumonia and oedamatous swelling of the skin
Chicken and other domesticated birds
Contagious scep- ticaemia disease
Mould (fungus) Microsporon,
Cattle, sheep, goat
Ring-shaped (rounded) surfy patches on the skin especially to neck and head
Protozoan: Trichomonas foetus (Transmitted through coitus)
Cattle, sheep, pig
Abortions, stillbirths, sterility and delayed conceptions
Coccidiosis Trypanoso- miasis
Blood diarrhoea and emaciation Eimeria bovis
Cattle, sheep, goats,
camels and dogs
anaemia, most destructive to adult cattle
Protozoan: Babesia bovis (Transmitted by tick)
Fever, diarrhoea, anaemia and haemoglobinuria
Trematode (fluke) Schistosoma nasale
Cauliflower like growth on nasal septum
Liver fluke Fasciola hepatica
Cattle, sheep, goat
Extensive damage to liver. General unthrifti ness of the infected animal
Tapeworm: Taenia saginata
Cattle and buffalo
The larval bladder worm stage occurs in the muscles causes a condition called “measly beef”
1. Hot wet equatorial climate
5° To 10° N&S of Equator, Lowlands of Amazon, Congo Malaysia and East Indies
Great uniformity in Temperature through out the year No winter Almost daily precipitation in the afternoon. High Relative Humidity (7.80%)
Evergreen trees in three distiner layers, Called ‘Selvas’ in Amazon Basin, Multiple species, no pure strands, Shifting cultivation leads to growth of secondary forest.
Excess heat and high humidity leads to serious physical and mental handicaps. Jungle hinders the development and maintenance of tropical soil Commercial extraction of timber difficult and livestock farming handicapped due to absence of meadow grass.
2. Tropical monsoon and tropi- cal marine Climates
Indian Sub continent, South East Asia, South China and Northern Australia
2. Hot dry season in Summer when temperature is high.
3. Rainy season when the south-west monsoon bursts
There are three dis- tiner season:- I Cold dry season during N.E. monsoon when there is tittle rain.
Normally deciduous forest in pure stand especially of leak sal. Savanna vegetation in dry months.
Areas of high density of population especially in the major river valleys Wet paddy cultivation is the major primary activity where rainfall is above 100 cm per annum. Low land cash crops such as jute, sugar, cotton are also grown. High land plantation crop-coffee, tea i umbering in teak areas; shifting cultivation in higher areas.
3.Savanna or Sudan climate
Confined to tropics Sudan Southern Africa. North of 23°S
An alternate hot rainy season and cool dry season. Extreme diurnal range of temerature
Tall grass and short trees; deciduous in nature, local names 1 lanos-Orinico Basin Campos-Brazil Highland
Home of wild animals and cattle pastoralists such as Masai of East African Plateau or settled cultiva- tion like the Hausa of northern Nigeria. Region has great prospect as a cattle region if the problem of water and tsetse fly are controlled.
4. Hot desert and
Called Trade Wind Deserts. Located on western coasts of continents between lat 15°.30° N & S
Aridity of deserts is high. High diurnal range of temerature. Relative humidity is low.
Dominated by Xero phytic plants. Oasis have date palms, salinity of soil high.
Desert inhabitants may be groped as:-
2) Nomadic herdsmen- Bedouin of Arabia. Oil is the major source of revenue.
(3) Caravan traders- Travelling merchants are source of revenue.
(4) Settled cultivators in river valleys of Nile.
(5) Minning settlers-For gold.. copper and diamond in Kalashari & Australian
5. Warm termperature western margin (mediterran- cean climate)
Central Chile, Cali fornia, S.W. tip of AfricaSouthern Australia, S.W. Australia
Caused due to shifting of wind belts. A dry warm summer with off shore trades. Concen- trations of rainfall in winter. Bright sunny weather with hot dry summer and wet mild winter local winds.
Absence of shade evergreen forest bushes and shrubs. Grassland not good
Desert called the “Cradle of world civilization.” Fruit cultivation, cereal growing, wine making and agro-indistires, orchard farming, crop cultivation, vine production are major activity.
6.Temperature continental (Steppe) climate
Interior of the continents in the Dry Westerly Wind belt.
Continental with extermes of temper- ature. Annual range of temperature high Rainfall is light with distinet summer maximum
Temperate - Grassland
Though dominated by nomadic and semi-noma- dic and semi nomadic people, these areas are the ‘Granaries of the world’. Important econo- mic activity include nomadic herding. extensive cultivation, pastoral farming
7.Warm termperature eastern margin (China Types Climate
South Eastern USA bordering the Gulf of Mexico Parana- Uruguay Basin Natal-South Africa New South Wales Eastern China
Warm moist summer and a cool, dry winter strongly modified by maritime influence.
Low land have both evergreen broad leaved and deciduous forest highland have conifers.
One of the most intensi- vely tilled parks of the earth. In China there is rice covering area, in USA the area is domi-nated by corn and cotton belts. Tobacoo is also grown Dairying in south West Australia.
8.Cool temperature Western margin
Britain, North Western Europe, British Colum- bia. Southern Chile, Tasmania and New Zealand
Low annual Range of temperature with mild winters because of maritime influence.
Deciduous forest with trees shedding leaves in cold seasons. Pure stands.
Most developed region of the world. Market garde-ning, mixed farming, sheep rearing are important activities Highly industrizlized and urbanized region.
9. Cool temperature western mar-gin (British-type) climate
Only in Northern Hemisphere in the Siberian region, and North America.
Bitterly cold winter of long duration and cool brief summer. Precipitation well summer maximum
Conifers in pare stands. Richest source of soft wood. Forest are of moderate density with little undergrowth.
Major economic activity include trapping of fur animals, lumbering. There is little agriculture.
10. Cool temperature eastern margin.
Eastern Canada N.E. USA, North China, Korea, North Japan.
Cold dry winters and warm wets summers. Rainfall has a distinet summer maximum
Cool temperate forest with coniferous, South of 50° N conifers give way to deciduous.
Agriculture and fishing are major economic activities Fishing is a major industry.
11. Polar climate
North of Arctic Circle in Northern Hemisphere.
Temperature mostly below freezing point Snow is main form of precipitation.
Hardy grass and reindeer Moss shunted growth due to defici-ency of heat and poordrainage
Human activities largely confined to coast. Eskimos live in Greenland. northern Canada and Alaska.
The Centre provides financial assistance to states for:
|Local and Regional winds|
|2||Chinook||Rockies USA & Canada||Dry/Warm|
|17||Nor Wester||New Zealand (South Island)||Dry/Hot|