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  • India is among the world's first few countries to have adopted a forest policy. The policy was revised first in 1952 and again in 1988.  
  • The main objectives of the revised forest policy of 1988 were 
  • Preservation of ecological balance and conservation of natural heritage 
  • To control erosion of soil, denudation in catchment areas and extension of sand dunes in the north-west desert region and along the coasts 
  • To provide rural and tribal people their requirement of forest products 
  • Utilising products of forestry in the best manner possible 
  • Increasing the productivity of forests as well as the forest cover by afforestation programmes among others 
  • Involving the people to meet the objective.
  • Also in 1988, the forest (conservation) Act of 1980 to prevent deforestation and use of forest land for non-forestry purposes was amended. Punishments in case of violations were included. 
  • To prevent destruction of forest area by fires, a Modern Forests Fire Control Project was started in 1984 with the assistance of the UNDP.
  • Under the provisions of the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, prior approval of the Central government is required for diversion of forest lands for non-forest purposes. 
  • Since the enactment of the Act, the rate of diversion of forestland has come down to around 25,000 hectares per annum from 1.43 lakh hectares per annum, before 1980. 
  • A scheme titled ‘Association of Scheduled Tribes and Rural Poor in Regeneration of degraded Forests on Usufruct Sharing Basis’ is under implementation in nine States of the country. 




Pathogen responsible

Animals affected

Main symptoms

Foot and mouth disease


Cattle, buffaloes, swine, sheep and goats

Running sores in the

mouth and between the toes.

Reduced milk flow and loss of body weight



Cattle, sheep and goats

Fever, ulcers in the mucousu (cattle plague) membrane of elimentary tract causing severe diarrhoea. Discharges from mouth, nose and eyes

Blue tongue

Virus (transmitted by mosquitoes)

Cattle, sheep

High temperature (104° to 108°F). Haemorrhagic inflammation of buccal mucosa. Cyanosis (blue appearance) and swelling of the tongue Cow pox (Vaccinia) Vaccinia virus Cattle Eruption of papules and pustules on the udder and teats

Ranikhet disease (New castle disease)




Chickens and other Loss of appetite, diarrhoea and domestic and wild birds respiratory symptoms and finally paralysis

Marck’s disease

(Fowl paralysis)



Paralysis of legs and wings, Development of lymphoid tumours

Fowl plague


Chickens, domestic and wild birds

High temperature, oedema of the head, nasal and rapid death

Fowl pox (Avian diphtheria)


Chickens and other birds

Wart-like nodules on the comb and wattle, blisters on the skin; Eyes, nose and mouth covered by a yellow cheese - like discharge


Bacteria (transmitted by infected milk and milk products)


Symptoms vary according to the organ involved.

Lungintermittant or continuous fever with dry husky cough, general emaciation. In testine-persistant diarrhoea.

Udders-glands enlarged, milk rendered thin and watery


Anthrax (splenic fever)

Anthrax bacillus


Fever; vesicles on the  skin. Swelling on the body and neck, reduction in milk secretion

Blackquarter (black leg)

Bacteria: Clostridium

Cattle and sheep

Fever and usually  crepitant swelling of the infected chauvoei muscle

Mastitis Johne’s disease

Bacteria: Bacillus



Inflammation of mammary glands

Chronic dysentery, progressive paratuberculosis emaciation and death in many cases

Brucellosis (Bang’s disease)

Bacteria; Brucella

Cattle, sheep, goat and even man

Severe infection in uterus and testis leads to sterility; causes  abortion in all these animals


Salmonella dublin and S. typhimurium

Cattle and man

High temperature; diarrhoea with blood clots in stool

Foot rot



A suppurative infec-Fusiformis nodosus tion between the horn and the sensitive corium of the hoof of sheep causing lameness

Haemorrhagic disease  (Bovine pasteurellosis; shipping fever; shipping  pneumonia)


Cattle and sheep



High fever, pneumonia and oedamatous swelling of the skin

Fowl typhoid

Salmonella gallinarum

Chicken and other domesticated birds 

Contagious scep- ticaemia disease


Mould  (fungus) Microsporon, 

Trichophyton, Epidermophyton

Cattle, sheep, goat

Ring-shaped (rounded) surfy patches on the skin especially to neck and head


Protozoan: Trichomonas foetus (Transmitted through coitus)

Cattle, sheep, pig

Abortions, stillbirths, sterility and delayed  conceptions

Coccidiosis Trypanoso- miasis



Blood diarrhoea and emaciation Eimeria bovis


Cattle, sheep, goats,

Slow progressing

Trypanosoma congolense

camels and dogs

anaemia, most destructive to adult cattle


Protozoan: Babesia bovis (Transmitted by tick)


Fever, diarrhoea, anaemia and haemoglobinuria

“Snoring disease”

Trematode (fluke) Schistosoma nasale


Cauliflower like growth on nasal septum

Liver rot

Liver fluke Fasciola hepatica

Cattle, sheep, goat

Extensive damage to liver. General unthrifti ness of the infected animal

Measly beef

Tapeworm: Taenia saginata

Cattle and buffalo

The larval bladder worm stage occurs in the muscles causes a condition called  “measly beef”


Social Forestry

  • The strategy for over-all development in the country envisages not only a major thrust in the production forestry sector but also ushering in an energetic and viable social forestry programme in order to meet the demand for fuel wood; green manure, fodder, etc. in the country. 
  • While production forestry envisages raising of industrial plantations on a large scale to meet the industrial new material requirements, social forestry programme is confined to the uncultivated lands and also in conjunction with farm lands.
  • It is for a wood-based production system for 
    • site improvement, 
    • habitat improvement and 
    • major and minor forest products.
  • Government has launched three schemes for the social forestry scheme, namely 
  • mixed plantation on waste lands and panchayat lands, 
  • afforestation of degraded forests and raising of shelter belts and
  • rural fuel wood plantations. 
  • ‘A Tree for Every Child’ Programme has also been introduced in the country for creating tree consciousness among the children.
  • Agro-forestry system, a combination of the forest and agricultural crops, is being used for controlling the menace of shifting cultivation and for regenerating the forests at comparatively low cost.
  • Under the system, cultivators are allowed to use the forest land free of rent for a certain period ranging between 2-3 years for raising plantation of the desired species.







1. Hot  wet  equatorial climate 

5° To 10° N&S of Equator, Lowlands of Amazon, Congo Malaysia and East Indies 

Great uniformity in Temperature through out the year No winter Almost daily precipitation in the afternoon. High Relative  Humidity (7.80%) 

Evergreen trees in three distiner layers, Called ‘Selvas’ in Amazon Basin, Multiple species, no pure strands, Shifting cultivation leads to growth of secondary forest. 

Excess heat and high humidity leads to serious physical and mental handicaps. Jungle hinders the development and maintenance of tropical soil Commercial extraction of timber difficult and livestock farming handicapped due to absence of meadow grass.

2. Tropical monsoon   and tropi- cal marine Climates

Indian Sub continent, South East Asia, South China and Northern Australia


2. Hot dry season in Summer when temperature is high. 

3. Rainy season when the south-west  monsoon bursts


There are three dis- tiner season:- I Cold dry season during N.E. monsoon when there is tittle rain.

Normally deciduous forest in pure stand especially of leak sal. Savanna vegetation in dry months.

Areas of high density of population especially in the major river valleys Wet paddy cultivation is  the major primary activity where rainfall is above 100 cm per annum. Low land cash crops such  as jute, sugar, cotton are also grown. High land plantation crop-coffee, tea i umbering in teak areas; shifting cultivation in higher areas.

3.Savanna or Sudan climate 

Confined to tropics Sudan Southern Africa. North of 23°S

An alternate hot rainy season and cool dry season. Extreme diurnal range of temerature

Tall grass and short trees; deciduous in nature, local names  1 lanos-Orinico Basin Campos-Brazil Highland

Home of wild animals and cattle pastoralists such as Masai of East African Plateau or settled cultiva- tion like the Hausa of northern Nigeria. Region has great prospect as a cattle region if the problem of water and tsetse fly are controlled.

4. Hot desert and   

 mid-latitude desert


Called Trade Wind Deserts. Located on western coasts of continents  between lat 15°.30° N & S

Aridity of deserts is high. High diurnal range of temerature. Relative humidity is low.

Dominated by Xero phytic plants. Oasis have date palms, salinity of soil high.

Desert inhabitants may be groped as:- 
(1) Primitive hunters and  collectors-Burham of  Kalahari Bindibu of Australia 


2) Nomadic herdsmen- Bedouin of Arabia. Oil is the major source of revenue.

(3) Caravan traders- Travelling merchants are source of revenue.

(4) Settled cultivators in river valleys of Nile.

(5) Minning settlers-For gold.. copper and diamond in Kalashari & Australian  


5. Warm termperature   western margin (mediterran- cean climate)



Central Chile, Cali fornia, S.W. tip of AfricaSouthern Australia, S.W. Australia


Caused due to shifting of wind belts. A dry warm summer with off shore trades. Concen- trations of rainfall in winter. Bright sunny  weather with hot dry summer and wet mild winter local winds.


Absence of shade evergreen forest bushes and shrubs. Grassland not good



Desert called the “Cradle of world civilization.” Fruit cultivation, cereal growing, wine making and agro-indistires, orchard farming, crop cultivation, vine production are major activity.

6.Temperature continental (Steppe) climate 

Interior of the continents in the Dry Westerly Wind belt.

Continental with extermes of temper- ature. Annual range  of temperature high Rainfall is light with distinet summer maximum

Temperate - Grassland 
Eurasia- Steppes 
Hungary- Pustaz 
North America- Prairies 
Argentina- Pampas 
Australia- Downs South Africa- Veld


Though dominated by nomadic and semi-noma- dic and semi nomadic people, these areas are the ‘Granaries of the world’. Important econo- mic activity include nomadic herding. extensive cultivation, pastoral farming

7.Warm termperature  eastern margin       (China Types        Climate

South Eastern USA bordering the Gulf of Mexico Parana- Uruguay Basin Natal-South Africa New South Wales Eastern China

Warm moist summer and a cool, dry winter strongly modified by maritime influence.

Low land have both evergreen broad leaved and deciduous forest highland have conifers.

One of the most intensi- vely tilled parks of the earth. In China there is rice covering area, in USA the area is domi-nated by corn and cotton belts. Tobacoo is also grown Dairying in south West Australia.

8.Cool temperature  Western  margin 
(British type) climate  

Britain, North Western Europe, British Colum- bia. Southern Chile, Tasmania and  New Zealand

Low annual Range of temperature with mild winters because of maritime influence.

Deciduous forest with trees shedding leaves in cold seasons. Pure stands.

Most developed region of the world. Market garde-ning, mixed farming, sheep rearing are important activities Highly industrizlized and urbanized region.

9. Cool temperature  western   mar-gin (British-type) climate

Only in Northern Hemisphere in the Siberian region, and North America.

Bitterly cold winter of long duration and cool brief summer. Precipitation well summer maximum

Conifers in pare stands. Richest source of soft wood. Forest are of moderate density with little undergrowth.

Major economic activity include trapping of fur animals, lumbering. There is little agriculture.

10. Cool temperature   eastern  margin.

Eastern Canada N.E. USA, North  China, Korea, North Japan.

Cold dry winters and warm wets summers. Rainfall has a distinet summer maximum

Cool temperate forest with coniferous, South of 50° N conifers give  way to deciduous.

Agriculture and fishing are major economic activities Fishing is a major industry.

11. Polar climate

North of Arctic Circle in Northern Hemisphere.

Temperature mostly below freezing point Snow is main form of precipitation.

Hardy grass and reindeer Moss shunted growth due to defici-ency of heat and poordrainage

Human activities largely confined to coast. Eskimos live in Greenland. northern Canada and Alaska.



  • National wildlife action plan adopted in 1983 provides the framework of strategy as well as programme for wildlife conservation.
  • It has been revised and the new widdife Action Plan (2002–2016) has been adopted.
  • At present, protected area network comprises 69 national parks and 398 sanctuaries covering four per cent of the total geographical area of the country.
  • It is proposed to be increased to 4.6 per cent by setting up more parks and sanctuaries.
  • At Present there are 28 Tiger Reserves in 17 states covering an area of 37,761 Sq. km.
  • The Wild Life(Protection) Act, 1972, adopted by all states except Jammu and Kashmir (which has its own Act), governs wildlife conservation and protection of endangered species.
  • The Act prohibits trade in rare and endangered species. India is also a signatory to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna. 
  • Under this, export or import of endangered species and their products is subject to strict control. Commercial exploitation of such species is prohibited. 

The Centre provides financial assistance to states for: 

  • strengthening management and protection of infrastructure of national parks and sanctuaries;
  • protection of wildlife and control of poaching and illegal trade in wildlife products; 
  • captive breeding programmes for endangered species of wildlife; 
  • wildlife education and interpretation;
  • development of selected zoos; and 
  • conservation of rhinos in Assam.


Local and Regional winds
1FoehnAlps/Europe (Germany)Dry/Warm
2ChinookRockies USA & CanadaDry/Warm
3MistralAlps/France to Dry/Cold
  Mediterranean Sea 
  (Rhine Valley) 
4SiroccoN. Africa/Sicily/ItalyDry/Hot
5KhamsinEgypt/N AfricaDry/Hot
6HarmattanWest Africa/Ghana/NigeriaDry/Hot
7Nor' WesternsBengal/Assam/IndiaMoist/Hot
8BergSouth AfricaDry/Cold
11Brick filderAustraliaDry/Hot
14Southerly BusterAustraliaDry/Cold
17Nor WesterNew Zealand (South Island)Dry/Hot



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