[ME 2014, Set-4]
Tempering increases Toughness.
Quenching affects hardening.
Annealing affects softening.
Normalizing affects strengthening & Grain Refinement.
LCT-Lower Critical Temperature
UCT-Upper Critical Temperature
1. Austenite is converted into bainite
2. Austenite is converted into martensite
3. Cementite is converted into globular structure
4. Both hardness and brittleness are reduced
5. Carbon is absorbed into the metal
In Tempering, both hardness and brittleness are reduced.
In Austempering, Austenite is converted into bainite.
In Martempering, Austenite gets converted into Martensite.
Cold working is a phenomenon in which material is deformed in recrystallization temperature.
Spherodite, Coarse Pearlite, Fine Pearlite, Martensite