Class - XII
TIME: 3 Hrs.
(i) Answer all the questions. Some questions have an internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question. This question paper comprises of six section.
(ii) Section A - Question numbers 1 to 16 are objective type questions, carrying 1 mark and should be answered in one word or one sentence each (Attempt any 15).
(iii) Section B - Question numbers 17 to 19 are Case based/Source based having multiple Choice questions. Each question has 4 sub-parts. Attempt any three sub-parts from each question.
(iv) Section C - Answer to questions carrying 3 marks (Question 20 to 23) should not exceed 100 words each.
(v) Section D - Answer to questions carrying 8 marks (Question 24 to 26) should not exceed 350 words each.
(vi) Section E - Question number 27 to 29 are Source-based questions carrying 5 marks each.
(vii) Section F - Question number 30 is a Map question that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
Attempt any 15 Questions:
Q.1. Ancient Mesopotamian texts refer to copper coming from a place called ‘Magan’.Which place were they referring to? (1 Mark)
Ans. Magan refers to Oman
Q.2. Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution? (1 Mark)
Ans. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
Q.3. _____deciphered Brahmi and Kharosthi. (1 Mark)
Ans. James Prinsep
Q.4. What do you understand by the term Janapada? (1 Mark)
Ans. Janapada means the land where a clan or tribe sets its foot or settles.
Q.5. Look at the given image and state what does the symbol of ‘Stupa’ stand for? (1 Mark)
Ans. Stupa stands for Mahaparinibbana.
Q.6. Purananuru is a poem of which literature? (1 Mark)
(b) Tamil Sangam
(c) Pa li
Q.7. ______a Kushana king, converted to Buddhism. (1 Mark)
Q.8. What is the title of the story which is a dialogue between Avantiputta and Kachchana ? (1 Mark)
Ans. Majjhima Nikaya
Q.9. Differentiate between ‘Nayaks’ and the ‘Amara-nayakas’.
Ans. Nayakas were Military Chiefs who usually controlled forts and had armed supporters. These Chiefs often moved from one area to another. The Amara-nayakas were Military Commanders who were given territories to govern by the Raya.
Q.10. Which of these statement is correct? (1 Mark)
(a) Early Bhakti movements were led by Alvars and Nayanaras.
(b) The Alvars were devotees of Shakti.
(c) The Nayanaras were devotees of Vishnu.
(d) Sufis were not a part of the Islamic world.
Q.11. Assertion and Reason Type Questions: (1 Mark)
For each part choose from the following:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both a and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Assertion (a): When the Sheikh died, his tomb-shrine (Dargah, a Persian term meaning Court) became the centre of devotion for his followers.
Reason (R): People believed that the dead saint was united with God and closer to him when living.
Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Q.12. Which was the most important tank built in the early years of the fifteenth century in Vijayanagar Empire? (1 Mark)
(a) Hiriya canal
(b) Kamalapuram tank
(c) Tungabhadra Tank
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Q.13. Show how the powers of Jotedars were more effective than that of Zamindars? (1 Mark)
Ans. The power of Jotedars was more effective than that of Zamindars. Unlike Zamindars who often lived in urban areas, Jotedars were located in the villages and exercised direct control over a considerable section of poor villagers.
Q.14. Who among the following was sent by the ruler of Persia to Calicut? (1 Mark)
(a) Colin Mackenzie
(b) Alexander Greenlaw
(c) John Marshall
(d) Abdur Razzaq
Q.15. Which of the following were the responsibilities Mir Bakshihad in Akbar’s reign ? (1 Mark)
(a) Revenue Collection
(b) Payment of Salaries
(c) Head of the Military Administration
(d) Head of Nobility
Q.16. What is the name of the book written by Chandrabhan Brahman? (1 Mark)
Ans. Char Chaman
Q.17. Read the following excerpt from the Prayaga Prashasti carefully and answer any three questions: (1+1+1=3)
This is an excerpt from the Prayaga Prashasti:
He was without an antagonist on earth; he, by the overflowing of the multitude of (his) many good qualities adorned by hundreds of good actions, has wiped off the fame of other kings with the soles of (his) feet; (he is) Purusha (the Supreme Being), being the cause of the prosperity of the good and the destruction of the bad (he is) incomprehensible; (he is) one whose tender heart can be captured only by devotion and humility; (he is) possessed of compassion; (he is) the giver of many hundredthousands of cows; (his) mind has received ceremonial initiation for the uplift of the miserable, the poor, the forlorn and the suffering; (he is) resplendent and embodied kindness to mankind; (he is) equal to (the gods) Kubera (the god of wealth), Varuna (the god of the ocean), Indra (the god of rains) and Yama (the god of death)… kingship?
(a) This inscription is known as a Prashasti because:
(i) It is composed in praise of its patron.
(ii) It is composed by a court poet.
(iii) It is treasured as an important account of its patron.
(iv) It is composed in Sanskrit.
(b) This excerpt mentions (he is) equal to (the Gods) ____. This projects what element of Kingship?
(i) Means of claiming high status by identifying with a variety of deities.
(ii) Means of claiming themselves god like.
(iii) Means of claiming a number of titles.
(iv) All of the above.
(c) Choose the correct option:
Assertion(A): He is possessed of compassion.
Reason(R): He is the giver of many hundred- thousand cows; his mind has received ceremonial initiation for the uplift of the miserable, the poor, the forlorn and the suffering
(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A is incorrect but R is correct.
(iv) R is incorrect but A is correct.
(d) Consider the following statements: Conceptual Error (Only 2 options)
(A) Histories of rulers have been reconstructed from literature, coins and inscriptions including Prashastis like the one in the excerpt.
(B) While Historians often attempt to draw factual information from such a composition, those who composed and read them often treasured them as works of poetry rather than as accounts that were literally true. This excerpt is an example of such a case.
Choose the correct option:
(i) Both (A) and (B) are correct
(ii) Only (A) is correct
(iii) Only (B) is correct
(iv) Both (A) and (B) are not correct.
Q.18. Read the following extract carefully and answer any three of the following questions: 1+1+1 = 3
The Arthashastra lays down minute details of administrative and military organisation. This is what is says about how to capture elephants:
Guards of elephant forests, assisted by those who rear elephants, those who enchain the legs of elephants, those who guard the boundaries, those who live in forests, as well as by those who nurse elephtants, shall with the help of five or seven female elephants, trace the whereabouts of herds of elephants by following the course of urine and dung left by elephants. According to Greek sources, the Mauryan ruler had a standing army of 600,00 foot-soldiers, 30,000 cavalry and 9,000 elephants. Some historians consider these accounts to be exaggerated.
(a) What is Arthashstra ?
(i) the ancient Buddhist text
(ii) the ancient Mughal Text
(iii) the ancient Mauryan text
(iv) the ancient Sangam text.
(b) Who wrote Arthashastra ?
(iii) Abdul Hamid Lahori
(iv) Abul Jazl.
(c) Elephants were captured for :
(iii) Military activities
(iv) Both (ii) and (iii).
(d) According to Greek Sources, the Mauryan ruler had :
(i) 5000 elephants
(ii) 9000 elephants
(iii) 6000 elephants
(iv) 4000 elephants.
Q.19. Read the following excerpt carefully and answer any three questions: (3 Mark)
We say that it is our firm and solemn resolve to have an independent sovereign republic. India is bound to be sovereign, it is bound to be independent and it is bound to be a republic.....Now, some friends have raised the questions “Why have you not put in the word ‘democratic’ here. ?” Well, I told them that it is conceivable of course, that a republic may not be democratic but the whole of our past is witness to this fact that we stand for democratic institutions.
Obviously, we are aiming at democracy and nothing less than a democracy. What form of democracy, what shape it might take is another matter. The democracies of the present day, many of them in Europe and elsewhere, have played a great part in the world’s progress. Yet it may be doubtful if those democracies may not have to change their shape somewhat before long if they have to remain completely democratic. We are not going just to copy, I hope, a certain democratic procedure or an institution of a so-called democratic country.
We may improve upon it. In any event whatever system of government we may establish here must fit in with the temper of our people and be acceptable to them. We stand for democracy. It will be for this House to determine what shape to be given to that democracy, the fullest democracy, I hope the House will notice that in this resolution, although we have not used the world “democratic” because we thought it is obvious that the word “republic” contains that word and we have done something much more than using the word.
We have given the content of democracy in this resolution and not only the content of democracy but the context, also, if I may say so of economic democracy in this resolution. Others might take objection to this Resolution on the grounds that we have not said that it should be a Socialist State.
Well, I stand for Socialism and, I hope, India will stand for Socialism and that India will go towards the Constitution of a Socialist State and I do believe that the whole world will have to go that way.
(a) The explanation given by Jawaharlal nehru for not using the term ‘Democratic’ in the objective resolution was:
(i) It was thought by the makers of the constitution that the word ‘republic’ contains that word.
(ii) They did not want to use unnecessary and redundant word
(iii) They had given the content of democracy in the resolution especially democracy.
(b) How many basic features of he constitution are given in above passage :
(iv) None of the above.
(c) nehru was supporter of Socialism and he said that India would stand for Socialism, where:
(i) Where every citizen would be provided equal opportunities for growth and development.
(ii) Where every Hindu would be provided equal opportunities for growth and development.
(iii) Where every Muslim would be provided equal opportunities for growth and development.
(iv) Where no one would be provided equal opportunities for growth and development.
(d) The above excerpt is taken from:
(i) The Making of the Constitution.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary Eyes.
(iii) Partition through oral sources.
(iv) None of the above.
Q.20. Elaborate any two types of marriages mentioned in Mahabharata. (3 Mark)
Ans. Marriages during Mahabharata followed :
(i) Endogamy refers to marriage within a unit.
(ii) Exogamy refers to marriage outside the unit.
(iii) Polyandry is the practice of a woman having several husbands.
(iv) Polygyny is the practice of a woman having several husbands.
(v) Polygyny is the practice of a man having several wives.
(vi) Any from the eight forms of marriages mentioned in the Dharma-shastras.
Q.21. “The nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers from diverse ethnic and religious groups”.Justify. (3 Mark)
Ans. The Mughal nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers:
(i) The Mughal nobility were the main pillars of Mughal state.
(ii) The Mughal nobility was chosen from different groups, both religiously and ethnically so as to ensure a balance of power between the various groups.
(iii) They are described as guldasta or a bouquet of flowers in the official chronicles signifying their unity, held together by loyalty towards the Mughal Emperor.
(iv) They can be divided into four major groups ethnically, viz Irani, Turani, Rajputs and Shaikhzadas or Indian Muslims.
(v) All Nobles were ranked or were allotted Mansabs comprising of Zat and Sawar.
(vi) The Nobles were also required to perform military service for the Emperor.
(vii) Any other relevant point.
Q.22. Name the major anthology compiled by the Alvars which is also described as the Tamil Veda. How did various chiefdoms in the Tamil region help them in the early first millennium? (3 Mark)
Ans. The major anthology composed by the Alvars was the Nalayira Divya Prabandham and was described as the Tamil Veda, thus claiming that it was as important as the four Vedas in Sanskrit. The Cholas gave them financial aid for constructing splendid temples for Vishnu and Shiva. Temples were adorned with stone and metal sculpture. Pallavas and Pandyas gave them land grants.
Q.23. What were the arguments given by Balakrishna Sharma for complete power to the Centre ? (3 Mark)
Ans. The Arguments given by Bala Krishan Sharma for greater power to the Centre :
(i) Strong Centre could plan well-being of the country.
(ii) Mobilise the available economic resources.
(iii) Establish proper administration.
(iv) Defend the country from aggression.
Q.24. “The Mahabharata is a good source to Study the Kinship values of ancient times.” Justify this statement with suitable arguments. 2+6
Ans. Mahabharata is a good source to study the kinfolk’s values in the ancient times—
(i) Often people belonging to the same family share food and other resources, and live, work and perform rituals together.
(ii) While familial ties are often regarded as “natural” and based on blood, they are defined in many different ways.
(iii) Some societies regard Cousins as being blood relations, whereas others do not.
(iv) Under patrilinym, sons could claim the resources (including the throne in the case of kings) of their fathers when the latter died.
(v) This system, called exogamy was practiced which meant that the lives of young girls and women belonging to families that claimed high status were often carefully regulated to ensure that they were married at the “right” time and to the “right” person. This gave rise to the belief that kanyadana or the gift of a daughter in marriage was an important religious duty of the father.
Who were categorised as untouchables? Describe the duties prescribed for them in Manusmriti and Shastras.
Ans. The four Varna System defined by Shastras included Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. There was a fifth category who were considered lowly and outside the Varna system. These were named as Chandalas and treated as untouchables by all others. Below are the list of rules they had to follow :
(i) They had to live outside the village.
(ii) They were regarded as untouchables, they had to use discarded utensils, wear clothes of the dead and ornaments of iron.
(iii) Their appearance in public life was considered inauspicious. They could not walk about in villages at night. They had to dispose of the death bodies of those with no relatives and serve as executioners.
(iv) Chinese Buddhist Monk, Fa Xian (Fifth century CE), mentioned that untouchables had to sound a clapper in the streets so that people could avoid seeing them.
Q.25. Outline the distinctive features of the Virupaksha temple and the Vitthala temple in the Royal Centre of Vijayanagara Empire.
Ans. The Virupaksha Temple:
(i) The Virupaksha Temple was an old temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, the guardian deity.
(ii) It was enlarged with the establishment to the Vijayanagara Empire.
(iii) The hall in front of the main shrine was built by Krishnadeva Raya to mark his accession.
(iv) This was decorated with delicately carved pillars.
(v) Gopurams, royal gateways that often dwarfed the towers on the central shrines, and signalled the presence of the temple.
(vi) Central shrine (Garbha griha).
(vii) There were Mandapas or pillared corridors found in the temple.
(viii) Social importance: Images of God were placed to witness special programmes of music, dance and dramas.
- Used to celebrate the marriage of deities
- Others were meant to swing the deities.
(ix) Vijayanagara rulers/kings ruled on behalf of Lord Virupaksha.
(x) Orders were signed in the name of Sri Virupaksha.
(xi) Rulers indicated close links with God using the title ‘Hindu Suratarna’.
(xii) Royal portraits sculptures were also displayed in temples.
(xiii) Kings visits to temples along with Amaranayakas were important occasions.
The Vitthala Temple:
(i) The principle deity was Vitthala a form of Vishnu.
(ii) This temple had several halls and a unique shrine designed as a Chariot.
(iii) A characteristic feature of the temple complexes in the Chariot streets that extended from the temple Gopuram in a straight line.
(iv) These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.
Identify the rituals and practices associated with the Mahanavami Dibba, a structure in the Royal Centre of Vijayanagara Empire. (2+6)
Ans. The Mahanavami Dibba
(i) The name comes from the shape of the platform and the Mahanavami platform which was observed there.
(ii) Rituals associated with the structure- Dussehra, Durga Puja and Navratri or Mahanavami.
(iii) The Vijayanagara kings displayed their prestige, power and suzerainty.
(iv) The ceremonies performed on the occasion included worship of image, worship of state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
(v) Dances, wrestling match and procession of horses,elephants and chariots and soldiers.
(vi) Ritual presentations before the king and his guests by the Chief Nayakas and Subordinate Kings marked the occasion.
(vii) The Ruler inspected the Army.
(viii) Nayakas brought gifts and tribute for the king. It had the two most impressive platforms, the “Audience Hall” and the “ Mahanavami Dibba”.
(ix) The entire complex was surrounded by high double walls with a street running between them.
(x) The Audience Hall was a high platform with slots for wooden pillars at close and regular intervals.
(xi) It had a staircase going up to the second floor.
(xii) The pillars were closely spaced.
(xiii) The “Mahanavami Dibba” was a massive platform rising from a base of about 11,000 sq. ft to a height of 40 ft.
(xiv) The platform must have supported a wooden structure and other perishable material during festivals.
(xv) The base of the platform is covered with relief carvings.
Q.26. Describe the different arguments made in favour of protection of depressed classes in the Constituent Assembly.
Ans. The following arguments were made in favour of protection of depressed classes in the Constituent Assembly:
1. It was realised that the Depressed classes especially tribals and untouchables needed special attention and safeguards to raise their status in Society and provide them equality. But some Members of the depressed class emphasised that the problem of the “Untouchables” could not be resolved through protection and safeguards alone.
2. These Members believed that the disabilities of the Depressed class were caused by the social norms and the moral values of caste divided Society. The Depressed class had been left in isolation with this belief that they are not born to be fit in the civil society.
Their suffering was due to their systematic marginalisation. They had no access to education and also had no share in the administration.
Thus, in the Constituent Assembly many recognised that social discrimination could not solve only through constitutional legislation, there had to be a change in the attitudes within Society.
How did the Constituent Assembly seek to resolve the language controversy? (8 Mark)
Ans. Since India is a vast country having different regions with various languages, the Assembly discussed the issue of language for the newly-independent country which generated intense arguments. Hindustani was the choice of Congress and Mahatma Gandhi.
(i) Before the Independence of the country, the Congress had made up its mind to adopt Hindustani as the National Language of the country. Mahatma Gandhi had also approved this decision. He was convinced that everyone should speak in a language which is understood by most of the common people.
(ii) Hindustani, which is a blend of Hindi and Urdu, was not a new language. It was a popular language as it was spoken by most of the people of the country and Mahatma Gandhi preferred it to be the National Language of India.
(iii) The case for Hindi was mostly advocated by R. V. Dhulekar, a Congressman from the United Provinces and wanted that Hindi should be used as the Language of Constitution–making.
(iv) When he was told that all the members of the Constituent Assembly did not know Hindi, he felt infuriated and stated that those who did not know Hindi were not worthy to be the Members of the Constituent Assembly. He told such Members to quit the Assembly. There was a common in the Assembly over his remarks. However, the peace and order were restored due to the intervention of Jawaharlal Nehru.
(v) The Language Committee of the Constituent Assembly suggested a compromise formula in its report. In order to resolve the deadlock over the issue of language, it advocated that Hindi in Devanagari script should be the Official Language of the Country.
(vi) It also suggested that transition from English to Hindi would be gradual. It stated that during the first fifteen years from the enforcement of the new Constitution, English would continue to be used for all Official purposes.
(vii) In other words, the Language Committee referred to Hindi as the Official Language and not the National Language of India. The Members in the Constituent Assembly, who were from the Southern States, opposed Hindi and considered it as a threat to their provincial languages.
(viii) Many oppositions were expressed by Mrs. G. Durgabai of Madras and Sh. Shankarrao Deo from Bombay. T. A. Ramalingma Chettiar from Madras suggested that the issue of language should be handled with tact and caution.
(ix) Hindi should not be aggressively thrust upon the Southern people. In other words, the Members from South India wanted that Hindi should not be forcefully imposed on them.
Q.27. Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow :
This is an excerpt from the Prayaga Prashasti: He was without an antagonist on earth; he, by the overflowing of the multitude of (his) many good qualities adorned by hundreds of good actions, has wiped of the fame of other kings with the soles of (his) feet; (he is) Purusha (in Supreme Being), being the cause of the prosperity of the good and the destruction of the bad (he is) incomprehensible (he is) possessed of compassing; (he is) the giver of many hundred thousands of cows; (his) mind has received ceremonial initiation for the uplift of the miserable, the poor, the forlorn and the suffering; (he is) resplendent and embodied kindness to mankind; (he is) equal to (the gods) Kubera (the god Varuna (the god of the ocean), Yama (the god of death)....
1. Give the meaning of Prashasti. (1 Mark)
2. ‘Samudragupta is compared to Gods.’ Justify the comparison. (2 Mark)
3. Name two sources used to reconstruct the history of Gupta rulers. (2 Mark)
1. Prashstis were inscriptions composed in praise of kings by eminent poets.
2. Rulers were compared to Gods and given divine status. By adopting high sounding titles, rulers sought to gain legitimacy and exercise control over the subjects. The Prashasti equated the ruler to Kubera (the God of wealth), Varun (the God of the ocean), Indra (the God of rains) and Yama (the God of death).
3. Two sources are Coins and Inscriptions. Some of the most spectacular Gold coins were made by the Gupta rulers. Inscriptions found on stone and copper plates throw light about the Gupta rulers.
Q.28. read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Here is a vachana composed by Basavanna; When they see a serpent carved in stone they pour milk on it.
If a real serpent comes they say: ‘Kill', 'Kill'.
To the servant of the God who could eat if served they say; ‘Go away’, ‘Go away’!
But to the image of the God which cannot eat they offer dishes of food.
1. who was Basavanna ? (1 Mark)
2. From which cult and region he belonged to ? (2 Mark)
3. describe Basavanna’s attitude towards rituals. (2 Mark)
1. Basavanna was a Brahmana (1106–68), initially a Jaina and a Minister in the Court of a Chalukya King.
2. He was from Karnataka region and the cult that he started was known as Lingayats (Wearers of Linga) or Virashaivas (heroes of Lord Shiva)
3. Lingayats believed that after death, the devotee will be united with Shiva. So, they do not practice funeral rites like cremation, instead they bury their dead. They were against the Caste System and approved post-puberty marriage and widow remarriage.
Q.29. Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:
Govind Ballabh Pant argued that in order to become loyal citizens people had to stop focusing only on the community and the self. For the success of a democracy, one must train himself in the art of self-discipline. In democracies, one should careless for himself and more for others. There cannot be any divided loyalty. All loyalties must exclusively be centred round the State. If in a democracy, you create rival loyalties, or you create a system in which any individual or group, instead of suppressing his extravagance, cares no for larger or other interests, then democracy is doomed.
1. Why did Govind Ballabh Pant laid more stress on the art of self-discipline? (1 Mark)
2. What was considered important for the success of a democracy? (2 Mark)
3. “In democracies, one should careless for himself and more for others.” Give your views on this philosophy. (2 Mark)
1. Govind Ballabh Pant stressed more on self-discipline, as without democratic discipline, ideals and values of a democracy cannot be upheld.
2. For the success of a democracy, one should have loyalty to state. There should be no divided loyalties and all citizens must be committed to national unity and integrity.
3. In a democracy, one should be careless about himself and take more care of others; right and more upholding the democratic values.
Q.30. 1. On the given political map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(a) Lothal, a mature Harappan site
Sanchi, a major Buddhist site
(b) Agra, a territory under Babur, Akbar, and Aurangzeb
Calcutta, a Main Centre of the Revolt 1857
(c) Dandi 1+1+1=3
2. On the same outline map, two places have been marked as A and B, which are centres of the National Movement. Identify, them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them
Ans. (1) and (2)