Class - XII
TIME: 3 Hrs.
(i) Answer all the questions. Some questions have an internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question. This question paper comprises of six section.
(ii) Section A - Question numbers 1 to 16 are objective type questions, carrying 1 mark and should be answered in one word or one sentence each (Attempt any 15).
(iii) Section B - Question numbers 17 to 19 are Case based/Source based having multiple Choice questions. Each question has 4 sub-parts. Attempt any three sub-parts from each question.
(iv) Section C - Answer to questions carrying 3 marks (Question 20 to 23) should not exceed 100 words each.
(v) Section D - Answer to questions carrying 8 marks (Question 24 to 26) should not exceed 350 words each.
(vi) Section E - Question number 27 to 29 are Source-based questions carrying 5 marks each.
(vii) Section F - Question number 30 is a Map question that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
Attempt any 15 Questions:
Q.1. In which of the following languages have the earliest inscriptions been recorded? (1 Mark)
Q.2. ____settlement was devoted to craft productions using variety of materials. (1 Mark)
Q.3. The one-horned animal found in Harappan seals is named as_____ . (1 Mark)
Q.4. Which among the following was a strategy adopted by the Brahmanas to enforce the varna order? (1 Mark)
(a) Assert that varna order was a human creation.
(b) Advised kings to punish those who violated these norms.
(c) Persuaded people that their status was determined by birth.
(d) Persuaded people that their status was determined by occupations they practised.
Q.5. In the popular tradition of Vijayanagara, the Deccan Sultan are termed as ____ . (1 Mark)
Q.6. Which of these Principles of Jainism left its mark on Indian thinking as a whole ? (1 Mark)
(c) Respect for teacher/guru
Q.7. Assertion and Reasons Type Questions : 1 For each part choose from the following : (1 Mark)
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Assertion (A): Historians also investigate and analyse attitudes towards family and kinship.
Reason (R): It is likely that some of these ideas would have shaped people’s actions, just as actions may have led to changes in attitudes.
Q.8. What is the source to know about the Virashaiva tradition in Karnataka
Ans. Our understanding of the Virashaiva tradition is derived from vachanas (literally, sayings) composed in Kannada by women and men who joined the movement.
Q.9. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R):
Assertion (a): Over the centuries, his message spread across the subcontinent and beyond -through Central Asia to China, Korea and Japan, and through Sri Lanka, across the seas to Myanmar. Thailand and Indonesia. (1 Mark)
Reason (R): We come to know about Buddhist teachings as these have been reconstructed, carefully edited, translated and analyzed. Historians have also tried to reconstruct details of his life from hagiographies.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Q.10. Correct the following statement and rewrite it : (1 Mark)
Scholars who studied early inscriptions sometimes assumed these were in Prakrit.
Ans. Scholars who studied early inscriptions sometimes assumed these were in Sanskrit.
Q.11. Identify the following image : (1 Mark)
Ans. Colin Machenzien–The first Surveyor General of India.
Q.12. The two artists, Mir Saiyyad Ali and Abdul Samad were brought from Iran to the Mughal court by Emperor________ (1 Mark)
Q.13. Who among these wrote the biography of Sheikh Muinuddin Chishti, titled as Munis al Arwah? (1 Mark)
(a) Shah Jahan
Q.14. Which of these languages flourished under the Mughal rule ? (1 Mark)
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Q.15. When did Akbar build a new capital Fatehpur Sikri? (1 Mark)
Q.16. Who among the following declared- Separate Electorate was a ‘poison that has entered the body politic of our country’? (1 Mark)
(a) G. B.Pant
(b) Sardar Patel
(c) R. V. Dhulekar
(d) Begum Aizaz Rasul
Q.17. Read the following excerpt carefully and answer any three questions : (3 Mark)
This is an excerpt from the Sutta Pitaka, and contains the advice given by the Buddha to a wealthy householder named Sigala. In five ways should a master look after his servants and employees....by assigning them work according to their strength, by supplying them with food. and wages, by tending them in sickness; by sharing delicacies with them and by granting leave at time...
In five ways should the clansmen look after the needs of Samanas (those who have renounced the world) and Brahmanas; by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping open house to them and supplying their wordly needs. There are similar instructions to Sigala about how to behave with his parents, teacher and wife.
(a) The first way in which a master should look after his employees and servants was:
(i) By supplying them with food.
(ii) By tending them in sickness.
(iii) By assigning them work according to their strength.
(iv) By keeping open house to them.
(b) A Sigala should treat his parents with:
(iv) None of the above.
(c) Who were Samanas?
(ii) Those who have renounced the world
(iii) Tribe people
(d) This excerpt is from :
(iii) Sutta Pitaka
Q.18. Read the following excerpt carefully and answer any three questions : 1+1+1=3
This is what Khushdeva Singh writes about his experience during one of his visits in Karachi in 1949:
My friends took me to a room at the airport where we all sat down and talked.....and had lunch together. I had to travel from Karachi to London,. at 2.30 a.m........At 5.00 p.m.....I told my friends that they had given their time so generously I thought it would be too much for them to wait for the whole night and suggested that they must spare themselves but nobody left until it was dinner time....
Then they said they were leaving and that I must have a little rest before emplanning......I got up about 1.45 a.m. and when I opened the door, I saw that all of them were still there........They all accompanied me to the plane, and before parting, presented me with a small basket of grapes. I had no words to express my gratitude for the overwhelming affection with which I was treated and the happiness this stopover had given me.
(a) What was the Profession of Khushdeva Singh ?
(iv) News reporter.
(b) This incident is related to which Pakistani City ?
(c) What was the message behind this incident ?
(i) We are still friends
(ii) We still deserve generosity
(iii) Love is stronger than hate
(iv) All of the above.
(d) This excerpt is taken from:
(i) Colonialism and Rural Society
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi through contemporary eyes
(iii) The making of constitution
(iv) Partition through oral sources.
Q.19. Read the following excerpt and answer any three questions: (3 Mark)
The One Lord:
Here is a composition attributed to Kabir Tell me, brother, how can there be No one lord of the world but two ?
Who let you so astray ?
God is called by many names.
Names like Allah, Ram, Karim, Keshav, Hari and Hazrat. Gold may be shaped into rings and bangles. Isn’t it gold all the same ? Distinctions are only in words that we invent.
Kabir says they are both mistaken. neither can find the only Ram. One kills the goat, the other cows. They waste their lives in disputation.
(a) The above excerpt is taken from :
(i) Representations of 1857
(ii) A history of Buddhism : Sanchi Stupa
(iii) New Architecture : Hampi
(iv) Religious Histories : The Bhakti–Sufi Traditions
(b) What were the arguments given by Kabir against the lords of the word of different communities ?
(i) Kabir used monotheism
(ii) Kabir used iconoclasm
(iii) Kabir said God is one
(iv) All of the above
(c) Kabir described the ‘ultimate Reality’ by drawing the ranges of traditions such as from :
(iv) None of the above
(d) Do you agree with Kabir ?
(iii) May be
(iv) May be not
Q.20. Explain the sources used by Historians to reconstruct the History of the Mauryan Empire. (3 Mark)
Ans. Sources to reconstruct the History of Mauryan Empire:
(i) Archaeological finds -sculptures, coins, rock edicts.
(ii) Accounts of Megasthenes.
(iii) Arthashastra composed by Kautilya.
(iv) Buddhist, Jaina, Puranic literature and Sanskrit literary works.
(v) Accounts of Chinese travellers.
(vi) Inscriptions of Ashoka.
Q.21. Mention any two reasons for the failure of Cripps Mission in India in 1942. (3 Mark)
Ans. In 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps, was sent to India to try and compromise with Gandhiji and the Congress.
(i) It did not work out, since Congress insisted that if it was to help the British defend India from the Axis Powers during the Second World War, then the Viceroy had to appoint an Indian as the Defence Minister of the Executive Council.
(ii) The British Government refused to accept the demand for immediate transfer of effective power to Indian. it would also mean respectability to autocracy and widening of the gulf between British India and Princely States. It was a great setback for the democratic force such as All India State People.
Q.22. Examine why were religious divisions between the Hindus and the Muslims hardly noticeable during the uprising of 1857. (3 Mark)
Ans. The religious divisions were hardly noticeable during the uprising :
(i) The 1857 rebellion was seen as war in which both Hindus and Muslims equally to lose or gain.
(ii) The proclamations appealed to all sections of people irrespective of their caste or creed.
(iii) The proclamations issued by the Muslim Princes or in their names addressed the Hindu sentiments.
(iv) The Ishtahars harked back to pre-British days when Hindu-Muslim unity and coexistence was glorified.
(v) The proclamations issued in the name of Bahadur Shah appealed both to the people to join the fight under the standard of both Mahavir and Mohammad.
(vi) The British tried to create a rift among them but failed.
(vii) The religious divisions were hardly noticeable during the uprising.
Q.23. Examine the views of Mahatma Gandhi on the question of a `National Language of the Country'. (3 Mark)
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi felt that Hindustani was a language that the common people could be easily understood. Hindustani, which was a blend of Hindi and Urdu, was popular among a large section of the people. Moreover, it was a composite Language enriched by the interaction of diverse cultures. Over the years, words and terms from many different sources had been incorporated into this language making it easily understood by people from various regions. According to Mahatma Gandhi, Hindustani would be the ideal language of communication between diverse communicates. It would help to unify the Hindus and the Muslims and the people from north and south.
Q.24. “Be lamps unto yourselves as all of you must work out your own liberation “. In light of this statement explain the teachings of Buddhism.
Ans. Teachings of Buddha:
(i) Buddha’s teachings are reconstructed from stories.
(ii) These stories are found in ‘Sutta Pitaka’.
(iii) They describe his miraculous powers.
(iv) They let us about how Buddha tried to convince people through reason and persuasion rather than through supernatural powers.
(v) He convinced a woman who was in grief over the death of a child about the variable nature of death and did not advice her to bring back her son to life.
(vi) He spoke in a simple language which common people could understand.
(vii) He said, World is transient (Anicca) and constantly changing.
(viii) It is soulless and there is nothing permanent about the world.
(ix) By following the path of moderation, human beings can rise above these worldly troubles.
(x) Existence of God is irrelevant to Buddhism.
(xi) Buddha considered social world as the creation of humans rather than divine origin.
(xii) He advocated that people should follow ethics and be humane.
(xiii) He believed that individual effort can change social relations.
(xiv) Individual agency and righteous action as the means to escape from the cycle of rebirth.
Explain the most important idea of Jainism and its impact on Indian thinking. (2+6)
Ans. Most important idea of Jainism:
(i) The entire world is animated and hence Ahimsa is emphasized.
(ii) Non injury to living beings.
Impact on Indian thinking:
(i) Idea of Ahimsa left its mark on Indian thinking as a whole- Influenced Bhuddha and Gandhiji.
(ii) Cycle of birth and rebirth through karma.
(iii) Renouncing the world to free oneself from the cycle of karma.
(iv) High moral thinking was advised through the vows like not stealing, killing, lying or possessing property and observing celibacy.
(v) Simple way of life.
Q.25. Explain the role played by women of the Imperial Household in the Mughal Empire.
Ans. (i) The women in the Imperial Household wives were distinguished based on heir birth status as Begams (Royal family) and Aghas (other wives). Begams have higher status and get more attention from their husband compared to Aghas.
(ii) The Aghacha (concubines) was positioned las in the hierarchy of females intimately related to royalty. They were provided with monthly allowances according to their status
(iii) Depending on the husband’s will the Agha and Aghacha can rise to the position of Begam.
(iv) Numerous female slaves were there in the Mughal household apart from the wives.
One important pillar of the Mughal Administration was the Nobility. Justify. (8 Mark)
Ans. One of the most important pillars of the Mughal State was its Corpus of Officers, also called the Nobility.
(i) The Nobility was recruited from the diverse ethnic and religious groups which ensured that no group was large enough to challenge the authority of the State.
(ii) The corps of the Mughals was described as a bouquet of flowers held together by loyalty to the Emperor.
(iii) Iranian and Turani Nobles were there in Akbar ’s Imperial Service from the earlier period.
(iv) Many had accompanied Humayun and others had migrated later to the Mughal Court
(v) Two ruling Indian origin groups entered the Imperial Service from 1550 onwards namely the Rajputs and the Indian Muslims.
(vi) Iranians joined high offices during Jahangir as his politically influential Queen Nur Jahan was an Iranian.
(vii) Aurangzeb appointed Rajputs to high positions and under him the Marathas accounts to sizeable number within the body of Officers.
(viii) The Nobles participated in Military Campaigns and also served as Officers of the Empire in provinces.
Q.26. ‘Gandhiji made the British desperately anxious. Explain the statement in the context of Salt March of 1930.
Ans. In the wake of the Salt Law March, nearly 60,000 Indians were arrested, among them, of course, Gandhiji himself. The progress of Gandhi’s March to the seashore can be traced from the secret reports filed by the Police Officials deputed to monitor his Movement. Gandhiji persuaded the citizens to stand united. The police spies reported that Gandhi’s meeting were very well attended, by villagers of all castes. They observed thousands of volunteers flocking to the nationalist cause. Among them were many Officials, who had resigned from their posts with the Colonial Government.
The progress of the Salt March can be also be traced from another source : the American Hews maganize, ‘Time’. Earlier it despised Gandhi’s looks, writing disdainfully, of his “spindly frame” and his “spidery loins”. Thus in its first report, Time was deeply sceptical of the Salt March reaching its destination. It claimed that Gandhiji’s “sank to the ground” at the end of second days ‘walking, the magazine did not believe that “the emaciated Saint would be physically able to go much further”.
The Salt March gained the World’s attention. The March was widely covered by the Europe and American Press. It was the first nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers. The Socialist activist Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay had persuaded Gandhiji not to restrict the protests to men alone. Kamaladevi was herself one of numerous women who courted arrest by breaking the Salt or Liquor laws. The March made the British realize that their dominance would not last forever and that they would have to develop some power to the Indians.
In this way American news magazine analyzed the Salt Satyagraha and role of Gandhiji during the Movement.
‘Quit India Movement’ was genuinely a Mass Movement bringing into its ambit hundreds of thousands of ordinary Indians.” Analyse the statement. (8 Mark)
Ans. Quit India Movement was a Mass Movement bringing into its ambit hundreds of thousands of ordinary Indians:
(i) ‘The Quit India Movement’ was lunched in August 1942 by Gandhiji.
(ii) The slogan was ‘Do or Die’ and ‘British leave India’.
(iii) It was the Third Major Movement against British Rule.
(iv) Gandhiji was jailed.
(v) Strikes and acts of sabotage were organized all over the Country.
(vi) Jayaprakash Narayan organized resistance.
(vii) Independent Governments were set up at Satara and Medinapur.
(viii) The British suppressed the Movement with force.
(ix) It took more than a year to suppress the Movement.
(x) Thousands of Indians joined the Mass Movement.
(xi) Large number of Students left their Colleges to go to jail.
(xii) Congress leaders were sent to jail.
(xiii) Jinnah expanded his influence over Muslims in Punjab and Sind.
(xiv) In 1944, Gandhiji was released from prison.
(xv) Congress started negotiations with the League.
Q.27. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:
The Harshacharita is a biography of Harshavardhana, the ruler of Kannauj, composed in Sanskrit by his court poet; Banabhatta (C Seventh century CE). This is an excerpt from the text, an extremely rare representation of life in a settlement on the outskirts of a forest in the Vindhyas.
The outskirts being for the most part forest, many parcels of rice-land, threshing ground and arable land were being apportioned by small farmers. It was mainly spade culture….Owing to difficulty of ploughing the sparsely scattered fields covered with grass, with their few clear spaces, their black soil stiff as black iron….
There were people moving along with bundles of bark…. Countless sacks of plucked flowers, loads of falx and hemp bundles, quantities of honey, peacock tail feathers, wreaths of wax, logs, and grass. Village wives hastened on route for neighbouring villages, all intent on thoughts of sale and bearing on their heads baskets filled with various fruits gathered from forest.
1. Who was the author of Harshacharita? What was his designation? (1 Mark)
2. Describe the outskirts of a forest in the Vidhyas. (2 Mark)
3. Describe the activities of the people of that area. (2 Mark)
1. Harshacharita was composed by Banabhatta, the court poet of Harshavardhana.
2. The outskirts of a forest in the Vindhyas had many parcels of rice land, threshing ground and cultivable land owned by small farmers. The fields were less covered with grass and were difficult to plough. So the farmers mostly used spades to cultivate the stiff black soil.
3. The people of that area were moving along with the bundles of bark, countless sacks of plucked flowers, loads of flax and hemp bundles. They were also carrying quantities of honey, peacock feathers, wreaths of wax, logs and grass. They also plucked flowers and fruits from the forest.
Q.28. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow: 1+2+2=5
The following is an excerpt from Jahanara’s biography of Shaikh Muinuddin Chishti,titled Munis al Arwah (The Confidant of Spirits): After praising the one God … this lowly faqira (humble soul) Jahanara ... went from the capital Agra in the company of my great father (Emperor Shah Jahan) towards the pure region of incomparable Ajmer … I was committed to this idea, that every day in every station I would perform two cycles of optional prayer … For several days ... I did not sleep on a leopard skin at night, I did not extend my feet in the direction of the blessed sanctuary of the revered saving master, and I did not turn my back towards him. I passed the days beneath the trees.
On Thursday, the fourth of the blessed month of Ramzan, I attained the happiness of pilgrimage to the illuminated and the perfumed tomb … With an hour of daylight remaining, I went to the holy sanctuary and rubbed my pale face with the dust of that threshold. From the doorway to the blessed tomb I went barefoot, kissing the ground. Having entered the dome, I went around the light-filled tomb of my master seven times.
…. Finally, with my own hand I put the finest quality of itar on the perfumed tomb of the revered one, and having taken off the rose scarf that I had on my head, I placed it on the top of the blessed tomb …
1. Do you know of another instance, when the Dargah was patronised by royal visitors?
2. Evaluate the concept of ziyarat, in the context of the source.
3. Classify the ways by which the devotees, showed their reverence, at the Dargah.
Ans. 1. The rulers ,who patronised the Dargah;
(i) Muhammad bin Tughlaq , Sultan Ghiyasuddin Khalji of Malwa,Akbar
2. The concept of Ziyarat,in context to the source:
(i) Pilgrimage to tombs of sufi saints.
(ii) Seeking the sufi’s spiritual grace (barakat).
(iii) People of various creeds, classes and social backgrounds have expressed their devotion at the Dargahs (any two points)
3. The devotees showed their reverence at the Dargah by :
(i) Reciting the zikr.
(ii) Evoking His Presence through Sama.
(iii) Mystical chants performed by specially trained Musicians or Qawwals to evoke Divine Ecstasy.
Q.29. Read the passage below and answer the question that follow : 1 + 2 + 2 = 5
Born in 1754, Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815, he was appointed as the first Surveyor General of India, a post that he held till his death in 1821. He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier. He says that “It struggled long under the miseries of bad management...before the south came under the benign influence of the British Government.” By studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain “much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various tribes of natives forming the general population to this day.”
1. Who was Colin Mackenzie? Give his introduction.
2. Mention what Mackenzie did to make governance of the colony easier.
3. According to him, what benefits would the East India Company gain after studying Vijayanagara? Explain in brief.
1. Colin Mackenzie was an Engineer, Surveyor and a Cartographer. He was an employee of the East India Company. He prepared the first Survey of the Hampi. His source of information about the city was based on memories of the Priests of Virupaksha temple and the Shrine of Pampadevi.
2. He recorded the tales of local histories and surveyed sites to get better understanding of past. It helped to make governance of the colony easier.
3. He felt the East India Company could gain useful information on many of these Institutions, Laws and Customs which still influenced the various tribes of natives formed. These natives form the general mass of population. It could help the East India Company to rule the country better.
Q.30. 1. On the given political outline map of India locate & label the following
(a) Taxila or Mathura (1 Mark)
(b) Magadha or Puhar (1 Mark)
(c) Avanti (1 Mark)
2. On the same map three sites of Harappan Civilization, where evidence of agriculture has been recovered are marked as 1 and 2. Identify them and write correct. (2 Mark)
Ans. (1) and (2)