Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev

UPSC Civil Services Revision & Mock Tests

UPSC : Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course UPSC Civil Services Revision & Mock Tests.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC

Rice: Grows best in warm, humid areas; it covers 23 per cent of total cropped area. Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and Punjab grow rice. Productivity of rice is highest in Punjab.

  • Varieties: IR-8, Jaya, Padma, Hansa, Sabarmati, IET 1444, IET 26, N-22 etc.

Wheat: Ranking after rice in terms of both area (nearly 1/10th of total cropped area) and production, it is grown mainly in the great plains during cool season.

  • It is also grown in dry areas with the help of irrigation. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar are major producers.
  • Varieties: Sonalika, Kalyan sona, Sherbati. K 65, HP 1102, PV18, WG 377, Arjun, Pratap etc.

Jowar: This crop requires moderate rainfall of 30-100 cm and high temperature 20° to 32°C. Excessive moisture and prolonged droughts are harmful.

  • The leading jowar producing states are-Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Varieties: GSH-1 to CSH-8, CSV-1 to CSV-7.

Bajra: Used as staple food; plant stalks are fed to cattle or used for thatching purposes. It is grown under warm and dry climatic conditions.

  • Annual rainfall required is about 45 cm and temperature between 25° and 30°C. Chief producers are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Haryana.
  • Varieties: CO1, K1, X-3, Babapuri, T-55, S-28, Pusa, Moti, HB-3, HB-4 etc.

Maize: Introduced in India in the 17th century from America, it is an important  food crop and also fodder for the cattle.

  • Though produced widely in the country, highest concentration is found in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Varieties: Ganga-1, Ganga-101, Protima, Himalayan 123, Vijay, Visan etc.

Some Equal Value Lines

1. ISOPLETH

Line indicating an uniform value of phenomenon or product

2. ISONOMAL

Any line representating continuous value on Maps.

3. ISOBARS

Lines of equal pressure.

4. ISOBATHS

Lines of equal depth in the sea.

5. ISOBRONTS

Lines joining the places experiencing a thunderstorm at the same time.

6. ISOCHRONES

Lines joining places located at equal travel time from a common centre.

7. ISOGONOLS

Lines joining places in the sea having same salinity.

8. ISOHALINES

Lines joining places in the sea having same salinity.

9. ISOHELS

Lines joining places with equal duration of sunshine.

10.ISOHYETS

Lines joining places with equal rainfall.

11. ISOHYPES

Lines joining places with equal elevation above sea level.

12. ISONIF

Lines joining places having equal amount of snowfall.

13. ISOPHENE

Lines joining places having same seasonal phenomenon.

14. ISORYMES

Lines joining places with equal amount of frost.

15. ISOSEISMALS

Lines joining places with equal amounts of seismic activity.

16.ISONEPHS

Lines on a map joining places having equal average cloudiness over a certain period.

1 7 . ISOTHERM

Line on a map joining places that have the same temperature.

18.ISANOMALOUS

Line on a map joining places having equal departures from normal in some meteorological element.

19. ISALLABAR

Line drawn on weather chart through places at which the same change of pressure has taken place.

20.ISOSTACY

Principle according to which the variation in the height of the earth's surface are compensated for by the underlying distribution of Mass and hence are in a state of balance.

 

Barley: An important crop grown in wheat producing areas in poor soil and low rainfall. Major producers are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar & Madhya Pradesh.

  • Varieties: C 164, Kailash, BR-32, K-24, Jyoti, RDB-1, Clipper etc.
  • Pulses: Provides protein and, being a leguminous crop, fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.
  • India ranks first in the production of pulses but production is inadequate to meet needs.
  • Gram requires a mild cool weather and moderate rainfall 31-51 cm.
  • Mostly produced in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab. Other pulses are tur, black gram, lentil (masur). Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and M.P. are producers of pulses.

Sugarcane: India has the world’s largest area under sugar-cane. This is a long maturing crop sown usually between February and April.

  • Harvesting begins in October-November. The crop is best suited to tropical regions with 100-50 cm of rainfall.
  • Important producers are Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Punjab, West Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat and Orissa.
  • Important Varieties: CO. 527, CO. 997, BO-34, BO-47. High sucrose content varieties are the COJ-64, COC-671.

Cotton: Cotton fibre is obtained from the fruit balls of the plant. India ranks second after U.S.A. in areas under cotton.

  • The concentration of crops occurs in the areas with 50-80 cm of rainfall and temperatures between 20° and 35°C.
  • The important producers of cotton are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Haryana.
  • Varieties: MCU-5, Hybrid-4, long staple Varalaxmi, Siyata, J-205, K-8 etc.

 

Ranges 

                                          

Altitude

1. Siwaliks

 

 

 

 

Jammu-Jammu Hills

Average height varies from 600m to 1500m

 

 

 

Arunachal pradesh-Dafla,

Miri and Mishmi Hills,

Nepal-Dhang Range

2. Himachal

 

 

Pir Panjal Range

Average height 4000m

 

 

Dhauladhar Range

3. Himadri

 

 

J&K-Zanskar Range,

Peak-Everest, Kanchenjunga,

Nanga Parbat, Makalu

 

above 6100m,

 

Jute: Jute fibre is obtained from the stalk or stem of the plant. Jute needs a warm humid climate.

  • The rich delta and alluvial soils are most suitable. The important jute producing states are West Bengal (largest producer of jute), Bihar, Assam, Tripura and Orissa.
  • Jute is the highest foreign exchange-earning crop in India.
  • Varieties: JRC 321, JRC 212, Shyamali, D-154, JRO 632, TD-5.

Tobacco: Introduced in India by the Portuguese in 1508, major producers of the plant now are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

  • The two popular varieties of tobacco are—Nicotina Tobacum and Nicotina Rustics.
  • Varieties: Virginia Gold, Keliw 49, DR-3, Harrison special, OL-10 etc.

Tea: India is the world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of black tea.

  • The country’s 98 per cent of tea production comes from Assam, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu where it is grown in the Nilgiris.
  • Varieties: Chinese (bohea), Assamese (Assamica)

Coffee: The coffee plant needs protection from the direct sun rays. Normally cultivated 900-1800 metres above sea level, coffee cultivation is mainly confined to the three southern states of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

  • Varieties: S 288, S 947.

 

Deep Sea Trenches

Name

Deepest point

Mariana Tench (West Pacific)

Challenger Deep

Tonga-Kermadec Trench (South Pacific)

Vityaz 11 (Tonga)

Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (West Pacific)

 ___

Philippine Trench (West Pacific)

 Galathea Deep

Idzu-Bonin Trench (Sometimes included in the Japan Trench)

 ____

New Hebrides Trench (South Pacific) North Trench Solomon or New

 

Britain Trench (South Pacific)

 

Puerto Rico Trench (West Atlantic)

Milwaukee Deep

 

 

 

Yap Trench (West Pacific)

Japan Trench (West Pacific)

South Sandwich Trench (South Atlantic)

 Meteor Deep

Aleutian Trench (North Pacific)

 ____

Peru-Chile (Atacama)

Trench (East Pacific)

 Bartholomew Deep

 

 

Palau Trench (sometimes included in the Yap Trench)

 

Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev
Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev
Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev

Coconut: India has the third largest area under coconut in the world after Philippines and Indonesia.

  • Cultivation is mostly confined to the coastal areas. Kerala is the largest coconut producing state in India, followed by Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

Rubber: Rubber requires high temperatures of around 35°C and more than 200 cm of rainfall.

  • Kerala is the largest producer of rubber in India (90%) followed by Tamil Nadu.

Spices: There are a variety of spices in India.

  • Chillies: It requires 60-125 cm of rainfall and a temperature range of 10-30°C. Produced mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Rajasthan.
  • Black pepper is the largest foreign exchange earner among Indian spices. Indian black pepper accounts for 20 per cent of world production and 80 per cent of it is exported. 
  • Almost the entire black pepper production in the country is in Kerala, the ‘Spice State of India’.

Tribal Groups

There are more than 50 tribal groups in India. Mostof the tribes belong basically to the Negrito, Australoid and Mongoloid racial stock. Important tribal groups:

Abors

Arunachal Pradesh

Aptanis

Arunachal Pradesh

Badagas

Nilgiri (TN)

Baiga

Madhya Pradesh

Bhils

Madhya Pradesh and Rajsthan

some in Gujarat and Maharashtra

Bhot

Himachal Pradesh

Bhotias

Garhwal and Kumaon regions of U.P.

Chakma

Tripura

Chenchus

Andhra Pradesh, Orissa

Gaddis

Himachal Pradesh

Garos

Meghalaya

Gonds

Madhya Pradesh. Also in Bihar, Orissa and A.P.

Gujjars

Himachal Pradesh

Jarawas

Little Andamans

Khas

Jaunsar-Babar area in U.P.

Khasis

Assam, Meghalaya

Khonds

Orissa

Kol

Madhya Pradesh

Kotas

Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)

Kuke

Manipur

Lepchas

Sikkim

Lushais

Mizoram

Murias

Bastar (Madhya Pradesh)

Mikirs

Assam

Mundas

Bihar, Orissa, W.B.

Nagas (Angami, Sema, Ao, Tangkul, Lahora) Oarons (also called Kurukh); Bihar, Orissa, W.B.

 

Nagaland; some in Assam and NEFA region.

Onges

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Santhals

Birbhum region in Bengal, Hazari bagh,

Purnea in Bihar, Orissa Sentinelese

Sentinel Island, Andaman and Nicobar

Shompens

Andaman and Nicobar

Todas

Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)

Urails

Kerala

Warlis

Maharashtra

 

 

Tribes in India

State

Tribes

1. Orissa

Ganjam, Khond, Bondo, Juang, Saora, Kharia, Bhuiya, Baijga, Chenchu.

2. Kerala

Kadar, Pallan Izhara, Urali

3. Andhra Pradesh

Chechu, Jatap, Koya, Saver

4. Tamil Nadu

Kota, Badaga

5. Sikkim

Lecha

6. Madhya Pradesh

Kamar, Badga, Toda, Bhil, Muria, Baiga, Birhar, Cole

7. Rajasthan

Ghantali, Bhil, Meena

8. Punjab

Sansi

9. Bihar

Ho, Kharia, Kolham, Munda, Santhal, Oraon, Santa, Bagdi

10.Arunachal Pradesh

 Apatami

11.Himachal Pradesh

 Gaddi

12. Mizoram

Hmar

13. Assam

Mikir, Kuki, Naga, Garo, Khasi Jainia, Abhor, Karbi, Bodo

14. West Bengal

Mech, Bhutia, Chakma, Lodha, Santhal, Lecha.

15. Nagaland

Naga

16. Karnataka

Idga

17. Meghalaya

Jaintia, Khasi, Garo

18. Andaman and

Oung, Shopen, Andmani, Jarwah, Nicrobari, Sentinelli Nicobar

19. Tripura

Lushai, Kuki

20. Maharashtra

Warli, Oraon

21. Manipur

Matei, Kuki, Angami Naga, Lushai.

Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Complete Syllabus of UPSC

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

Exam

,

practice quizzes

,

Objective type Questions

,

Semester Notes

,

Extra Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

ppt

,

Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

Summary

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

MCQs

,

Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

study material

,

Important questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

Sample Paper

,

Important Crops UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

Viva Questions

,

pdf

,

past year papers

,

Free

,

video lectures

;