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Important Crops | Geography for UPSC CSE PDF Download

Rice: Grows best in warm, humid areas; it covers 23 per cent of total cropped area. Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and Punjab grow rice. Productivity of rice is highest in Punjab.

  • Varieties: IR-8, Jaya, Padma, Hansa, Sabarmati, IET 1444, IET 26, N-22 etc.

Wheat: Ranking after rice in terms of both area (nearly 1/10th of total cropped area) and production, it is grown mainly in the great plains during cool season.

  • It is also grown in dry areas with the help of irrigation. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar are major producers.
  • Varieties: Sonalika, Kalyan sona, Sherbati. K 65, HP 1102, PV18, WG 377, Arjun, Pratap etc.

Jowar: This crop requires moderate rainfall of 30-100 cm and high temperature 20° to 32°C. Excessive moisture and prolonged droughts are harmful.

  • The leading jowar producing states are-Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Varieties: GSH-1 to CSH-8, CSV-1 to CSV-7.

Bajra: Used as staple food; plant stalks are fed to cattle or used for thatching purposes. It is grown under warm and dry climatic conditions.

  • Annual rainfall required is about 45 cm and temperature between 25° and 30°C. Chief producers are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Haryana.
  • Varieties: CO1, K1, X-3, Babapuri, T-55, S-28, Pusa, Moti, HB-3, HB-4 etc.

Maize: Introduced in India in the 17th century from America, it is an important  food crop and also fodder for the cattle.

  • Though produced widely in the country, highest concentration is found in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Varieties: Ganga-1, Ganga-101, Protima, Himalayan 123, Vijay, Visan etc.

Some Equal Value Lines


Line indicating an uniform value of phenomenon or product


Any line representating continuous value on Maps.


Lines of equal pressure.


Lines of equal depth in the sea.


Lines joining the places experiencing a thunderstorm at the same time.


Lines joining places located at equal travel time from a common centre.


Lines joining places in the sea having same salinity.


Lines joining places in the sea having same salinity.


Lines joining places with equal duration of sunshine.


Lines joining places with equal rainfall.


Lines joining places with equal elevation above sea level.


Lines joining places having equal amount of snowfall.


Lines joining places having same seasonal phenomenon.


Lines joining places with equal amount of frost.


Lines joining places with equal amounts of seismic activity.


Lines on a map joining places having equal average cloudiness over a certain period.


Line on a map joining places that have the same temperature.


Line on a map joining places having equal departures from normal in some meteorological element.


Line drawn on weather chart through places at which the same change of pressure has taken place.


Principle according to which the variation in the height of the earth's surface are compensated for by the underlying distribution of Mass and hence are in a state of balance.


Barley: An important crop grown in wheat producing areas in poor soil and low rainfall. Major producers are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar & Madhya Pradesh.

  • Varieties: C 164, Kailash, BR-32, K-24, Jyoti, RDB-1, Clipper etc.
  • Pulses: Provides protein and, being a leguminous crop, fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.
  • India ranks first in the production of pulses but production is inadequate to meet needs.
  • Gram requires a mild cool weather and moderate rainfall 31-51 cm.
  • Mostly produced in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab. Other pulses are tur, black gram, lentil (masur). Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and M.P. are producers of pulses.

Sugarcane: India has the world’s largest area under sugar-cane. This is a long maturing crop sown usually between February and April.

  • Harvesting begins in October-November. The crop is best suited to tropical regions with 100-50 cm of rainfall.
  • Important producers are Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Punjab, West Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat and Orissa.
  • Important Varieties: CO. 527, CO. 997, BO-34, BO-47. High sucrose content varieties are the COJ-64, COC-671.

Cotton: Cotton fibre is obtained from the fruit balls of the plant. India ranks second after U.S.A. in areas under cotton.

  • The concentration of crops occurs in the areas with 50-80 cm of rainfall and temperatures between 20° and 35°C.
  • The important producers of cotton are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Haryana.
  • Varieties: MCU-5, Hybrid-4, long staple Varalaxmi, Siyata, J-205, K-8 etc.





1. Siwaliks





Jammu-Jammu Hills

Average height varies from 600m to 1500m




Arunachal pradesh-Dafla,

Miri and Mishmi Hills,

Nepal-Dhang Range

2. Himachal



Pir Panjal Range

Average height 4000m



Dhauladhar Range

3. Himadri



J&K-Zanskar Range,

Peak-Everest, Kanchenjunga,

Nanga Parbat, Makalu


above 6100m,


Jute: Jute fibre is obtained from the stalk or stem of the plant. Jute needs a warm humid climate.

  • The rich delta and alluvial soils are most suitable. The important jute producing states are West Bengal (largest producer of jute), Bihar, Assam, Tripura and Orissa.
  • Jute is the highest foreign exchange-earning crop in India.
  • Varieties: JRC 321, JRC 212, Shyamali, D-154, JRO 632, TD-5.

Tobacco: Introduced in India by the Portuguese in 1508, major producers of the plant now are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

  • The two popular varieties of tobacco are—Nicotina Tobacum and Nicotina Rustics.
  • Varieties: Virginia Gold, Keliw 49, DR-3, Harrison special, OL-10 etc.

Tea: India is the world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of black tea.

  • The country’s 98 per cent of tea production comes from Assam, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu where it is grown in the Nilgiris.
  • Varieties: Chinese (bohea), Assamese (Assamica)

Coffee: The coffee plant needs protection from the direct sun rays. Normally cultivated 900-1800 metres above sea level, coffee cultivation is mainly confined to the three southern states of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

  • Varieties: S 288, S 947.


Deep Sea Trenches


Deepest point

Mariana Tench (West Pacific)

Challenger Deep

Tonga-Kermadec Trench (South Pacific)

Vityaz 11 (Tonga)

Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (West Pacific)


Philippine Trench (West Pacific)

 Galathea Deep

Idzu-Bonin Trench (Sometimes included in the Japan Trench)


New Hebrides Trench (South Pacific) North Trench Solomon or New


Britain Trench (South Pacific)


Puerto Rico Trench (West Atlantic)

Milwaukee Deep




Yap Trench (West Pacific)

Japan Trench (West Pacific)

South Sandwich Trench (South Atlantic)

 Meteor Deep

Aleutian Trench (North Pacific)


Peru-Chile (Atacama)

Trench (East Pacific)

 Bartholomew Deep



Palau Trench (sometimes included in the Yap Trench)


Important Crops | Geography for UPSC CSE
Important Crops | Geography for UPSC CSE
Important Crops | Geography for UPSC CSE

Coconut: India has the third largest area under coconut in the world after Philippines and Indonesia.

  • Cultivation is mostly confined to the coastal areas. Kerala is the largest coconut producing state in India, followed by Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

Rubber: Rubber requires high temperatures of around 35°C and more than 200 cm of rainfall.

  • Kerala is the largest producer of rubber in India (90%) followed by Tamil Nadu.

Spices: There are a variety of spices in India.

  • Chillies: It requires 60-125 cm of rainfall and a temperature range of 10-30°C. Produced mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Rajasthan.
  • Black pepper is the largest foreign exchange earner among Indian spices. Indian black pepper accounts for 20 per cent of world production and 80 per cent of it is exported. 
  • Almost the entire black pepper production in the country is in Kerala, the ‘Spice State of India’.

Tribal Groups

There are more than 50 tribal groups in India. Mostof the tribes belong basically to the Negrito, Australoid and Mongoloid racial stock. Important tribal groups:


Arunachal Pradesh


Arunachal Pradesh


Nilgiri (TN)


Madhya Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh and Rajsthan

some in Gujarat and Maharashtra


Himachal Pradesh


Garhwal and Kumaon regions of U.P.




Andhra Pradesh, Orissa


Himachal Pradesh




Madhya Pradesh. Also in Bihar, Orissa and A.P.


Himachal Pradesh


Little Andamans


Jaunsar-Babar area in U.P.


Assam, Meghalaya




Madhya Pradesh


Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)








Bastar (Madhya Pradesh)




Bihar, Orissa, W.B.

Nagas (Angami, Sema, Ao, Tangkul, Lahora) Oarons (also called Kurukh); Bihar, Orissa, W.B.


Nagaland; some in Assam and NEFA region.


Andaman and Nicobar Islands


Birbhum region in Bengal, Hazari bagh,

Purnea in Bihar, Orissa Sentinelese

Sentinel Island, Andaman and Nicobar


Andaman and Nicobar


Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)







Tribes in India



1. Orissa

Ganjam, Khond, Bondo, Juang, Saora, Kharia, Bhuiya, Baijga, Chenchu.

2. Kerala

Kadar, Pallan Izhara, Urali

3. Andhra Pradesh

Chechu, Jatap, Koya, Saver

4. Tamil Nadu

Kota, Badaga

5. Sikkim


6. Madhya Pradesh

Kamar, Badga, Toda, Bhil, Muria, Baiga, Birhar, Cole

7. Rajasthan

Ghantali, Bhil, Meena

8. Punjab


9. Bihar

Ho, Kharia, Kolham, Munda, Santhal, Oraon, Santa, Bagdi

10.Arunachal Pradesh


11.Himachal Pradesh


12. Mizoram


13. Assam

Mikir, Kuki, Naga, Garo, Khasi Jainia, Abhor, Karbi, Bodo

14. West Bengal

Mech, Bhutia, Chakma, Lodha, Santhal, Lecha.

15. Nagaland


16. Karnataka


17. Meghalaya

Jaintia, Khasi, Garo

18. Andaman and

Oung, Shopen, Andmani, Jarwah, Nicrobari, Sentinelli Nicobar

19. Tripura

Lushai, Kuki

20. Maharashtra

Warli, Oraon

21. Manipur

Matei, Kuki, Angami Naga, Lushai.

The document Important Crops | Geography for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course Geography for UPSC CSE.
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FAQs on Important Crops - Geography for UPSC CSE

1. What are some important crops in agriculture?
Ans. Some important crops in agriculture include wheat, rice, corn, soybeans, and cotton. These crops are widely cultivated and contribute significantly to global food production and economic growth.
2. How are important crops selected?
Ans. The selection of important crops is based on various factors such as their nutritional value, yield potential, adaptability to different climatic conditions, market demand, and economic viability. Additionally, crops that are resistant to diseases and pests are often given preference.
3. What are the economic benefits of cultivating important crops?
Ans. Cultivating important crops brings several economic benefits. These crops create employment opportunities, contribute to GDP growth, generate income for farmers, and support various industries such as food processing, textile, and biofuel. The export of important crops also brings foreign exchange earnings to a country.
4. Are there any challenges in cultivating important crops?
Ans. Yes, there are challenges in cultivating important crops. These challenges include climate change, pest and disease outbreaks, water scarcity, land degradation, and market fluctuations. Farmers and agricultural researchers constantly work towards developing and implementing sustainable practices to overcome these challenges.
5. How can the cultivation of important crops be improved?
Ans. The cultivation of important crops can be improved through various measures. These include using improved seeds and technologies, adopting precision farming techniques, practicing integrated pest management, promoting efficient irrigation systems, providing timely agricultural education and training to farmers, and supporting research and development in the agricultural sector.
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