What is Matter?
- Anything which occupies space and has mass is called matter.
- The matter is made up of small particles, which may be molecules, atoms or ions.
- The matter commonly exists in three states, i.e., solids, liquids and gases.
Examples of Matter
Characteristics of Particles of Matter
- The particles of matter are always in a state of motion and hence possess kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is minimum in solids, intermediate in liquids and maximum in gases.
- The particles of matter attract each other with a force called intermolecular force, which is maximum in the case of solids, less in the case of liquids, and least in the case of gases.
- The spaces in between the particles of matter are called intermolecular spaces. They are least in case of solids, more in case of liquids and maximum in case of gases.
- The lesser the inter-molecular spaces between the molecules, the more are the intermolecular forces.
Try yourself:A few substances are arranged in the increasing order of ‘forces of attraction’ between their particles. Which one of the following represents a correct arrangement?
The correct order of increasing 'force of attraction' between their particles is Oxygen < Water < Sugar. It is because the force of attraction increases in the order i.e., Gas < Liquid < Solid.
States of Matter
- In the case of solids, the intermolecular spaces and the kinetic energy of the molecules are the least, but the intermolecular forces are maximum.
- In the case of liquids, the intermolecular spaces and the kinetic energy of the molecules are more than that in the solids, but the intermolecular forces are less than that in solids.
- In the case of gases, the intermolecular spaces and the kinetic energy of the molecules are maximum, by the intermolecular forces are minimum.
- The arrangement of particles is most ordered in the case of solids, in the case of liquids layers of particles can slip and slide over each other while for gases, there is no order, particles just move about randomly.
Change in States of Matter
- The states of matter are interconvertible and can be changed by changing the temperature and pressure.
- Sublimation is the change of state from solid to gas, without going through the liquid state on heating and vice versa.
- Fusion or melting is the change of state from solid to liquid and the temperature at which it takes place is called the melting point.
- Vaporization or boiling is the change of state from liquid to gas and the temperature at which it takes place, is called the boiling point.
- Boiling is a bulk phenomenon. Particles from the bulk (whole) of the liquid change into a vapour state.
- Evaporation is a surface phenomenon. Particles from the surface gain enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction present in the liquid and change into the vapour state.
- The rate of evaporation depends upon the surface area exposed to the atmosphere, the temperature, the humidity and the wind speed.
- Evaporation causes cooling.
Try yourself:Which of the following phenomena always results in the cooling effect?
Evaporation is the surface phenomenon in which liquid molecules of high kinetic energy evaporate quickly from the surface of the liquid. Due to which the molecules of less kinetic energy remain in the solution and the temperature of the liquid decreases. Hence, it cools down. This phenomenon is known as evaporative cooling.
- Latent heat of vaporisation is the heat energy required to change 1 kg of a liquid to gas at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point.
- Latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at its melting point.
- Density: The mass of a substance per unit of volume i.e. density = mass/volume.
SI unit of density is kg m-3
- Volume: All solids occupy a fixed volume. The shape occupied by a substance is called volume.
- The unit of volume is m3 (cubic meter). The common unit of volume is L (litre).
1m3 = 1000 dm3 = 1000 L
1 L = 1 dm3
1 L = 1000 ml = 1000 cm3