Ques 1: Who did move the crucial ‘Objectives Resolution’?
Ans: The Crucial Resolution was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Ques 2: Why was the new constitution of Independent India introduced on 26 January 1950?
Ans: Because it was the 20th anniversary of the historical day on which the Congress had declared Complete Independence as its final goal.
Ques 3: Which were the two main dissents of the Indian Constitution?
Ans: i) Its being written primarily in English.
ii) Requirement of no educational qualification for any of the post enshrined in it.
Ques 4: When was the Drafting Committee formed? Who was its chairman?
Ans: The Drafting Committee was formed on 29 August 1947. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was it’s chairman.
Ques 5: When and under which scheme the Constituent Assembly was formed?
Ans: The Constituent Assembly was formed in October 1946 as per the Cabinet Mission Scheme.
Ques 6: When and under whose Presidentship the first session of all India States People’s Conference was held?
Ans: The first session of all India States People’s Conference was held in 1927 under the presidentship of Diwan Bahadur, M. Ramchan Rai the renowned leader of Ellore.
Ques 7: Why did Mahatma Gandhi think Hindustani should be the National language?
Ans: By the 1950s, the Congress had accepted that Hindustani ought to be the national language. Mahatma Gandhi felt that everyone should speak in a language that common people could easily understand. Hindustani - a blend of Hindi and Urdu - was a popular language of a large section of the people of India, and it was a composite language enriched by the interaction of diverse cultures. Over the years it had incorporated words and terms from very many different sources, and was therefore understood by people from various regions. This multi - cultural language, Mahatma Gandhi thought would be the ideal language of communication between diverse communities: it could unify Hindus and Muslims, and people of the north and south.
Ques 8: Why is the Indian constitution acceptable to the Indian people even today?
Ans: a) The Indian Constitution is acceptable to all because it was based on a broad consensus and did not reflect the views of the drafting committee alone.
b) Even though there was no universal adult Franchise at that time. The constituent assembly consisted of people of all regions and communities making it a miniature India.
c) Eminent people like Maulana Azad and women like Sarojini Naidu played an important part in the constituent assembly as did people of all casts and creeds.
d) Furthermore, the constituent assembly worked in a systematic and open manner.
e) The basic principles were agreed upon, then a draft constitution was prepared for discussion.
f) The draft constitution was discussed thoroughly clause by clause for nearly 3 years before being finalized.
g) Every individual is free to follow. Preach, or profess his/her own religion.
Ques 9: How was the term minority defined by different groups?
Ans: The term minority was defined by different groups in the following ways:
i. Ambedkar demanded separate group for the minority races.
ii. Hindus and Sikhs, live in so-called Pakistan were not considered as minority race.
iii. Members demanded the representation on behalf of the minority in the Constitution.
iv. Nagappa demanded minority status for the Harijans.
v. Ambedkar demanded separate Constitution for the minorities.
Ques 10: What was the ‘language controversy, before the Constitution Assembly and how did it seek to resolve the controversy?
Ans: Language Controversy: became politicized for communal identity.
R.V. Dhulkar supported Hindi to be made language of the Constitution.
It created a furor (debate) in the Constituent Assembly which was mediated by Pt. Jawahar lal Nehru.
Proceeded slow to make Hindi as the National Language.
Some supported official work to be continued for 15 years in English.
After implementation of the Constitution and Provinces to choose regional language for daily work.
i. Hindi - Not National Language.
ii. But not Rajbhasha
Ques 11: What was was the Objectives Resolution? What were the ideals expressed in the Objectives Resolution?
Ans: It was Jawaharlal Nehru, who presented Objectives Resolution in the Constituent Assembly on 13th December, 1946. He proposed that the National Flag of India be a ‘horizontal tricolour of saffron, white and dark green in equal proportion’, with a wheel in navy blue at the centre. It outlined and defined the ideals and objectives of the Constituitiion which are as follows:‘horizontal tricolour of saffron, white and dark green in equal proportion’, with a wheel in navy blue at the centre. It outlined and defined the ideals and objectives of the Constituitiion which are as follows:
(a). India was declared as independent sovereign Republic.
(b). It assured justice, equality, liberty and fraternity to all its citizens.
(c). It provided adequate safeguards to minorities.
(d). It referred to the well-being of the backward and depressed classes.
(e). India would combine the liberal ideas of democracy with socialist idea of economic Justice.
(f). India would adopt that form of government which would be acceptable to its people. No imposition from the British would be accepted by the Indian people.
(g). India would be a federation.
(h). India would work for world peace and human welfare.
Ques 12: What were the arguments in favour of great power to the provinces?
Ans: In the Constituent Assembly, the rights of the states were mostly defended by K.Santhanam, a member from madras .He emphasized the need to strengthened the states. K.Santhanam was opposed to the centre being vested with more powers.
He felt that an over –burdened centre would not be able to fulfill its responsibilities in an effective manner. The centre would become strong if all the states are made stronger.
He advocated that centre should be given less powers and stage should be given more powers. K.Santhanam was not happy with the proposed allocation of powers between the centre and the states. He fell that such a distribution of power would cripple the states.
Ques 13: How was the centre made more powerful and strong by the Constituent Assembly?
Ans: Most of the members of the Constituent Assembly were in favour of strong central government of India. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru wanted a strong central as he felt, writing a letter to the President of the Constituent Assembly, that, “it would be injurious to the interests of the country to provide for a weak authority.” He was, in fact, convinced that only a strong central government could ensure peaces and stability.
The Union List contained more subjects that the state list. Regarding the concurrent list, the centre and the state shared the responsibility. But in case of any disputes centre’s decision is recommended. key industries.
Ques 14: Read the given passage carefully and answer the Questions that follow-
“Govind Ballabh Pant argued that in order to become a loyal citizen. People had focusing only on the community and the self. For the success of Democracy one must train himself in the art of self-discipline. In democracies one should care less for himself and more for others. There cannot be any divided loyalty. All loyalties must exclusively be centred round the State. If in a democracy, you create rival loyalties, or you create a system in which any individual or group, instead of suppressing his extravagance, cares nought for larger or other interests, then democracy is doomed.’’
Ques (a): Give three attributes of a loyal citizen in a democracy according to G. B. Pant.
Ans: i) He must train himself in the art of self-discipline.
ii) He should care less for himself and more for others.
Ques (b): What do you understand by ‘Separate Electorate’?
Ans: Under provisions of the government of India Act, 1909. Separate electorates were made for the Muslims. Only Muslims could be elected from these constituencies. According to the British Administrators it was done in order to safe guard the interests of the Muslims minority.
Ques (c): Why was the demand for Separate Electorate made during the drafting of the Constitution?
Ans: Some members of the Constituent Assembly felt that a meaningful participation of the minorities in the governance could be ascertained only by the system of separate electorates. They made a strong plea to continue this system.
Ques (d): Why was G. B. Pant against this demand? Give two reason.
Ans: Govind Ballabh Pant felt that -
i) If, by the system of the Separate Electorate, the minorities are isolated forever, they can never be able to convert themselves into a majority. ii) The minorities, if they are returned by Separate Electorates, can never have any effective voice in the governance
Ques 15: “The Resolution cast the horoscope of our Sovereign Democratic Republic”. Prove this Statement.
Ans: On December 13, 1946, Pandit Nehru described the objective resolution as a ‘Solemn Pledge to our people’. It gave expression to the aspiration and ideals for which the people of India had worked and struggled and embodied the broad objectives which the constituent assembly was to set before itself. The resolution ensured that safeguards would be provided to the minorities, backward and tribal areas, depressed and other classes. The resolution proclaimed that the ancient land would attain its rightful and honored place in the world. This republic would be a union of autonomous units in which residuary powers should be with the latter. The Resolution also stated that the constitution framed by the Assembly must guarantee and secure to all the people of India Justice social, economic and political; equality of status, of opportunity and equality before law; freedom of thoughts , expression, belief, faith, worship, vocation, subject, association and action subject to law and public morality. In fact, all important elements had been included in the objective resolution, constituent assembly had to frame the constitution by following them: the Statement ‘The Resolution cast the horoscope of our sovereign Democratic Republic”, given by Dr. K.M. Munshi seems to be true.
Ques 16: Why Parliamentary system has been adopted in India? Is it relevant today?
Ans: The Chief merit of Parliamentary government lay in its ability to satisfy the essential test of a democratic Executive viz.. a combination of stability and responsibility. In India when the poverty and illiteracy of the masses might well encourage the growth of Executive Despotism, Responsibility was no less important than stability. According to Dr. Ambedkar - under the parliamentary system there is daily and periodic assessment of the responsibility of the Government. On the basis of the assessment of last 58 years, it can be said that to include parliamentary system in our constitution was a positive and praisable effort which has played an important role in the stability of Democracy in India.
Ques 17: How will you define the term ‘Secular’? Is India a Secular state?
Ans: The term secular means that the state has no Religion of its own. The State is neither religious, nor anti religions. The state observes complete neutrality in Religious matter on the basis of following given detail India can be called a secular nation. In the Indian Constitution, the articles 25-28 of the right to freedom of Religion have been granted to all persons residing in India. Accordingly by all the persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience. Indian citizens are free to change their religion on their own will.
Ques 18: Analyse the Relevancy of emphasis on the need of a strong government by the constitute assembly.
Ans: The constituent Assembly was emphasizing that the powers of the centre had to be greatly strengthened to enable it to stop the communal riots because this might lead many partitions of India, a strong government was also demanded because only this could plan (Government). Only a strong centre could plan for a well being of the country, mobilised the available economic resources, establish a proper administration and defend the country from any foreign aggression. The chief reason for a strong centre was partition of India. That is why emphasis on strong centre was being given instead of giving more autonomy to the provinces. A strong demand for the need of centralization of the powers was due to communal riots especially in Bengal and Punjab during 1946 – 1947. By observing contemporary circumstances it is clear that demand of a strong government at centre was relevant.