Ques 1: Clarify the word meaning of Kornish?
Ans: Kornish was a form of ceremonial salutation in which the Courtier placed the palm of his right hand against his forehead and bent his head, It suggested that the subject placed his head the seat of the senses and the mind into the hand of humility; presenting it to the royal assembly.
Ques 2: Name the dynasty which ruled India during 1526 to 1707. Who was the founder of this dynasty?
Ans: Mughal dynasty and founder of this dynasty was Babur.
Ques 3: What is meant by the term Kitabkhana?
Ans: The literal translation of the term Kitabkhana is library. It was a scriptorium that is a place where the emperors collection of manuscripts were kept and manuscripts were produced.
Ques 4: Manuscripts involved a number of people performing a variety of tasks. Give some such people engaged in the task.
Ans: Manuscripts involved a number of people performing a variety of tasks. Among them were paper marker, calligrapher, gliders, painters, bookbinders.
Ques 5: Babur’s memories were return in which language?
Ans: Babur’s memories Tuzuk-i-Babari were originally written in Turkish. They were translated in Persian as Babur Nama.
Ques 6: Explain the meaning of the term “Jihad” or Holy war or Crusade.
Ans: Most of the Muslim Sultans or rulers encouraged their soldiers to fight the Kafirs in the name of religion. This religious war known as jihad holy war or crusade Babur, too had declared his battle against Rana Sanga (or Mewar) a jihad.
Ques 7: Discuss the major features of Mughal provincial administration. How did the centre control the provinces?
Ans: Major features of Mughal provincial administration:
i. Subadar: The division of function established at the centre was replicated in the provinces
ii. (Subas) where the ministers had their corresponding subordinates (diwan, bakhshi and sadr).
iii. The head of the provincial administration was the governor (subadar) who reported directly to the emperor.
iv. Faujdars: The sarkars, into which each suba was divided, often overlapped with the jurisdiction of faujdars (commandants) who were reployed with contingents of heavy cavalry and musketeers in districts. The local administration was looked after at the level of the pargana (sub-district) by three semi – hereditary officers, the qaungo (keeper of revenue records), the chaudhuri (in charge of revenue collection) and the qazi.
v. A large support of staff of different categories such as clerk, accountants messengers etc: Each department of administration maintained a large support staff of clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers, and other functionaries who were technically qualified officials, functioning in accordance with standardized rules and procedures, and generating copious written orders and records. Persian was made the language of administration throughout, but local languages were used for village accounts.
II. The control of the provinces of the centre: The Mughal chronicles usually portrayed the emperor and his court as controlling the entire administrative apparatus and down to the village level. Yet as you have seen this could hardly have been a process free of tension. The relationship between local landed magnates, the zamindars, and the representatives of the Mughal emperor was sometimes marked by conflicts over authority and a share of the resources. The zamindars often succeeded in mobilizing peasant support against the state.
Ques 8: Assess the role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire.
Ans: The role played by the women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire
(i). In the Mughal household a distinction was maintained between wives who came from royal families (Begams) and other wives(aghas) who were not of noble birth.
(ii). Apart from wives numerous male and female slaves populated the Mughal household: The tasks they performed varied from the most mundane to those requiring skill tact and intelligence.
(iii). After NurJahan Mughal queens and princesses began to control significant financial resources. Shahjahana’s daughter Jahanara and Roshanara enjoyed an annual income often equal to the high imperial mansabdars. Jahanara in addition received revenues from the port city of Surat, which was a lucrative centre of overseas trade.
Ques 9: Write a short note on Badshah Nama.
Ans: Badshah Nama Chronicle of a king based on the history of Shahjahan’s reign is an Important chronicle among official histories. Abdul Hamid Lahori, a pupil of Abul Fazal is known as its aurthor. It is modelled of 10 lunar years each. Lahori wrote the first and second daftars comprising of first two decades of Shahjahan’s reign (1627-1647) But due to infirmities of age he was unable to write the 3rd volume. Volume of the 3rd decade of the emperor’s rule was chronicle by historian waris. In 1944 the first time painting of Badshah Nama were exhibited in New Delhi, London and Washington.
Ques 10: DARBAR-I-AKBARI
Abul fazl gives a vivid account of Akber’s darbar. Whenver his majesty (Akber) holds court (darbar) a large drum is bitten, the sounds of which accompanied by divine praise. In this manner people of all classes received notice. His majesty’s sons and grandchildren the grandees of the court, and all other men who have admittance attend to make the kornish and remains standing in their proper place learned men of renowned and skillful machines pay their respect. And the officers of justice present their reports. His majesty with his usual insights gives orders and settlers everything in a satisfactory manner. During the whole time skillful gladiator’s and wrestlers from all countries hold themselves in readiness and singers male and female are in waiting. Claver jugglers and funny tumblers also are annexations to exhibit their dexterity and agility.
Ques (a): Describe the main activities taking place in the court?
Ans: Main activities taking place in the darbar are:
1. Beating of the drum. To announced holding of dewan-i-am.
2. Divine praise to establish emperor as “insane-i- kamil”
3. The emperor sons, grandchildren and other grandees take their positions according to status, hierarchy and proximity to the king.
4. All attending court women standing to pay respect and offer salutation to the king.
5. Learned men, mechanics, officers of justice present report to the king for review and update.
6. Gladiators, wrestlers, singers, women in waiting to exhibit their skill and for royal patronage.
Ques (b): What was the significant of the darbar procedures?
Ans: The dauber procedures reflected the status and power of the emperors.
Ques (c): Define the term “Kornish”.
Ans: “Kornish” was a form of ceremonial salutation in which the courtier placed the palm of his right hand against his forehead and bent his head.
Ques (d): Explain the term “Jharokha Darshan.”
Ans: “Jharokha Darshan” showing of the emperor to the public from the palace balcony. It was introduced by Akbar with the objective of broadening the acceptance of the imperial authority.
Ques 11: Discuss the merits and demerits of the Mansabdari Sytem.
Ans: Merits of the Mansabdari System
1. Control on revolts.
2. Qualification as basis of ranks.
3. Ban on Corruption
4. Forceful army
5. Emotional unity
Demerits of Mansabdari System
1. Misuse of money
2. Disloyalty of the soldiers towards the empire
3. Luxurious life of mansabdars
4. High salary of mansabdars created pressure on govt.
5. Less number of horsemen than the prescribed number affected the effectiveness of military.
6. Lack of direct link between emperor and soldiers.