Ques 1: Who were Lal-Bal-Pal?
Ans: All three were early extremist leaders, who led the nation-wide Nationalist movement. LalLala lajpat Rai, Bal- Bal Ganga dhar Tilak and Pal- Bipin Chandra Pal.
Ques 2: Name one movement launched for farmers and peasants by Mahatma Gandhi in India?
Ans: (i). Champaran Satyagraha 1917 for indigo peasants.
(ii). Ahmedabad mill labour movement 1918.
Ques 3: State the significance of Gandhiji`s speech at Banaras Hindu University?
Ans: (i). Gandhiji charged the Indian elite with a lack of concern for the labouring poor.
(ii). He worried about the contrast between the rich and poor. He felt salvation of India lay in the farmers.
Ques 4: What is meant by Rowlatt Act?
Ans: Anybody could be arrested on the basis of suspicion and put in prison without trial. This Act was made by Rowlatt to suppress the freedom struggle.
Ques 5: Why was charkha chosen as a national symbol?
Ans: (i) Symbol of self-reliance and self-confidence.
(ii) Source of employment for thousands of poor and unemployed.
Ques 6: What was the significance of Lahore Session of Congress?
Ans: (i) Declaration of poorna Swaraj as the main objective of Congress.
(ii) 26 January 1930 to be celebrated as Independence Day.
Ques 7: Describe the Gandhi -Irwin Pact of 1931?
Ans: (i) Gandhiji postponed Civil Disobedience movement.
(ii) Irwin agreed to release all prisoners and allowed to make salt along the coast.
(iii) Gandhiji agreed to go to second round table conference.
Ques 8: What was the attitude of the Indian National Congress towards the second world war?
Ans: (i) Both Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru were against Hitler and Nazis.
(ii) They promised congress support to the war effort if the British in return promised grant India Independence after the war.
Ques 9: Why did Gandhiji start Non-cooperation Movement? Why was it withdrawn?
Ans: (i) To oppose Rowlatt Act.
(ii) To undo the injustice done at Jalianwala Bagh.
(iii) To support the Khilafat Movement.
(iv) To attend Swaraj.
(v) Violence at Chauri-Chaura - He withdrew non co-operation movement because of the incident of Chauri-Chaura
(vi) Gandhiji believed in non-violence.
Ques 10: Explain the significance of Dandi March?
Ans: (i). Violation of Salt law- a monopoly of British and manufacturing of salt.
(ii). Large scale participation of women.
(iii). Civil law violated across large part of India.
Ques 11: What was the problem of separate electorates? What were the disagreement between Congress and Dalits on this issue? Finally what solution to be of this issue?
Ans: Demand of separate electorates by the Dalits in which they wanted reservation in separate Electorates like muslims. In 1931 in the second Round Table Conference Dalit leader Dr. B.R. Ambedkar said Congress does not represent the Dalits.
(i) He said Dalits are socially and economically backward. By separate electorate they can put demands of their rights.
(ii) Gandhiji opposed the separate electorates.
(iii) Finally Congress gave separate electorates to Dalits within the Congress.
Ques 12: How was non-cooperation a form of protest?
Ans: Students stopped going to school and collages run by the government. Lawyers refused to attend court. The working class went on strike in many town and cities: according to official figures, there were 396 strike in 1921, involving 600,000 workers and a loss of 7 million workdays. The countryside was seething with discontent too. Hill tribes in northern Andhra violated the forest laws. Farmers in Awadh did not pay taxes. Peasants in Kumaun refused to carry loads for colonial official. These protest movements were sometimes carried out in defiance of the local nationalist leadership. Peasants, workers, and others interpreted and acted upon the call to “non-cooperate” with colonial rule. It entailed denial, renunciation, and self-discipline. It was training for self-rule.
Ques 13: How was Mahatma Gandhi perceived by the peasants?
Ans: Known variously as “Gandhi baba”, “Gandhi maharaj”, or simply as “Mahatma”, Gandhiji appeared to the Indian peasant as a savior,who would rescue them from high tax and oppressive officials and restore dignity and autonomy to their lives. Gandhiji’s appeal among the poor, and peasants in particular, was enhanced by his ascetic lifestyle, and by his shrewd use of symbols such as the dhoti and charkha.
Ques 14: How did Gandhiji transform National Movement into mass movement?
Ans: 1. Simple lifestyle
2. Use of Hindi for communication
3. Role of Gandhiji in three mass movement.
4. Emphasis on Truth and non-violence
5. swadeshi, boycott and Swaraj.
6. Importance on Charkha and Khadi.
7. Upliftment of women, poor down trodden.
8. Hindu-Muslim unity
9. Abolition of untouchability.
10. Balancing each and every section of society.
Ques 15: Explain the sources from which we can reconstruct the political career of Mahatma Gandhi and the history of National Movement of India.
Ans: Auto-biographies and biographies.
- Contemporary newspapers.
- Official and police records.,
- Public speeches
- private letters.
Ques 16: “Where ever Gandhiji went, rumours spread of his miraculous power.” Explain with examples.
Ans: 1-The ascetic life style,
2. Use of dhoti and charkha
3. Use of Hindi for communication made Gandhiji very popular.
4- Where ever he went rumours spread of his miraculous powers.
a- Sent by King to redress the grievances of the farmers.
b- Had power to overrule all local officials.
c- Gandhiji was superior to the British.
5- Fight against untouchability.
Ques 17: Source based questions:-
Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
Why the salt satyagraha?
Why was salt the symbol of protest? This is what Mahatma Gandhi wrote:
The volume of information being gained daily shows how wickedly the salt tax has being designed. In order to prevent the use of salt that has not paid the tax which is at times even fourteen times its value, the Government destroys the salt it can not sell profitably. Thus it taxes the nation’s vital necessity; it prevents the public from manufacturing it and destroys what nature manufactures without effort. No adjective is strong enough for characterising this wicked dog-in-the-manager policy. From various sources I hear tales of such wanton destruction of the nation’s property in all parts of India. Maunds if not tons of salt are said to be destroyed on the Konkan coast. The same tale comes from Dandi. Wherever there is likelihood of natural salt being taken away by the people living in the neighbourhood areas for their personal use, salt officers are posted for the sole purpose of carrying on destruction. Thus valuable national property is destroyed at national expense and salt taken out of the mouths of the people.
The salt monopoly is thus a fourfold curse. It deprives the people of a valuable easy village industry, involves wanton destruction of property that nation produces in abundance, the destruction itself means more national expenditure, and fourthly, to crown his folly, and unheard-of takes of more than 1,000 per cent is exacted from a starving people. This tax has remained so long because of the apathy of the general public. Now that it is sufficiently roused, the tax has to go. How soon it will be abolished depends upon the strength the people.
Ques (i): Why was salt the symbol of protest?
Ans: Salt was the symbol of protest because salt was used by everyone even by the poorest Indians. In every Indian household salt was indispensable yet people were forbidden from making salt even for domestic use compelling them to buy it from shops at a high price.
Ques (ii): Why was salt destroyed by the Colonial Government?
Ans: The salt tax had been wickedly designed. In order to prevent the use of salt that has not paid the tax which was at times even fourteen times its value, the Government destroyed the salt it could not sell profitably.
Ques (iii): Why did Mahatma Gandhi consider the salt tax more oppressive than other taxes?
Ans: Gandhiji considered the salt tax more oppressive than other taxes because salt tax was wickedly designed by the Government. The salt tax was at times even fourteen times its values. The Government destroyed the salt it can not sell profitably. Wherever there was likelihood of natural salt being taken away by the people salt officers were posted for destruction. In this way national property was destroyed at national experience.
Ques 18: ‘Non Cooperation was a form of Protest’. Evaluate this statement.
Ans: Gandhiji was one of the greatest personality of the world. His main principles were – Truth and Non Violence. Gandhiji decided to start non cooperation as a unique form of protest freedom struggle against the British rule. He hoped that by coupling non cooperation with khilafat, Hindu and Muslims could collectively bring an end to colonial rule. During NCM (Non Cooperation Movement) Students stopped going to school and colleges run by the British Government. Lawyers refused to attend the court. The working class went on strike in many towns and cities. The country side was seething with discontent. Hill tribe in Northern Andhra violated by the forest laws. Farmers in Awadh did not pay taxes. These protest movements were sometime carried out in defence of the local nationalist leadership. By the Analysis of the above mentioned facts it can be said that undoubtedly this was the first freedom struggle movement, in which most of Indian castes and communities participated to protest British rule.
Ques 19: How did Mahatma Gandhi transform the nature of the National movement?
Ans: Gandhiji transformed the nature of the National movement by the following thoughts, methods ideology, working styles movements etc. The main principles of his philosophy were
ii. Non violence
iv. True sympathy for the poorest.
v. Empowerment of the lady.
vi. Communal Harmony
vii. Indian Rural areas and to think about interest of the people residing in the villages and to motivate the other people to think, to act and to inspire resourceful and influential high up of the society in favour of down trodden.
viii. Opposing untouchability with his full vigor and strength.
ix. To stress both equally and their purity of aim and means alike.
x. To launch public welfare programme.
xi. To stress importance of cottage Industry.
xiii. Spinning wheels
xiv. Khadi etc
xv. To oppose colour discrimination alike.
Gandhiji utilized south Africa as practical lab for his ideological and philosophical development. He raised his voice at full pitch their against wrong policies and injustice done by the government of South Africa. He utilize Satyagraha in South Africa also in several places in India. When Gandhiji returned to motherland in 1915. In fact that time still Indian National congress was confined in only urban areas up to people of middle educated classes. He knew very well that its natural power rests with the rural people, labour, ordinary men and women and young boys and girls till all sections and people of Indian society would not join freedom struggle against the colonial British power then it would be very difficult to finish British authority from India. Gandhiji said that British rule have rewarded India through out spreading Poverty, hunger, low quality of life ,illiteracy, superstitions and social disunity and disharmony.
Gandhiji opposed the owners of Indigo plantation of champaran. He also press the cotton textile mill owners to revise the minimum wage of the labourers. Gandhiji was a true economic and social reformer. He advocated the use of charkha and khadi. He stressed the importance of cottage and very small industries. Infact due to his efforts the face of Indian National Movement turns from palaces to hunts, from urban areas or cities towards villages where the real India resides. This was the greatest work of Gandhiji. This converted the shape of National movement into a mass movement.
Ques 20: ‘The Quit India Movement was truly a mass movement’. Justify this statement.
Ans: Due to the failure of the Cripps mission, Gandhiji decided to launch his third major movement against British rule. This was called Quit India Movement. This was to be a mass struggle on non violent lines under leadership of Gandhiji. But on the Next day of the approval of India Quit Movement resolution. Gandhi and other main congress leaders were arrested. But the younger activist organized demonstrations and strike in factories, schools and colleges in all parts of the country. Particularly active in the underground resistance were socialist members of the congress such as Jaya Prakash Narain and Ram Manohar Lohia, Aruna Asif Ali. In some areas such as Satara and Midnapur “Independent governments were proclaimed. The movement took the form of a violent out break. The government succeeded in crushing the movement yet it took more than 12 months to suppress this rebellion. By Analysising above mentioned incidences it can be said that the Quit India Movement was truly a mass movement. It brought into its ambit hundreds of thousands of ordinary people. It brought the nationalist feelings among the youth to such a stage that the day was not far off when the British would have to Quit India.