Q.1 Which is state receive maximum number of immigrants?
Q-2 Which one of the main stream is dominated by male migrants in India?
Ans Rural to urban
Q-3 What are to main factors of migration?
Ans (i) Push Factor
(ii) Pull Factor
Q-4 What are two basis of enumerating the migration in India?
Ans.(i) Place of birth
(ii) Place of residence
Q.5 Why is the male migration higher from rural to urban?
Ans. Men migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of work and employment. The push factors compel men to migrate.
Q.6 Differentiate between life-time migrants and migrants by last residence.
Ans. The life time migrant and migrant by last residence are differentiated on the bases of birth place and place of residence:
1. If the place of birth is different from the place of enumeration it is called the lifetime migrant.
2. if the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration it is known as migrant by place of last residence.
Q.7 Explain positive and negative consequences of migration?
Ans. Positive Consequences: -
(I) In 2002, India received US $ 11 billion as remittances from international migrates. Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants.
(ii) it plays an important role is the growth of economy of the source area.
(i) Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure. However high out migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, M.P. and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states similar imbalance are also brought in the recipients states.
(ii) This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums shanty colonies.
Q.8 Explain three waves of Indian diaspora from ancient time?
Ans. First wave: - During colonial period millions of the indentured laborers were sent to Mouritious, Caribbean islands, fiji and South Africa by British from U.P. and Bihar to Reunion island, Guadelope, Martinique and Surinam by French and Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as plantation workers. All such migration were covered under the time-bound contract known as Grimit act (Indian Emigration Act.). However, the living condition of these indentured laborers were not better then the slaves.
Second wave of migration ventured out into the neighboring countries in recent times as professionals, artisans, traders and factory workers in search of economic opportunities. There was a steady outflow of India’s semi- skilled and skilled labour in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in the 1970. There was also some outflow of entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals, businessmen to western countries.
Third wave of migrant was comprise profession like Doctors, Engineers, software Engineers, Management Consultants, Financial experts, Media persons, and other migrate to countries such as USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany etc. After liberalization in the go education and knowledge based Indian emigration had made Indian diasporas and of the most powerful diasporas in the world.
Q.9 Distinguish between push and pull factor of migration.
Ans. Push Factors: - These factors compel people to leave their place of residence in India, people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on land lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education etc. Besides these, natural disaster like flood, drought earth quakes, Tsunami, Wars and local conflicts also give extra push to migrate.
Pull Factors: - There are pull factors which attract people from rural areas to cities. The most important pull factor for majority of the rural migrates to urban areas is the better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages better opportunities for education. Better health facilities and sources of entertainment etc. are quite important pull factors.
Q.10 What are major reasons of population migration in India?
Ans. Migrations are caused by a variety of factors including economic, social and political factors.
1. Economic Factors: People migrate in large numbers from rural to urban areas in search of employment. Urban areas provide vast scope for employment in industries, trade, transport and services.
2. Social Factors:
(a) Marriage is a very important social factor of migration. Every girl has to migrate to her in-laws. Place of residence after marriage. Thus, the entire female population has to migrate over short or long distance.
(b) Education: Rural areas, by and large, lack education facilities, especially those by higher education and for this purpose rural youths have to migrate to urban centers. Many of them settle down their for livelihood after completing their education.
(c) Political Factors: Political disturbances and ethnic conflicts drive people away from their homes because of lack of security. Large number of people migrated out of Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and Assam during the last few years due to disturbed conditions in these states.