Ques 1: What are megaliths?
Ans: Megaliths were elaborate stone structures in central and south India in first millennium BCE. These were kept on the burials. Dead were buried with a wide range of iron tools and weapons.
Ques 2: Why six century BCE often considered as a major turning point in Indian history?
Ans: It is an era associated with early states and cities, growing use of iron, the development of coin. It also witnessed the growth of diverse system of thoughts including Buddhism and Jainism.
Ques 3: Define Dhamma Mahamatta?
Ans: (i) Special officers appointed by Ashoka.
(ii) Appointed to spread the message of Dhamma.
Ques 4: Write any two sources of Mauryan history?
Ans: A. Arthashastra of Kautilya.
B. Ashoka’s inscriptions.
Ques 5: Who were Kushanas?
Ans: Kushanas were a clan of nomadic people living in China.
Kushanas ruled over a vast kingdom extending from Central Asia to North-West India.
First to issue gold coins in India
Ques 6: In which languages and script, Ashokan script was written?
Ans: (i) Language- Prakrit, Aramaic and Greek.
(ii) Script- Prakrit in Brahmi, Greek, Aramaic and Kharosthi.
Ques 7: Who was a Gahapati?
Ans: Gahapati was the owner, master or head of a household. He was the owner of the resources- land, animals and other things that belonged to the household.
Ques 8: Discuss factors responsible for the rise of Magadha.
Ans: Powerful rulers- Bimbisara and Ajatasattu
Availability of iron.
Availability of elephants in forest.
Strong capital - Rajgir and Pataliputra
Ques 9: Describe five features of Mahajanapadas?
Ans: Maximum Mahajanapadas ruled by kings but some ruled by Ganas or Sanghas.
Each had its own capital often fortified.
Permanent army recruited from the peasantry regular bureaucracies.
Function of kings to collect taxes and tributes from people.
Ques 10: Explain main features of Ashoka’s Dhamma?
Ans: Respect to elders, love for young and kindness to servants.
Religious tolerance to other religions.
Liberal policies towards Brahmanas, Shramanas.
Appointment of Dhamma mahamattas.
Ques 11: Important changes in agriculture during the period between 600 BCE to 600 CE.
Ans: For increase of agricultural production use of plough with iron tipped ploughshare.
Introduction of transplantation of crop (paddy).
Irrigation by wells, ponds and canals.
Hoe agriculture in semi-arid parts of Punjab, Rajasthan and hilly tracks in North-Eastern and Central Parts.
Land lords and heads of village were more powerful and had control over farmers.
Land grants by kings to extend agriculture to new areas.
Ques 12: How do inscription help in reconstruction of history?
Ans: Knowledge about the rulers and their achievements.
Scripts and language of that time.
Extent of the empire.
Social and religious condition of kingdom.
Ques 13: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
What the king’s officials did?
Here is an excerpt from the account of Megasthenes: Of the great officers of state, some … superintend the rivers, measure the land, as is done in Egypt, and inspect the sluices by which water is let out from the main canals into their branches, so that everyone may have an equal supply of it. The same persons have charge also of the huntsmen, and are entrusted with the power of rewarding or punishing them according to their deserts. They collect the taxes, and superintend the occupations connected with land; as those of the woodcutters, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, and the miners.
Ques (a): Explain the duties of the officers of state.
Ans: 1. Some superintended the rivers, measured lands and inspected the sluices by which water was let out from the main canals into their branches, so that everyone would have an equal supply of it.
2. They had also charge of huntsmen, entrusted with the power of rewarding or punishing them according to their deserts.
3. They collected the taxes, and superintended the occupations connected with land; as those of the woodcutters, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, and the miners.
Ques (b): Explain the role of the sub-committees for coordinating military activities.
Ans: 1. Megasthenes mentioned a committee with six subcommittees for coordinating military activity.
2. They looked after navy, transport and provisions, foot soldiers, horses, chariots and elephants.
3. The second committee had to arrange bullock carts to carry equipments procure food for soldiers and fodder for animals and recruit servants and artisans to look after the soldiers.
Ques (c): What did Ashoka do to hold his empire together?
Ans: 1. Ashoka tried to hold his empire together by propagating dhamma.
2. Special officers called dhamma mahamattas were appointed to spread the message of dhamma.
Ques 14: Main features of Mauryan administration?
Ans: (i)Central administration- King had control over legislative, executive, judiciary, army and finance.
(ii)Provincial administration- The Empire was divided in too many provinces.
(iii)Local Government- There was a committee of 30 members to maintain rules and regulations in Pataliputra.
(iv) King used to run the administration with the help of 30 officials.
(v) Five major political centre in the empire.
(vi)Law and order system setup.
(vii)Organised army- a committee with six sub-committee for coordinating military activity.
(viii)To spread Dhamma, appointment of Dhamma Mahamattra.
(ix)Officers were appointed to manage the land revenue, irrigation and roads
(x)Institution of spies was very strong and working effectively.