Important Question & Answer - Understanding Partition Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

History Class 12

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Humanities/Arts : Important Question & Answer - Understanding Partition Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Ques 1: What do you mean by the term Holocaust?
Ans: Holocaust means destruction or slaughter on a mass scale. Many scholors have used this term for loot, Arson, killings during the partition.

Ques 2: What was Lucknow pact?
Ans: The Lucknow pact of December 1916 was an understanding between the Congress and the Muslim league. The congress accepted separate electorates.

Ques 3:  What is Pakistan resolution?
Ans: In 1940 the League moved a resolution demanding a measure of autonomy for the muslim majority areas.

Ques 4:  What was the attitude of the Indian National Congress towards second world war?
Ans: The Indian National Congress was ready to help Britain if they makes a clear declaration to free India after the second world war.


Ques 5: What was the impact of separate electorates for Muslims on the communal politics?
Ans: The Muslims could elect their own representatives in reserved constituency. 
ii)They can favour the people belonging to their own religious groups.

Ques 6: The partition of India was a holocaust. Justify?
Ans: i) A large number of people were killed.
ii) Lakhs of people had became refugees.
iii) A large number of people were rendered homeless.
iv) There were killings, loots, arson and rape.
v) People lost their properties and all their assets.

Ques 7: What are the merits and demands of Oral history?
Ans: i) It helps us grasp experience and memories in detail. 

ii) It enables historians to write richly textured, vivid accounts of events like partition. 
iii) Oral history also allows historian to broaden the boundaries of their discipline. 
iv) Many historians argue the uniqueness of personnel experience makes generalization difficult. 
v) They think Oral accounts are concerned with tangential issues.

Ques 8: Why Cabinet missions was sent to India? What were the main features of its plan?
Ans: Cabinet mission was sent to India to suggest a solution for the Indian problem.
-The mission recommended a loose three of her confederation.
-India would have a federal government including princely states and provinces of British India.
-Federal government would be dealing with defence, Foreign affairs and communication.
-Provisions was made for the grouping of provinces.
-The representation of all three groups meet in a constituent Assembly to draft a constitution.
-Congress and League rejected the cabinet mission’s proposal.

Ques 9: What was the impact of partition on Indian women.
Ans: Impact of partition of India on Indian Women: 

(1) Harrowing experience of women – Abduction, sold, forced to settle down to a new life etc. 
(2) They were brutally tortured and beated. 
(3) They found the governments of both India and Pakistan insensitive to their problems.
(4) Government’s insensitivity to the feelings of women. 
(5) Women not allowed to voice their opinion. 
(6) Killing of women in the name of saving honour of women. 
(7) Forcing women to commit suicide to save themselves from falling into the hands of enemies.
(8) Their suicide was treated as martyrdom. 
(9) Dishonouring women of a community seen as dishonouring the community itself and a mode of taking revenge. 
(10) They were not allowed to re-settle their life on their own wish.

Ques 10: Read the following passage given carefully. Answer the questions that follow.
“ WITHOUT A SHORT BEING FIRED”
This is what moon wrote:
For over twenty-four hours riotous mobs were allowed to rage through this great commercial city unchallenged and unchecked. The finest bazaars were burnt to the ground without a shoot being fired to disperse the incendiaries (i.e. those who stirred up conflict). The . . . District Magistrate marched his (large polices) force into the city and marched it out again without making any effective use of it at all.
Ques (i): To which event does the source refer to? Describe what the mobs were doing ?
Ans: It refers to an events held at the time of partition . The mob were looting the market and trade centers.

Ques (ii): Why did Amritsar became the scene of bloodshed later in 1947?
Ans: The British officials did not act to stop these unlawful and violent activities. The district administration had no control over the city.

Ques (iii): What was the attitude of the soldiers and policeman towards the mob?
Ans: The Indian soldiers had started behaving as Hindu , Muslims or Sikhs. They were helping the people of their community only.

Ques (iv): Give one example to show how Gandhiji tried to bring about communal harmony?
Ans: He advised the people of Hindu and Muslim communities at Delhi to maintain trust on each other.

Ques 11: Examine the factors responsible for the growth of communalism in India.
Ans: At the outset it must be admitted that in spite of strenuous efforts made by the congress leaders and rationalists, communalism could not be checked. Ultimately communalism won when India was portioned and Pakistan was created on the communalism theory of two nations. It may be stated that communalism grew on account of the ‘Divide and Rule’ policy of the British. Jinnah was not the sole originator of this theory of two nations. The policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ encouraged Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to fight for the right of the Muslims. Lord Curzon in 1905 encouraged the Muslims when he divided Bengal and created a Muslim majority province. Iqbal in 1930 also favored separate treatment to the Muslims. The Hindu Mahasabha established in 1916 also worked on communal lines following factors led to communalist tendencies.
(1) Divide and Rule Policy of the British.
(2) Fear of the Muslim minority of its Suppression the Hindu majority.
(3) Overemphasis on the glory of ancient India.
(4) Emergency of political parties on communal lines.
(5) Separate electorate for Muslims.
(6) Lack of education among the Muslim community.
(7) Frustration of the Muslim league on its inability to win election in 1937.
(8) Demand for partition of India at the Lahore session of the Muslim league in 1940.
(9) Direct Action by the Muslim league in 1946 and Communal riots.

Ques 12: Analyse the experiences of women from the partition?
Ans: The experiences of women in partition violent time were harrowing. Women were raped, abducted, sold, often many times over, forced to settle down to a new life with strangers in unknown circumstances. Deeply traumatised by all that they had undergone. Some began to develop, new family bonds in their changed circumstances. Their money and ornaments were looted. At times therefore when the men feared that their women wives, daughters, sisters, would be violated by the enemy they killed the women themselves.

Ques 13: Pointing upon the destruction or slaughter on Mass scale at the time of artition, compare Indian holocaust with Germany?
Ans: Because several hundred thousand people were killed and innumerable women raped and abducted. Millions were uprooted, transformed into refugees in alien lands. Estimate of casualties were 2,00,000 to 50,00,000. In all probability, some 15 million had to move across hastily constructed frontiers separating India and Pakistan. Stripped of their local or regional cultures. They were forced to begin picking of their life from scratch. There fire partition is considered as holocaust. The Survivers themselves have often spoken of 1947 through other words like maashal (Martial law), mara-mari, raula or hullar. Though the people do not see any difference between the events of India and Germany . After all this much difference we find that in 1947-48, the sub contitnent did not witness and state driven extermination as was the case with Nazi Germany where various model used. The ethnic cleansing That characterized the partition of India was carried out by self self styled representative of religious communities rather than by state agencies.

Ques 14: ‘The Partition of India was in dispensable’. Explain?
Ans: By the strength of Indian National Congress and power of mass movement ultimately British Government ready to free India in 1947. But freedom could given with the partition of India in two separate countries India and Pakistan. The causes for acceptance of the Independence with partition were as under: The British had been following a policy of creating feelings of bitterness among the different communities in India. This policy of Divide and Rule aimed to check the growth of Nationalism .When they failed in their objectives, they decided to divide the country and leave it. The attitude of Mr. Jinnah, the most prominent leader of the Muslim League, led to the partition of the country. He preached that the Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations. Hence they could not pull well together. The British government followed the policy of appeasement towards the Muslims. They asked the Muslim League leaders to ask for more and more concession. They encouraged the Muslim to stress their demand for Pakistan. The recommendation of the various mission sent by the British Government to solve the Indian Problem indirectly accepted the Muslim demand of Pakistan. The failure of Interim Government also made the partition of he country In evitable. In the absence of cooperation between the two major parties of the country, the Muslim League and the Congress , the Government could be run effectively. Lastly we can say that willing of leaders for the freedom, Hindu Muslim Riots , it was essential the partition of India.

Ques 15: Why did some people think of Partition as a very sudden development?
Ans: Many people consider the partition of India in 1947 as a very sudden development. Even the Muslims were not clear what the creation of Pakistan meant to them. They were also unaware how the creation of their own country might shape their lives in the future. Many people had migrated to the new country with the hope that they would soon come back as and when the peace prevailed in the region. Many Muslims leaders were even not serious in their demand for Pakistan. Many a times Jinnah used the idea of Pakistan to seek favours from the British and to block concession to the Congress. In o the partition of the country took place so suddenly that nobody realized what had happened within a few days.

Ques 16: What were Mahatma Gandhiji’s arguments against Partition?
Or
Examine the views of Gandhiji against the partition of India.
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi was a supporter of unity among various communities of the country.so he was deadly against the partition of India. He used to say that the country could be divided over his dead body. He stated that the demand for Pakistan was un-Islamic and sinful. The protagonists of partition of the country were the enemies of both Islam and India. He considered partition as wrong. He appealed to the Muslim League not to regard any Indian as its enemy. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to the same land. They eat the same food and drink same water. They speak the same language. They do everything with mutual consultation. So they cannot be seprated from each other.

Ques 17: Why is partition viewed as an extremely significant marker in South Asian history?
Ans: This partition took place on the name of communities or religions. History has not witnessed such type of partition. First time in history, people of two countries moved across. Most of the Muslims of India crossed over to Pakistan and almost all Hindus and Sikhs came to India from Pakistan. Several hundred thousand people were killed. Innumerable women were raped and abducted. People were rendered homeless, having suddenly lost all their immovable and movable assets.

Ques 18: When did and why the Cripps Mission arrive in India? Mention two reasons that lead to the failure of the Cripps Mission of 1942.
Ans: During the Second World war, the Cripps Mission had come to India in March 1942 to have talks with Indian leaders with a view to grant Dominion Status to India after the end of the War.
The Mission failed due to the following reasons:
It did not promise complete independence.
It rejected the congress’s proposals for the formation of a National government during the War.

Ques 19: The partition of India was a holocaust. Justify?
Ans: i) A large number of people were killed.
ii) Lakhs of people had became refugees.
iii) A large number of people were rendered homeless.
iv) There were killings, loots, arson and rape.
v) People lost their properties and all their assets.

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