Important Questions : Staffing Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Class 12 : Important Questions : Staffing Class 12 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
CHAPTER -6 
STAFFING 
6 Marks 
 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
1. Concept and importance of staffing. 
2. Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management. 
3. Staffing process: 
a. Recruitment – sources 
b. Selection – process  
4. Training and development – concept and importance. 
5.  Methods of training – on the job and off the job – induction training, vestibule 
training, apprenticeship training and internship training. 
 
KEY CONCEPT IN NUTSHELL 
MEANING OF STAFFING:  
Staffing has been described as the managerial function of filling and keeping filled, the 
positions in an organization structure. Staffing is identifying the requirement of workforce 
followed by recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal and development of 
personnel, to fill the roles designed into the organization structure.  
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF STAFFING: 
In any organization, there is a need for people to perform work. The staffing function of 
management fulfills this requirement and finds the right people for the right job. The staffing 
function has assumed greater importance these days because of rapid advancement of 
technology, increasing size of organization and complicated behavior of human beings. The 
ability of an organization to achieve its goals depends upon the quality of its human resources.  
Staffing as a part of human resource management: 
Staffing is a function which all managers need to perform. It is a separate and specialized 
function and there are many aspects of human relations to be considered. 
It is the responsibility of all managers to directly deal and select people to work for the 
organization. When the manager performs the staffing function his role is slightly limited.  In 
small organizations managers may perform all duties related to employees salaries, welfare 
and working conditions. 
Bus as organizations grow and number of persons employed increases, a separate department 
called the human resource department is formed which has specialists in the field to manage 
people. Human resource management includes many specialized activities and duties which 
the human resource personnel must perform. 
RECRUITMENT: 
Page 2


 
CHAPTER -6 
STAFFING 
6 Marks 
 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
1. Concept and importance of staffing. 
2. Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management. 
3. Staffing process: 
a. Recruitment – sources 
b. Selection – process  
4. Training and development – concept and importance. 
5.  Methods of training – on the job and off the job – induction training, vestibule 
training, apprenticeship training and internship training. 
 
KEY CONCEPT IN NUTSHELL 
MEANING OF STAFFING:  
Staffing has been described as the managerial function of filling and keeping filled, the 
positions in an organization structure. Staffing is identifying the requirement of workforce 
followed by recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal and development of 
personnel, to fill the roles designed into the organization structure.  
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF STAFFING: 
In any organization, there is a need for people to perform work. The staffing function of 
management fulfills this requirement and finds the right people for the right job. The staffing 
function has assumed greater importance these days because of rapid advancement of 
technology, increasing size of organization and complicated behavior of human beings. The 
ability of an organization to achieve its goals depends upon the quality of its human resources.  
Staffing as a part of human resource management: 
Staffing is a function which all managers need to perform. It is a separate and specialized 
function and there are many aspects of human relations to be considered. 
It is the responsibility of all managers to directly deal and select people to work for the 
organization. When the manager performs the staffing function his role is slightly limited.  In 
small organizations managers may perform all duties related to employees salaries, welfare 
and working conditions. 
Bus as organizations grow and number of persons employed increases, a separate department 
called the human resource department is formed which has specialists in the field to manage 
people. Human resource management includes many specialized activities and duties which 
the human resource personnel must perform. 
RECRUITMENT: 
 
 Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible candidates for a job or function. It 
has been defined as ‘the process of searching for prospective employees and 
stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organisation.’  
Process of Recruitment : 
 The various activities involved with the process of recruitment includes                                          
(a) identification of the different sources of labour supply,                                                                   
(b) assessment of their validity,                                    
(c) choosing the most suitable source or sources, and                                                                                     
(d) inviting applications from the prospective candidates, for the vacancies 
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT: 
1) Internal Sources 
2) External Sources 
INTERNAL SOURCES: 
 Transfers: It involves shifting of an employee from one job to another, one 
department to another or from one shift to another, without a substantive change in 
the responsibilities and status of the employee   
 Promotions: Promotion leads to shifting an  employee to a higher position, carrying 
higher responsibilities, facilities, status and pay. Promotion is a vertical shifting of 
employees 
MERITS OF INTERNAL SOURCES: 
 Employees are motivated to improve their performance 
 Simplifies the process of selection and placement 
 Transfer is a tool of training the employees to prepare them for higher jobs. 
 Shifting workforce from the surplus departments to those where there is shortage of 
staff  
   Cheaper as compared to getting candidates from external sources. 
Limitations of Internal  Sources: 
 When vacancies are filled through internal promotions, the scope for induction of fresh 
talent is reduced. 
 Employees may become lethargic if they are sure of time bound promotions 
 Enterprise cannot use internal sources of recruitment. 
 Spirit of competition among the employees may be hampered. 
Page 3


 
CHAPTER -6 
STAFFING 
6 Marks 
 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
1. Concept and importance of staffing. 
2. Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management. 
3. Staffing process: 
a. Recruitment – sources 
b. Selection – process  
4. Training and development – concept and importance. 
5.  Methods of training – on the job and off the job – induction training, vestibule 
training, apprenticeship training and internship training. 
 
KEY CONCEPT IN NUTSHELL 
MEANING OF STAFFING:  
Staffing has been described as the managerial function of filling and keeping filled, the 
positions in an organization structure. Staffing is identifying the requirement of workforce 
followed by recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal and development of 
personnel, to fill the roles designed into the organization structure.  
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF STAFFING: 
In any organization, there is a need for people to perform work. The staffing function of 
management fulfills this requirement and finds the right people for the right job. The staffing 
function has assumed greater importance these days because of rapid advancement of 
technology, increasing size of organization and complicated behavior of human beings. The 
ability of an organization to achieve its goals depends upon the quality of its human resources.  
Staffing as a part of human resource management: 
Staffing is a function which all managers need to perform. It is a separate and specialized 
function and there are many aspects of human relations to be considered. 
It is the responsibility of all managers to directly deal and select people to work for the 
organization. When the manager performs the staffing function his role is slightly limited.  In 
small organizations managers may perform all duties related to employees salaries, welfare 
and working conditions. 
Bus as organizations grow and number of persons employed increases, a separate department 
called the human resource department is formed which has specialists in the field to manage 
people. Human resource management includes many specialized activities and duties which 
the human resource personnel must perform. 
RECRUITMENT: 
 
 Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible candidates for a job or function. It 
has been defined as ‘the process of searching for prospective employees and 
stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organisation.’  
Process of Recruitment : 
 The various activities involved with the process of recruitment includes                                          
(a) identification of the different sources of labour supply,                                                                   
(b) assessment of their validity,                                    
(c) choosing the most suitable source or sources, and                                                                                     
(d) inviting applications from the prospective candidates, for the vacancies 
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT: 
1) Internal Sources 
2) External Sources 
INTERNAL SOURCES: 
 Transfers: It involves shifting of an employee from one job to another, one 
department to another or from one shift to another, without a substantive change in 
the responsibilities and status of the employee   
 Promotions: Promotion leads to shifting an  employee to a higher position, carrying 
higher responsibilities, facilities, status and pay. Promotion is a vertical shifting of 
employees 
MERITS OF INTERNAL SOURCES: 
 Employees are motivated to improve their performance 
 Simplifies the process of selection and placement 
 Transfer is a tool of training the employees to prepare them for higher jobs. 
 Shifting workforce from the surplus departments to those where there is shortage of 
staff  
   Cheaper as compared to getting candidates from external sources. 
Limitations of Internal  Sources: 
 When vacancies are filled through internal promotions, the scope for induction of fresh 
talent is reduced. 
 Employees may become lethargic if they are sure of time bound promotions 
 Enterprise cannot use internal sources of recruitment. 
 Spirit of competition among the employees may be hampered. 
 
Frequent transfers of employees may often reduce the productivity of the organisation 
External Sources: 
 Direct Recruitment: The direct recruitment, a notice is placed on the notice board. of 
the enterprise specifying the details of the jobs available. Job seekers assemble outside 
the premises of the organisation on the specified date and selection is done on the spot 
recruitment. 
  Casual Callers: organisations keep a database of unsolicited applicants in their offices. 
Such jobseekers can be a valuable source of manpower. A list of such jobseekers can be 
prepared and can be screened to fill the vacancies as they arise. 
 Advertisement: The advantage of advertising vacancies is that more information 
about the organisation and job can be given in the advertisement. Advertisement gives 
the management a wider range of candidates from which to choose. disadvantage is 
that it may bring in a flood of response, and many times, from quite unsuitable 
candidates. 
 Employment Exchange: Employment exchanges run by the Government are regarded as 
a good source of recruitment for unskilled and skilled operative jobs. Disadvantage of it is 
that is may be uptodate and many of the candidates referred by them may not be found 
suitable. 
 Placement Agencies and Management Consultants: 
  These provide a nationwide service. These agencies compile biodata of a large number of 
candidates and recommend suitable names to their clients. Such agencies charge fee for 
their services and they are useful. 
 Campus Recruitment: organisations maintain a close liaison with the universities, 
vocational schools and management institutes to recruit qualified personnel for various 
jobs.  
 Recommendations of Employees: Applicants introduced by present employees, or their 
friends and relatives may prove to be a good source of recruitment. Such applicants are 
likely to be good employees because their background is sufficiently known 
 Labour Contractors: Workers are recruited through labour contractors who are 
themselves employees of the organisation. The disadvantages of this system are that if 
the contractor himself decides to leave the organisation, all the workers employed 
through him will follow suit. 
 Advertising on Television:  generally advertised through television and newspaper 
The detailed requirements of the job and the qualities required to do it are publicised 
along with the profile of the organisation where vacancy exists. 
 Web Publishing: There are certain websites specifically designed and dedicated for 
the purpose of providing information about both job seekers and job opening.  
Page 4


 
CHAPTER -6 
STAFFING 
6 Marks 
 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
1. Concept and importance of staffing. 
2. Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management. 
3. Staffing process: 
a. Recruitment – sources 
b. Selection – process  
4. Training and development – concept and importance. 
5.  Methods of training – on the job and off the job – induction training, vestibule 
training, apprenticeship training and internship training. 
 
KEY CONCEPT IN NUTSHELL 
MEANING OF STAFFING:  
Staffing has been described as the managerial function of filling and keeping filled, the 
positions in an organization structure. Staffing is identifying the requirement of workforce 
followed by recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal and development of 
personnel, to fill the roles designed into the organization structure.  
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF STAFFING: 
In any organization, there is a need for people to perform work. The staffing function of 
management fulfills this requirement and finds the right people for the right job. The staffing 
function has assumed greater importance these days because of rapid advancement of 
technology, increasing size of organization and complicated behavior of human beings. The 
ability of an organization to achieve its goals depends upon the quality of its human resources.  
Staffing as a part of human resource management: 
Staffing is a function which all managers need to perform. It is a separate and specialized 
function and there are many aspects of human relations to be considered. 
It is the responsibility of all managers to directly deal and select people to work for the 
organization. When the manager performs the staffing function his role is slightly limited.  In 
small organizations managers may perform all duties related to employees salaries, welfare 
and working conditions. 
Bus as organizations grow and number of persons employed increases, a separate department 
called the human resource department is formed which has specialists in the field to manage 
people. Human resource management includes many specialized activities and duties which 
the human resource personnel must perform. 
RECRUITMENT: 
 
 Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible candidates for a job or function. It 
has been defined as ‘the process of searching for prospective employees and 
stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organisation.’  
Process of Recruitment : 
 The various activities involved with the process of recruitment includes                                          
(a) identification of the different sources of labour supply,                                                                   
(b) assessment of their validity,                                    
(c) choosing the most suitable source or sources, and                                                                                     
(d) inviting applications from the prospective candidates, for the vacancies 
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT: 
1) Internal Sources 
2) External Sources 
INTERNAL SOURCES: 
 Transfers: It involves shifting of an employee from one job to another, one 
department to another or from one shift to another, without a substantive change in 
the responsibilities and status of the employee   
 Promotions: Promotion leads to shifting an  employee to a higher position, carrying 
higher responsibilities, facilities, status and pay. Promotion is a vertical shifting of 
employees 
MERITS OF INTERNAL SOURCES: 
 Employees are motivated to improve their performance 
 Simplifies the process of selection and placement 
 Transfer is a tool of training the employees to prepare them for higher jobs. 
 Shifting workforce from the surplus departments to those where there is shortage of 
staff  
   Cheaper as compared to getting candidates from external sources. 
Limitations of Internal  Sources: 
 When vacancies are filled through internal promotions, the scope for induction of fresh 
talent is reduced. 
 Employees may become lethargic if they are sure of time bound promotions 
 Enterprise cannot use internal sources of recruitment. 
 Spirit of competition among the employees may be hampered. 
 
Frequent transfers of employees may often reduce the productivity of the organisation 
External Sources: 
 Direct Recruitment: The direct recruitment, a notice is placed on the notice board. of 
the enterprise specifying the details of the jobs available. Job seekers assemble outside 
the premises of the organisation on the specified date and selection is done on the spot 
recruitment. 
  Casual Callers: organisations keep a database of unsolicited applicants in their offices. 
Such jobseekers can be a valuable source of manpower. A list of such jobseekers can be 
prepared and can be screened to fill the vacancies as they arise. 
 Advertisement: The advantage of advertising vacancies is that more information 
about the organisation and job can be given in the advertisement. Advertisement gives 
the management a wider range of candidates from which to choose. disadvantage is 
that it may bring in a flood of response, and many times, from quite unsuitable 
candidates. 
 Employment Exchange: Employment exchanges run by the Government are regarded as 
a good source of recruitment for unskilled and skilled operative jobs. Disadvantage of it is 
that is may be uptodate and many of the candidates referred by them may not be found 
suitable. 
 Placement Agencies and Management Consultants: 
  These provide a nationwide service. These agencies compile biodata of a large number of 
candidates and recommend suitable names to their clients. Such agencies charge fee for 
their services and they are useful. 
 Campus Recruitment: organisations maintain a close liaison with the universities, 
vocational schools and management institutes to recruit qualified personnel for various 
jobs.  
 Recommendations of Employees: Applicants introduced by present employees, or their 
friends and relatives may prove to be a good source of recruitment. Such applicants are 
likely to be good employees because their background is sufficiently known 
 Labour Contractors: Workers are recruited through labour contractors who are 
themselves employees of the organisation. The disadvantages of this system are that if 
the contractor himself decides to leave the organisation, all the workers employed 
through him will follow suit. 
 Advertising on Television:  generally advertised through television and newspaper 
The detailed requirements of the job and the qualities required to do it are publicised 
along with the profile of the organisation where vacancy exists. 
 Web Publishing: There are certain websites specifically designed and dedicated for 
the purpose of providing information about both job seekers and job opening.  
 
Merits of External Source: 
 Qualified Personnel 
 Wider Choice 
  Fresh Talent 
  Competitive Spirit  
Limitations of External Sources: 
 Dissatisfaction among existing staff 
  Lengthy process 
  Costly process  
Selection: 
 Selection is the process of identifying and choosing the best person out of a number of 
prospective candidates for a job. Towards this purpose, the candidates are required to 
take a series of employment tests and interviews.  
Process of Selection: 
 Preliminary Screening: Preliminary screening helps the manager eliminate unqualified 
or unfit job seekers based on the information supplied in the application forms. 
 Selection Tests: An employment test is a mechanism (either a paper and pencil test or 
an exercise) that attempts to measure certain characteristics of individuals. These 
characteristics range from aptitudes, such as manual dexterity, to intelligence to 
personalities. 
 Important Tests Used for Selection of Employees 
  Intelligence Tests 
  Aptitude Test 
  Personality Tests 
  Trade Test 
  Interest Test 
 Employment Interview: The role of the interviewer is to seek information and that of 
the interviewee is to provide the same. Though, in present times, the interviewee also 
seeks information from interviewer. 
  Reference and Background Checks: Many employers request names, addresses, and 
telephone numbers of references for the purpose of verifying information and, gaining 
additional information on an applicant. 
Page 5


 
CHAPTER -6 
STAFFING 
6 Marks 
 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
1. Concept and importance of staffing. 
2. Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management. 
3. Staffing process: 
a. Recruitment – sources 
b. Selection – process  
4. Training and development – concept and importance. 
5.  Methods of training – on the job and off the job – induction training, vestibule 
training, apprenticeship training and internship training. 
 
KEY CONCEPT IN NUTSHELL 
MEANING OF STAFFING:  
Staffing has been described as the managerial function of filling and keeping filled, the 
positions in an organization structure. Staffing is identifying the requirement of workforce 
followed by recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal and development of 
personnel, to fill the roles designed into the organization structure.  
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF STAFFING: 
In any organization, there is a need for people to perform work. The staffing function of 
management fulfills this requirement and finds the right people for the right job. The staffing 
function has assumed greater importance these days because of rapid advancement of 
technology, increasing size of organization and complicated behavior of human beings. The 
ability of an organization to achieve its goals depends upon the quality of its human resources.  
Staffing as a part of human resource management: 
Staffing is a function which all managers need to perform. It is a separate and specialized 
function and there are many aspects of human relations to be considered. 
It is the responsibility of all managers to directly deal and select people to work for the 
organization. When the manager performs the staffing function his role is slightly limited.  In 
small organizations managers may perform all duties related to employees salaries, welfare 
and working conditions. 
Bus as organizations grow and number of persons employed increases, a separate department 
called the human resource department is formed which has specialists in the field to manage 
people. Human resource management includes many specialized activities and duties which 
the human resource personnel must perform. 
RECRUITMENT: 
 
 Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible candidates for a job or function. It 
has been defined as ‘the process of searching for prospective employees and 
stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organisation.’  
Process of Recruitment : 
 The various activities involved with the process of recruitment includes                                          
(a) identification of the different sources of labour supply,                                                                   
(b) assessment of their validity,                                    
(c) choosing the most suitable source or sources, and                                                                                     
(d) inviting applications from the prospective candidates, for the vacancies 
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT: 
1) Internal Sources 
2) External Sources 
INTERNAL SOURCES: 
 Transfers: It involves shifting of an employee from one job to another, one 
department to another or from one shift to another, without a substantive change in 
the responsibilities and status of the employee   
 Promotions: Promotion leads to shifting an  employee to a higher position, carrying 
higher responsibilities, facilities, status and pay. Promotion is a vertical shifting of 
employees 
MERITS OF INTERNAL SOURCES: 
 Employees are motivated to improve their performance 
 Simplifies the process of selection and placement 
 Transfer is a tool of training the employees to prepare them for higher jobs. 
 Shifting workforce from the surplus departments to those where there is shortage of 
staff  
   Cheaper as compared to getting candidates from external sources. 
Limitations of Internal  Sources: 
 When vacancies are filled through internal promotions, the scope for induction of fresh 
talent is reduced. 
 Employees may become lethargic if they are sure of time bound promotions 
 Enterprise cannot use internal sources of recruitment. 
 Spirit of competition among the employees may be hampered. 
 
Frequent transfers of employees may often reduce the productivity of the organisation 
External Sources: 
 Direct Recruitment: The direct recruitment, a notice is placed on the notice board. of 
the enterprise specifying the details of the jobs available. Job seekers assemble outside 
the premises of the organisation on the specified date and selection is done on the spot 
recruitment. 
  Casual Callers: organisations keep a database of unsolicited applicants in their offices. 
Such jobseekers can be a valuable source of manpower. A list of such jobseekers can be 
prepared and can be screened to fill the vacancies as they arise. 
 Advertisement: The advantage of advertising vacancies is that more information 
about the organisation and job can be given in the advertisement. Advertisement gives 
the management a wider range of candidates from which to choose. disadvantage is 
that it may bring in a flood of response, and many times, from quite unsuitable 
candidates. 
 Employment Exchange: Employment exchanges run by the Government are regarded as 
a good source of recruitment for unskilled and skilled operative jobs. Disadvantage of it is 
that is may be uptodate and many of the candidates referred by them may not be found 
suitable. 
 Placement Agencies and Management Consultants: 
  These provide a nationwide service. These agencies compile biodata of a large number of 
candidates and recommend suitable names to their clients. Such agencies charge fee for 
their services and they are useful. 
 Campus Recruitment: organisations maintain a close liaison with the universities, 
vocational schools and management institutes to recruit qualified personnel for various 
jobs.  
 Recommendations of Employees: Applicants introduced by present employees, or their 
friends and relatives may prove to be a good source of recruitment. Such applicants are 
likely to be good employees because their background is sufficiently known 
 Labour Contractors: Workers are recruited through labour contractors who are 
themselves employees of the organisation. The disadvantages of this system are that if 
the contractor himself decides to leave the organisation, all the workers employed 
through him will follow suit. 
 Advertising on Television:  generally advertised through television and newspaper 
The detailed requirements of the job and the qualities required to do it are publicised 
along with the profile of the organisation where vacancy exists. 
 Web Publishing: There are certain websites specifically designed and dedicated for 
the purpose of providing information about both job seekers and job opening.  
 
Merits of External Source: 
 Qualified Personnel 
 Wider Choice 
  Fresh Talent 
  Competitive Spirit  
Limitations of External Sources: 
 Dissatisfaction among existing staff 
  Lengthy process 
  Costly process  
Selection: 
 Selection is the process of identifying and choosing the best person out of a number of 
prospective candidates for a job. Towards this purpose, the candidates are required to 
take a series of employment tests and interviews.  
Process of Selection: 
 Preliminary Screening: Preliminary screening helps the manager eliminate unqualified 
or unfit job seekers based on the information supplied in the application forms. 
 Selection Tests: An employment test is a mechanism (either a paper and pencil test or 
an exercise) that attempts to measure certain characteristics of individuals. These 
characteristics range from aptitudes, such as manual dexterity, to intelligence to 
personalities. 
 Important Tests Used for Selection of Employees 
  Intelligence Tests 
  Aptitude Test 
  Personality Tests 
  Trade Test 
  Interest Test 
 Employment Interview: The role of the interviewer is to seek information and that of 
the interviewee is to provide the same. Though, in present times, the interviewee also 
seeks information from interviewer. 
  Reference and Background Checks: Many employers request names, addresses, and 
telephone numbers of references for the purpose of verifying information and, gaining 
additional information on an applicant. 
 
 Selection Decision: The final decision has to be made from among the candidates who 
pass the tests, interviews and reference checks. 
  Medical Examination: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, 
the candidate is required to undergo a medical fitness test.fit candidates are give the 
job. 
  Job Offer: job offer is made through a letter of appointment/confirm his acceptance. 
Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. 
Basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will 
vary according to the level of the job, but the following checklists sets out the typical 
headings: Job Title, Duties, Responsibilities, Date when continuous employment starts 
and the basis for calculating service, rates of pay, allowances, hours of work, leave 
rules, sickness, grievance procedure, disciplinary procedure, work rules, termination 
of employment.  
Training And Development: 
Training and Development is an attempt to improve the current or future employee 
performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by 
changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. 
Importance of Training and Development : 
 The rapid changes taking place during the last quarter century in our highly 
sophisticated and complex society have created increased pressures for organisations 
to readapt the products and services produced, the manner in which products and 
services are produced and offered, the types of jobs required and the types of skills 
necessary to complete these jobs.  
Benefits to the organisation: 
 wastage of efforts and money is minimised. 
 leading to higher profits. 
 increases employee morale and reduces absenteeism and employee turnover. 
 It helps in obtaining effective response to fast changing environment. 
 
Benefits  to the Employee: 
 Improved skills and knowledge 
 Increased performance and help in earning more money. 
 Training makes the employee more efficient. 
 Training increases the satisfaction and morale of employees.  
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