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Q.1. What is the backward class?
Backward class is that class of majority that became weak due to social, religious, economic, and geographical factors. The people belonging to this class were exploited to such an extent in the past, that even after the aid of various government policies, they still remain underdeveloped.
Q.2. What is a Totem?
A totem is a being, object, or symbol representing an animal or plant that serves as an emblem of a group of people such as a family clan, group, tribe, etc., reminding them of their ancestry. The Totem system is considered sacred and is worshipped.
Q.3. When was the Untouchability Offenses Act passed?
Untouchability Offenses Act was passed in 1955.
Q.4. When were untouchable castes given the name of Scheduled Castes?
Untouchable castes were given the name of Scheduled castes in 1935.
Q.5. What is Shifting Agriculture?
When the productivity of any agricultural area starts to decline the former leaves that place barren for a particular period so that it can regain its lost nutrients. Instead, they move to areas and commence agriculture at that place. This is called shifting agriculture.
Q.6. State any four problems of tribal people.
- Tribal people are very poor.
- Tribal people are generally illiterate.
- Generally, a lot of superstitions exist among tribal people.
- Tribal people are generally exploited by the urban people.
Q.7. Explain some of the religious disabilities of lower castes.
- Lower castes were not allowed to read religious books.
- They were not allowed to enter the temples. ,
- They were restricted to perform religious rituals.
- They were not allowed to go to take water from the wells of the villages.
Q.8. What is Untouchability?
Untouchability is a practice wherein people of the lower caste are not allowed to touch any individual, commodity, or utility belonging to a higher caste.
Q.9. What is meant by social disability?
Many restrictions were kept on people of lower castes to keep social relations with people of higher castes. This was known as the social disability of lower castes.
Q.10. What was the reform movement?
Those movements which were started to uplift the social status of women and lower castes were known as reform movements.
Q.11. How could Harijans be motivated to get an education?
- Their children should not be charged any fees.
- Brilliant students of Harijans should be given scholarships.
- Free of cost books should be given to them.
- They should be provided loans on easy installments for higher studies.
Q.12. What should be the criterion of backwardness?
The criterion of backwardness should not be caste but the economic condition of the person because rich people are also there in different castes.
Q.13. What was Sharda Bill?
Sharda Bill was passed in 1929. This bill had banned child marriage in the country.
Q.14. Why did child marriage and the Purdah system prevail in society?
Child marriage and the Purdah system prevailed in the society due to foreign attacks on the country and to maintain the purity of blood.
Q.15. What was the status of women in India during the reign of Muslim kings?
The status of women in India during the reign of Muslim kings or the diming medieval period was very bad. They were not given any rights. They were considered as the slaves of males. The kings used to take away any woman forcibly whichever they wanted. Females used to live on four walls of the house. Their main function was to produce children and to take care of the house.
Q.16. What was the provision of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1986?
The first Dowry Prohibition Act was passed in 1961 but some shortcomings were there. So to remove these shortcomings, another Act was passed in 1986 in which provision was made that a person who asks for dowry and the one who gives dowry shall be imprisoned up to 5 years or can be fined? 15,000 or both.
Q.17. What is the status of women in a joint family?
The status of women in a joint family is very low. The main work of the woman in a joint family is to take care of the house. She is restricted from doing anything against the will of her family. Also, she does not have any say in the decisions made by the family.
Q.18. What is a minority group?
When some people of the society have less representation in the population of the society, they are known as minority groups. It means that when any group based on religion or caste, has fewer members in the total population then that group is known as a minority group.
Q.19. State the problems faced by minorities in India.
- Minorities in India lack proper education.
- Leaders of minorities are not good enough.
- Members of minority groups live with the feeling of insecurity.
- Minorities of India are mostly poor.
Q.20. Which provisions are kept in the Constitution for the welfare of backward classes?
Many provisions are made in the Constitution for the welfare of backward classes. They are given reservation in educational institutions and government jobs for the uplift of their social status. They are given the freedom to develop their culture and language.
Q.21. Name some social evils prevalent in the society against women.
Dowry deaths, eve-teasing, rape, physical exploitation of wives, female foeticide, etc.
Q.22. Name the social reformers, in the modern age, who contributed towards the welfare of women?
Famous leaders of earlier reform movements were Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Keshav Chandra Sen, Jyotiba Phoole, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekanand, Maharishi Karve, Govind Ranade, etc. All of them denounced disabilities faced by women and took steps for their welfare.
Q.23. What is social about social inequality?
Social inequality and exclusion are social individuals but are about different groups. They are called social since they are not economic but are systematic and structured.
Q.24. Who established Satya Sfrodhan Samaj and why?
Satya Shodhan Samaj was established by Jyotiba Phooley in 1873 because he wanted to uplift the backward class of western India.
Q.25. Which religion was adopted by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and why?
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar adopted Buddhism because he was unable to eliminate the disabilities of the caste system.
Q.26. What provisions were kept in the Untouchability Offenses Act?
Under the Untouchability Offenses Act, provisions were made that encouraging or practicing untouchability is a legal offense. A person practicing untouchability can be imprisoned for up to 6 months or can be fined or both can be implemented.
Q.27. What is a Tribe?
A tribe is a group of people who live in remote areas such as forests, mountains, valleys, etc. They have their own language, culture, ways of living, eating and wearing habits, etc.
Q.28. State any four features of a Tribe.
- The tribe has its own geographical area.
- The tribe has its own distinct culture.
- The tribe lives in an undeveloped condition.
- Every tribe has its different name, language, and tradition.
Q.29. Explain some of the social disabilities of scheduled castes.
- Scheduled castes were restricted to take water from wells of the higher castes.
- They were not allowed to receive an education.
- They were restricted to keep any social relations with higher castes.
- They were not allowed to go in front of people of higher castes.
Q.30. What is a disability?
Many restrictions were kept by higher castes on lower castes in the society. These restrictions were known as disabilities. There were various types of disabilities such as social, economic, and religious disabilities in society.
Q.31. What is an economic disability?
A disability wherein an individual is restricted or forbidden to carry on occupations of his choice to earn more income.
Q.32. What is meant by religious disability?
People of lower castes were not allowed to enter into temples, read religious scriptures and perform religious rituals. It was known as the religious disability of lower castes.
Q.33. How could Harijans be uplifted?
- The caste system should be eliminated from society.
- Occupations of the lowest level should be stopped.
- Propaganda against untouchability should be increased.
- Different types of disabilities should be stopped.
- Education should be spread among people of lower castes.
Q.34. What should be the age of marriage according to Sharda Bill?
According to Sharda Bill, the age of marriage was fixed at 14 years for girls and 18 years for boys.
Q.35. What was the impact of western culture on Indian women?
Indian women became conscious of the advent of western culture in India. In ancient times, women in India had to spend her life within the four walls of the house with many restrictions. But now she came out of her house and broke all the rules. She opposed all the social evils and injustice of society and started to think about her uplifter.
Q.36. How did the Dowry system originate?
All parents want that their girl should be married in a higher status family. It was known as Hypergamy (Kulin marriage). Demand for boys of higher status families increased due to hypergamy and the number of capable boys reduced. That is why the price and demand of boys increased and the dowry system started.
Q.37. What is the status of women in today’s age?
Presently, the status of women has improved as compared to earlier. She has got all the rights related to property. Now, she has come out of her house and is working in offices, factories and big firms. Women are now choosing even those occupations which were confined only to males in earlier times. Now she is doing her job as well as taking care of the house. Women have been westernized to a great extent.
Q.38. What type of status women have in nuclear families?
The status of women in nuclear families is quite good. Females of nuclear families are going out of the house for doing jobs. Her advice is being taken in every matter of the family and generally, her advice is being accepted by the family. She stands with the males in terms of earning and enjoys a very good position in a nuclear family.
Q.39. Give some names of minority groups in India.
Muslims, Sikhs, Buddhists, Christians, Janis are the minority groups of the country.
Q.40. What are deprived groups? Give examples.
Certain groups are there in almost all the society which was economically, socially, educationally, and politically weak. These groups are known as deprived groups. For example scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, women, and other backward classes.
Q.41. How many people of Scheduled tribes and Scheduled castes live over in India?
According to the census of 1991, around 13.82 crore people of scheduled castes live in India that constitutes 16.48% of the total population. In 2001, 6.7 crore tribal people lived over here which constituted around 8.28% of the total population.
Q.42. State a few laws passed for women before independence.
- Sati Prohibition Act, 1829.
- Widow Remarriage Act, 1856.
- Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929.
Q.43. What is the relation of poverty with a disability?
Poverty and disability are correlated to each other. Malnutrition, mothers weakened by frequent childbirth, inadequate immunization programmer, accidents in over-crowded homes, all contribute to an incidence of disability among poor people.
Q.44. What does the term social stratification refer to?
Social stratification is a system by which categories of people in a society are ranked in a hierarchy. This hierarchy then shapes people’s identity and experiences, their relations with others, as well as their access to resources and opportunities.