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Important Questions & Answers: Social Institutions - Continuity & Change - 2 - Notes | Study Sociology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts

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Short Answer Type Question

Q.29. What is Hierarchy?

There was a definite hierarchy in the caste system which means society was divided into different segments on the basis of their higher or lower status. Brahmins were given a higher status in all parts of India. Kshatriyas were in second place and the third place was of Vaishyas. Fourth and the last place in the society was given to the lower castes. The social status of any person in society was determined on the basis of this hierarchy. Brahmins were given the highest respect.

Q.30. Restrictions regarding castes. Explain.
What was the restriction related to caste?

There were some rules in every caste regarding restrictions on certain points like:

  • Every person had to adopt the occupation of his own caste.
  • He had to obey the rules about food and food-sharing.
  • He had to marry in his own caste.
  • Lower castes were not allowed to get an education and to enter the temples.
  • Lower castes were not allowed to touch the people of higher castes and to use the wells that belonged to the higher castes.

Q.31. What is meant by the term Untouchability?
Caste gives rise to untouchability. How?
How did the caste system give rise to untouchability?

Caste System gave rise to untouchability. The so-called upper caste of the society considered the lower caste as inferior. They were kept away from society. They were not allowed to touch anyone. This restriction was known as untouchability. People of lower castes were supposed to live out of the village or the city. This created inequality in society.

Q.32. What are the merits of the caste-system?

  • Determination of Occupation: The caste system has always determined the occupation of every caste. Occupation of Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Lower Castes were fixed at the time of birth. It provided occupational security to everyone.
  • Making a religious base: The caste system has always given a religious base to society. Religious duties of every caste were fixed and religious rituals were to be performed by different caste.
  • To provide Social Stability: The caste system also provides social stability. Occupation, status, rules, etc. of every caste are generally fixed. A definite relationship was shared between all the castes with which stability came in the society.

Q.33. How has the caste system affected our society?

  • Caste System has affected social mobility. A person cannot leave his place due to his occupation.
  • Caste System has created obstacles in the way of economic development of society and individuals because people of higher castes maintained a distance from lower castes.
  • Individual abilities are always suppressed by a caste system.
  • Enmity among different castes has increased due to the advent of casteism in politics.
  • Many a time it becomes a major factor in creating communal violence.

Q.34. Give four characteristics of a Family.

  • Universal Group: Family is a social and universal group. It is also known as the primary institution in human history because it exists in every society and at all times. Every member of society is definitely a member of a family.
  • Small in Size: The size of the family is limited because only those persons are included in the family who either have taken birth in the family or who have marital relations.
  • Central position in Social Structure: Our society is based on the family and different associations are formed only through the family. That is why it has a central position in society.

Q.35. Explain the types of the family on the basis of residence.

Three types of families are there on the basis of residence:

  • Patrilocal Family: In this type of family, the wife goes to her husband’s house to live after marriage.
  • Matrilocal Family: When the husband, after marriage, goes to his wife’s house to live, then this type of family is known as the Matrilocal family.
  • Neolocal Family: In Neolocal family, husband-wife make their own new house instead of going to their parents’ house.

Q.36. What is the importance of the kinship system?

  • Kinship determines the authority in the family.
  • The kinship system is very helpful at the time of marriage because it tells us which family one belongs to.
  • Relatives are very much necessary for the completion of certain rituals of many religions of Indian society.
  • The person needs his relatives at the time of pleasure and sorrow.

Q.37. Explain the role of the caste system in the modern age.

Today, we can clearly say that the caste system has been weakened to a great extent. Now, it hardly matters as to which group a person belongs to. The structural aspect of the caste system has also been weakened. Caste discrimination, religious disabilities, restrictions on social intercourse are no more a part of society. Now caste has no direct relation with one’s occupation.
Jajmani’s system of villages is also weakening. The majority groups have dominance in villages instead of caste groups. Yet some impact of the caste system can be seen at the time of marriage but its rigid aspect is no more seen. It has been greatly influenced by a number of processes like industrialization, urbanization, Sanskritization, westernization, etc.

Q.38. What do you know about categories of kinship?

Three types of categories of Kinship are there on the basis of closeness and these are:

  • Primary Relatives: Primary relatives like husband, wife, father, son, daughter, brother, sister, etc. are included in this category. We have a direct relationship with them. These are of 8 types.
  • Secondary Relatives: Those relatives with whom we are connected with the medium of our primary relatives are our secondary relatives like the brother of father- uncle, sister of mother-aunt, father of father-grandfather, etc. These are of 53 types.
  • Tertiary Kins: Tertiary kins are those relatives which are primary relatives of our secondary relatives. For example, son of the brother of father cousin, wife of mother’s brother, aunt (Miami), etc. These are of 151 types.

Q.39. Explain the Segmental division of society.

Indian society was divided into many segments within the caste system but broadly it was divided into four segments. Brahmins belonged to the first segment, then Kashatriyas, then Vaishyas and at the end, the Shudras or the lower castes were there. The status, place, and functions of the members of every segment were pre-determined. Every caste had its own rituals, customs, traditions, values, etc. That is why the scope of relations of members of every caste was generally limited to its own social division. Every caste was the social unit in itself to which a person belonged.

Q.40. Restrictions on social relations. Explain.
What were the restrictions regarding social relations?

Society was divided into different castes in earlier times and was segregated into higher and lower castes. People of higher castes used to live inside the village and people of lower castes lived outside the village. They had to maintain distance from each other. Lower castes were not allowed to get an education with people of higher castes and were not allowed to enter the temples and to take water from the wells that belonged to the higher castes. Lower castes were not allowed to perform Upanayana Samskara.

Q.41. Give differences between caste and class as a form of social stratification.

Important Questions & Answers: Social Institutions - Continuity & Change - 2 - Notes | Study Sociology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts

Q.42. Describe different functions of the caste system.

  • Caste determines the occupation of a person as he gets it from the family.
  • Caste provides social security to a person.
  • Caste gives mental security to a person.
  • Caste maintains the purity of blood.
  • Caste provides political security.

Q.43. What are the demerits of the caste system?

  • Division of Society: Caste System divided society into many parts. It led to hatred for other castes which led to enmity among different castes.
  • The obstacle in individual development: The occupation of everyone is fixed in the caste system. One has to adopt occupation of his caste even if he has the ability to do better work. In this way, it is an obstacle in the way of an individual’s ability.
  • The obstacle in Social development: Caste System is also an obstacle in the way of social development. Everyone thinks about his own caste, own people. People hardly care about the development of society.
  • The obstacle in the way of Social reforms: Concepts of lower castes, untouchability, etc. came in front due to the caste system. It has kept lower castes at a lower place and hardly gave them the chance to come forward.

Q.44. How has industrialization affected the caste system?

  • In many large cities, people started to live with each other without any discrimination due to industrialization.
  • The industrialization has brought wealth to the society with which the class system has replaced the caste system.
  • The industrialization has encouraged international relations because of which people have left their ancestral places and started living in other countries.
  • Untouchability was discouraged and even the lower section of society was given certain rights.
  • People started getting educated and this changed they are approached completely.

Q.45. What are the main functions of a family?

(a) Basic functions:

  • Giving birth to children
  • Protection of members
  • Arrangement of food, house, and cloth
  • Protection of children.

(b) Social Functions:

  • Determines the status
  • Socialization
  • Social control
  • Preserving social heritage.

(c) Economic Functions:

  • Division of Labour
  • Arrangement of income
  • Protection of property.

(d) Giving religious education to its members.
(e) Political functions: Educating the members about their rights and duties.

Q.46. How many types of kinship are there?

Two types of kinship are there:

  • Blood Relations: Relations based on blood are known as blood relatives like the relation of parents with their children. Relation of father, mother, brother, sister, etc. also comes in this category. These relations are based upon social sanctions and biological facts.
  • Consanguine Relations: These types of relations are made on the basis of marriage. Not only husband-wife come in this category but relatives of bride and bridegroom also come in it. For example, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, etc.

Q.47. What is Tribal society?

A tribe is a group of people who lives away from our civilization on mountains, forests, and valleys traditionally. The society which exists in these tribes is known as tribal society. A tribal society is a classless society in which there is no division of any type. Most of the population of tribal society lives either on mountains or in forests. These societies are generally self-dependent, who have control over themselves and they can independently survive on then own. They live in communities, quite segregated from society. Tribal society is completely different from rural and urban society from the point of view of social structure and culture.

Q.48. What do you know about the concept of Tribal Identity’?

The meaning of Tribal Identity is to preserve the social and cultural heritage of tribes so that the existence of their culture should not come to an end after they come in contact with other cultures. These days tribes are feeling that they are being marginalized and that is why the concept of tribal identity came in front.
In tribal societies, people are converting their religion, forgetting about their culture, and want to become modern because of the impact of Christian missionaries and the spread of education. It is harming their basic culture. That is why the sense of tribal identity came forward so that their specific culture, religion, language, etc. could be preserved.

Q.49. In what ways can changes in social structure lead to changes in family structure? 

It is true that changes in social structure lead to changes in family structure. For example, the Indian social structure was based on rural values. During colonial rule, industries established in India and rural society started to change into an industrial society. Rural people started working in industries.
That is why they started to migrate towards urban areas by leaving rural areas. In this way, the joint families existing in rural areas started disintegrating. People started to migrate toward urban areas and they took their wives and children with them. It led to the disintegration of joint families and to the advent of nuclear families.

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