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Important Questions & Answers: Social Institutions - Continuity & Change - 1 - Notes | Study Sociology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts

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Very Short Answer Type Question

Q.1. Give the meaning of Caste.

The Hindu social system has one of the important complex and interesting institutions which is known as the caste system. Word ‘Caste’ has been taken from the Portuguese word ‘Casta’ which means birth. A caste is an endogamous group whose membership is based on birth. Occupation in this is hereditary and traditional.


Q.2. Give merits of Caste.

  • Caste does the division of labor.
  • Caste maintains social unity.
  • Caste maintains the purity of blood.
  • Caste makes the rules of education.


Q.3. Describe the functions of caste.

  • Caste determines the occupation of a person.
  • Caste provides social security to a person.
  • Caste gives mental security to a person.
  • Caste maintains the purity of the blood.


Q.4. What are the causes of change in caste?
Or
Why is Caste changing?

  • Because of socio-religious movements.
  • Efforts of Indian government and making of legislations.
  • Because of the changes made by the British.
  • Because of changes in caste due to industrialization.


Q.5. Into how many parts ancient Indian society was divided?

It was divided into the following four parts:

  • Brahmins: They used to impart education to the upper three castes.
  • Kshatriyas: They used to protect the country from any type of aggression.
  • Vaishyas: They were either engaged in business or agriculture.
  • Fourth varna: They used to serve the upper three castes.


Q.6. What are the changes coming in Caste System?

Many changes came in the caste system due to western education, industrialization, urbanization, means of communication, etc. Almost all the restrictions of the caste system are coming improved to an end. Inter-caste marriages are increasing, the position of lower caste has been improved, steps have been taken against all types of discrimination, and problems regarding occupation is no more in the society.


Q.7. Give the definition of Tribe.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, “A tribe is a collection of families bearing a common name, speaking a common dialect, occupying or professing to occupy a common territory and is not usually endogamous, though originally it might have been so.”


Q.8. Give the meaning of Family.

A family is a social institution in which a husband and wife are socially entitled to procreate and bring up their children. It is a social set up in which people with blood relation live together.


Q.9. What are the characteristics or features of a Family?

There is no human society in which some form of a family does not appear. Therefore, it is universal.

  • Family is based on human relationships, trust and other emotions, and sentimental values.
  • The family has a central position in a social structure.
  • Family is a bond of blood relations.
  • Members of the family share responsibilities, duties, and obligations amongst themselves.
  • Family is the basis of social control.


Q.10. What is a Nuclear Family?
Or
Define Nuclear Family.

According to Murdock, “The Nuclear family consists of types of a married man and woman with their offsprings, although in some cases one or more additional persons may reside with them.” In this way, a Nuclear family is a family in which the husband-wife and their unmarried children live. After marriage, children have their own different nuclear families. These are small in size.


Q.11. Define Joint Family.

According to Karve, “A Joint family is a group of persons who generally live under one roof, who eat food cooked in one kitchen, who hold property in common, participate in common worship and are related to one another as some particular type kindred.”


Q.12. What is Polygamy?

The practice or the custom of having more than one wife at the same time. This type of Marriage is restricted by the law of Hindu Marriage Act of 1955.


Q.13. What is a Patriarchal Family?

In this type of family whole power or authority of the family is in the hands of the father. The Male is in charge of the family. Everyone obeys the orders given by the father and the father has full control over its members. This type of family exists these days.


Q.14. What is a Patrilineal family?

In Patrilineal society, the inheritance of property passes on from father to son.


Q.15. What is Kinship?

According to Charles Winick, “Kinship system may include socially recognized relationship based on supposed as well as actual genealogical ties.” It means that the system of developed social relations made by-actual blood and made by marriage is known as Kinship.


Q.16. Give any three characteristics of Caste.

  • Membership of caste is based upon birth.
  • A caste is an endogamous group.
  • Castes were traditionally linked to occupations.


Q.17. How caste provides social security?

Caste provides social security to its members. Members of every caste are always ready to help the members of their caste. There was no need for a person to be worried from any point of view because he was aware of the fact that his caste will definitely help him if any need arises.


Q.18. Define Caste.

According to Risley, “Caste is a collection of families or group of families bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from a mythical ancestor, human or divine, professing to follow the name hereditary calling and regarded by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community.”


Q.19. Give Demerits of Caste System.

  • The caste system causes discrimination, inequality, prejudice, etc.
  • The caste system breeds untouchability.
  • The caste system causes casteism.
  • The caste system leads to communal conflict.


Q.20. What is the role of caste in spreading culture?

Every caste has its own occupations, eating habits, living standards, etc. An individual observes all the customs and rituals associated with caste and also teaches them to his children. In this way, culture goes down from one generation to another and caste plays a very important role in it.


Q.21. What is a Tribe?
Or
Who are the Tribals? 

A tribe is that group of people who lives away from our civilization on mountains, forests, and valleys traditionally. This group lives in a specific geographical area and have their own language, culture, and religion. These groups are endogamous groups and obey some rules from the point of view of love, occupation, and industry.


Q.22. What do you mean by Inter-caste marriage?

When any person marries a girl of other castes instead of his own caste then it is known as Inter-caste marriage. In ancient times, marriage out of the caste was not allowed. But there is no such restriction in modern times.


Q.23. Define the Family

According to Nimkoff, “A family is more or less a durable association of husband and wife with or without children or of a man or woman alone with children.” According to Maclver, “The family is a group defined by sex relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children.”


Q.24. The universality of Family. Explain.
Or
Family is Universal. How?

A family is a social group that is known as the first institution of human society. It is so because it has existed in every society and in every age in one or the other form. Every member of society is first a member of a family. Every person is related by psychological and emotional basis with the family in which he is born.


Q.25. Give the main functions of the Family.
  • It helps in perpetuating the race through procreation.
  • It helps in socializing the children and make them a responsible citizen.
  • It is the starting point of the division of labor.
  • It is the primary economic unit where family members share all economic


Q.26. What is Polyandry?

In this type of marriage, one female can marry many males at a time. It means one wife can have more than one husband at a time. It is of two types, fraternal and non-fraternal polyandry.


Q.27. What is Matriarchal Family?

In this type of family whole power or authority of the family is in the hands of the mother. In this family, children are under the control of the mother. Here, a son has no right over the property but daughters have rights over the property. This type of family exists in many tribes.


Q.28. What is a Matrilineal family?

In Matrilineal societies, the inheritance of property passes on from mother to daughter.

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