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⇒ The three measures of central tendency are:

(a) Mean

(b) Median

(c) Mode

⇒ Mean can be calculated by the following methods:

(a) Direct Method

(b) Short-cut Method

(c) Step Deviation Method

⇒ The mean can be calculated by the following formulae :

where A = assumed mean and d_{i} = x_{i} - A

⇒ The median of the distribution is the middle value of a distribution.

⇒ The median of a grouped frequency distribution can be calculated by:

l = lower limit of median class

l = frequency of median class

h = width of median class

c.f. = cumulative frequency of the class preceding the median class.

⇒ Mode is the value of the variable which has the maximum frequency.

⇒ The mode of a continuous frequency distribution may be computed by the following formulae:

Mode =

where

l = lower limit of the modal class.

f_{1} = frequency of modal class.

f_{2} = frequency of class succeeding the modal class.

f_{o} = frequency of class preceding the modal class.

h = size of the class interval.

⇒ The relation between the three measures of central tendency is

Mode = 3 Median - 2 Mean OR 3 Median = Mode + 2 Mean.

⇒ Ogives are used to get the median of a frequency distribution

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