UPSC : Indus Valley Civilization (Part - 2) UPSC Notes | EduRev
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- This is situated on the bank of Bhogavar.
- Only at Lothal and Rangpur, rice husks have been found.
- The use of weights and measures proves that they knew arithmetic as well which is shown by a scale found at Lothal.
- On the eastern side is located a dockyard and wharf loading platform.
- A doubtful terracotta figurine of a horse is found here.
- The worship of fire is proved by the discovery of fire altars at: Lothal, Kalibangan and Mohenjodaro.Excavated site at Lothal
- Pre-Harappan settlement has been found at—(I) Kot Diji (II) Kalibangan (III) Harappa.
- Four outposts of the Harappan Civilisation are Manda in the north, Damimabad in the South, Hulas and Alamgirpur in the east and Suktagendor in the west.
- The Harappan Civilisation roughly extended over an area of 1.3 million sq. km.
- The spread of the Harappan Civilisation is co-terminous with the wheat producing zone.
- Feature of the coastal towns of the Harappan Civilisation—
(I) To exploit locally available raw materials (shell, minerals etc.);
(II) To act as ports for the Gulf region;
(III) To act as entrepot of trade and commerce for the inland towns.
- Harappans had a highly skilled knowledge of metallurgy which is proved by the mixture of copper and tin in ideal proportion for bronze implements.
- The latest harappan site discovered in Gujarat is Dholavira.
- Two most thickly populated cites of the Harappan civilisation were Mohenjodaro and Harappa.
- Harappan ports—
(III) and Suktagendor etc.
- Station of Harappan cattle breeders—Nesadi.
- Wheeler pointed out some kind of military assault or mass execution of the Harappan people on the basis of skeletons found at Mohenjodaro.
- The Harappan fortifications were meant to—
(I) Defend the townships from strong attacks by enemies;
(II) Protect the town from floods;
(III) Serve as safety measures from robbers.
- Harappan people had closest external contacts with Mesopotamia.
- The entry port for trade between the Indus trading centres and Mesapotomia was Bahrain.
- The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters on some of potsherds from Kalibangan show that writing was boustrophendon or from right to left and from left to right in alternative lines.
- Chief deity was the Mahadeva. In a seal he is surrounded by four animals—elephant, tiger, rhino and buffalo and two deer at his feet.
- There was a great progress in ceramic art, plastic art and metal sculpture.
- The seals might be considered the first art objects in India.
- Icon in Indian art appears in Harappan culture for the first time on a famous seal from Mohenjodaro.
- Gold—From South India, Afghanistan and Persia.
- Silver—Afghanistan and Iran
- Copper—South India, Baluchistan and Arabia.
Type of Marriage in the Vedic Period
- Brahma: Marriage of a duly cowered girl to a man of the same class.
- Daiva: In this type of marriage, the father gives a daughter to a sacrificial priest as part of his fee.
- Arsa: In this type of marriage, a token bride-price of a cow and a bull is given in place of the dowry.
- Prajapatya: The father gives the girl without dowry and without demanding the bride-price.
- Gandharva: Marriage by the consent of the two parties, which might be solemnized merely by plighting troth.
- Asura: Asura marriage, in which the bride was bought from her father, was looked upon with disfavour by all the sacred texts, though the Arthashastra allows it without criticism.
- Rakshasa: Rakshasa marriage, or marriage by capture, was practised especially by warriors.
- Paishacha: It was the seduction of girl while asleep, mentally deranged or drunk.
- Of these eight forms: The first four were generally approved and were permissible to Brahmans. The other forms were looked on with varying degrees of disfavours by the pious. Gandharva marriage, which often might amount to no more than a liaison, was surprisingly respected. A special form of the gandharva marriage was the Swaymvar or “self-choice”.Prajapatya
- Lapis Lazuli—Badakshan
- Agate—Saurastra and Western India.
- Jade—Central Asia
- Cronch-Shells—Saurashtra and the Deccan.
- Three methods of disposing the dead:
(I) Complete burial.
(II) Burial after exposure of the body to birds and beasts.
(III) Cremation followed by burial of the ashes.
- Aryan Invasion—Reference to the destruction of forts by Aryans in the Rig Veda.
- Geographical Occurences—Recurring floods e.g. Mohenjodaro and Chanhudaro, drying up of rivers e.g., Kalibangan and Banwali.
Weaknesses of the Harappans
- Lack of plasticity of mind.
- Difficulty in obtaining raw materials particularly copper and tin.
- Limited use of scripts as compared to the Sumerians.
Gradual Process of Decline
- Decline of trade, Precarious economic situation, Ineffective Harappan admin-istration.
Facts To Be Remembered
- Wheat and barley were the earliest cereals grown by man.
- Growing of grains made possible the transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic age.
- The main occupation of the Paleolithic people was hunting and gathering food.
- The Indus Valley Civilization type was found in Sumer.
- The paintings of Ajanta depict stories of the Jatakas.
- Purushasukta is found in the Rigveda.
- Milindapanha is a religious conversation.
- The Uttaramerur inscription belongs to the period of Prantaka I.
- The first coins circulated in Bihar and U.P. in India.
- From the twelfth year of his reign Ashoka began to issue edicts.
- The earliest evidence of the practice of sati can be gleaned from an inscription at Eran in M.P. dated 510 A.D.
- Neolithic period is known as food producing stage.
- Though fire was discovered in the Palaeolithic age, its use for cooking was started in the Neolithic age.
- Allahabad Pillar Inscription is the Prasasti written by Harisena on Samudragupta.
- Struta Sutra deals with religious sacrifices.
- The emotional poetry of the Saiva saints of South India was called Tevram (also known as Dravida Veda).
- Ashoka introduced the institution of ‘dhamma-mahamatta’ in the major rock edict-V.
- The capital of Kanvas was at Pataliputra.
- Tamil is the oldest among the spoken literary languages of South India.
- In the Vedic age widows could remarry.
- Maski edict mention the personal name of Ashoka.
- Jatakas are stories relating to the different births of Buddha.
- Matsya is identified with modern Jaipur, and included Alwar and a part of Bharatpur.
- Asokan inscriptions may be considered the first written record in India.
- Bhagavad Gita was originally written in Sanskrit.
- Kautilya’s Arthashastra is compared to Machiavelli’s Prince.
- The most sacred book of the Buddhists is the Tripitakas.
- Pallavas created the Mahabalipura, rock temples.
- The philosophy of Vishishtadvaita is associated with Ramanuja.
- Vedanta philosophy spread during the period of the Guptas.
- The most popular god of the Tamil people was Murugan.
- Chief impact of Vedic culture on Indian history was the consolidation of caste.
- The salient feature of the Rigvedic religion was worship of the Mother Goddess.
- The major difference between varna and jati is that varna are only four but jati are many.
- The Brahmanas are books that deal with rituals.
- Sankaracharya founded four maths in four corners of India.
- The famous dialogue between Nachiketa and yama is mentioned in the Kathopanishad.