Introduction: Status of Petroleum Refinery, Crude Oil And Natural Gas Origin (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Chemical Technology

Chemical Engineering : Introduction: Status of Petroleum Refinery, Crude Oil And Natural Gas Origin (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

The document Introduction: Status of Petroleum Refinery, Crude Oil And Natural Gas Origin (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev is a part of the Chemical Engineering Course Chemical Technology.
All you need of Chemical Engineering at this link: Chemical Engineering

Refinery Processes  

Refining of crude oils or petroleum essentially consists of primary separation processes and secondary conversion processes. The petroleum refining process is the separation of the different hydrocarbons present in the crude oil into useful fractions and the conversion of some of the hydrocarbons into products having higher quality performance. Atmospheric and vacuum distillation of crude oils is the main primary separation processes producing various straight run products, e.g., gasoline to lube oils/vacuum gas oils (VGO). These products, particularly the light and middle distillates, i.e., gasoline, kerosene and diesel are more in demand than their direct availability from crude oils, all over the world. The typical refinery operation involves separation processes, conversion processes, finishing processes, environmental protection processes. Typical refinery process diagram is shown in Figure M-VI 1.2

Separation Processes

  • Distillation
  • Absorption
  • Extraction
  • Crystallisation
  • Adsorption

Primary Distilation (Atmospheric Distillation)

  • Refinery gases
  • Liquefied petroleum gases  
  • Gasolines or naphtha (light/heavy)
  • Kerosene, lamp oil jet fuel
  • Diesel oil and domestic heating oils
  • Heavy Industrial fuels

Secondary Disllation (Vacuum Distillation)

  • Light Distillate
  • Middle distillate
  • Heavy distillate
  • Asphalt/bitumen

Conversion Processes 

Process for Improvement of Properties 

  • Catalytic reforming
  • Isomerisation
  • Alkylation 

  Introduction: Status of Petroleum Refinery, Crude Oil And Natural Gas Origin (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-VI 1.2: Typical Refinery Processes and Products

  • Visbreaking
  • Coking

Catalytic Processes

  • Catalytic cracking(FCC)
  • Hydrocracking
  • Steam reforming
  • Hydroconversion

Finishing Processes 

  • Hydrotreatment/hydrogenation
  • Sweetening

Environmental Protection Processes 

  • Acid gas processing
  • Stack gas processing
  • Waste water treatment process

Types of Petroleum Refining Processes 

Primary Processes: Separating crude into its various fractions e.g. CDU/VDU

Secondary Processes: Processing residues from primary processes and upgrading them to distillates e.g. FCCU, HCU

Residue Upgradation Processes: Bottom of the barrel upgradation eg. RFCCU, DCU, DCC 

Finishing/ Product Quality Improvement Processes:Processes to improve product quality and meet stringent product quality specifications eg. DHDS, DHDT, CRU

Refining Capacity 

Global oil consumption and refining capacity, World Refining Capacity Country wise 2009 are given in Table M-VI 1.5 and Figure M-VI 1.3. Present refining capacity in India is million tones per annum. The present import of crude in India is around 180 million tones per annum. It is expected that the import of crude oil has to exceed 240 million tones per annum in the next five years, if GDP growth of around 6 to 7percent were to be sustained.

Table M-VI 1.5: Global Oil Consumption and Refining Capacity 2009  million barrel/d    

Region

Oil consumption

Refining

capacity

Remarks

Asia Pacific

25.99

26.81

Just matching

North america

22.83

21.13

Deficit

Europe and Eurasia

19.37

24.92

Surplus

S & cent .America

5.65

6.69

Surplus

Middle east

7.15

7.86

Surplus

Africa

3.08

3.26

Surplus

Total

84.04

90.66

Surplus

Introduction: Status of Petroleum Refinery, Crude Oil And Natural Gas Origin (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-VI 1.3: World Refining Capacity Country wise 2009

Total: 90.7 mbpd (4533 MMTPA) 

Changing Scenario in Gasoline and Diesel Specifications 

Major Parameters of Gasoline Specifications [Table M-VI 1.6]

  • Lead phase out
  • Lower RVP
  • Lower benzene & aromatics
  • Lower olefin content
  • Limited Oxygen content
  • Lower Sulfur content

Major Parameters of Diesel Specifications [Table M-VI 1.7] 

  • Low sulfur
  • Low aromatics
  • High cetane number
  • Lower density
  • Lower distillation end point

Table M-VI 1.6: Key Specification of Gasoline  

Specification

BIS

2000

BS-II

Euro-III Eqv.

Euro-IV Eqv .

Regular

Premium

Regular

Premium

Sulphur,ppmw

(max)

1000

500

150

150

50

50

RON,Min

88

88

91

95

91

95

MON,Min

No

spec.

No

spec.

81

85

81

85

AKI,Min

84

84

81

85

 

 

Benzene

vol%(max)

5

3

1

1

1

1

Aromatics

vol%(max)

No

spec.

No

spec.

42

42

42

35

Olefins

vol%(max)

No

spec.

No

spec.

21

18

21

81

Table M-VI 1.7: Key Specification of High Speed Diesel (HSD)  

Specification

BIS2000

BS-II

Euro-III

Equ.

Euro III Equiv.

Density@15oC

Kg/m3

820-860

820-860

820-845

820-845

Sulphur content ppmw(max)

2500

500

350

50

Cetane

48

48

51

51

 

number(min)

 

 

 

 

Distillation

99% Vol (oC max)

370

370

360

360

Polycyclic

aromatics

hydrocarbons

(PAH),%

massmax

No spec.

No spec

11

11

 
Maximizing Value Addition to Refinery Streams 
 
For a refinery to be successful today, it has to be integrated with petrochemical to benefit from better realization from value added products and to mitigate the effect of volatile oil process and highly competitive refining business . Some of the streams which can maximize value addition to the refinery is given in Table M-VI 1.8. 
 
Table M-VI 1.8: Maximizing Value Addition to Refinery Streams 
  

Streams

Utilization

Fuel Gas

H2

FCC

 

Ethylene

Ethyl Benzene to Styrene

Propylene

Cumene, Iso-Propanol

Butylene

Methyl Ethyl Keton, MTBE, Xylenes

C3

Propylene + H2

C4

Discussed Separately

LPG

BTX

C5

TAME

Light naphtha

LPG, BTX

Heavy Naphtha

Aromatics

Kerosene

n-paraffins to LAB

LCO (FCC unit)

Mixed Naphthalenes

Coker Kerosene

a-Olefins

Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Extra Questions

,

Exam

,

Introduction: Status of Petroleum Refinery

,

Crude Oil And Natural Gas Origin (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

,

Free

,

video lectures

,

Semester Notes

,

Sample Paper

,

Viva Questions

,

Important questions

,

practice quizzes

,

Crude Oil And Natural Gas Origin (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

study material

,

Introduction: Status of Petroleum Refinery

,

mock tests for examination

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Crude Oil And Natural Gas Origin (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

,

ppt

,

Introduction: Status of Petroleum Refinery

,

MCQs

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Objective type Questions

,

Summary

;