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UNIT 2: ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT 
 
 
SESSION 1: INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL 
TECHNIQUES AND PRACTICES 
 
In the 21
st
 century, there has been tremendous development in technology due to 
the extensive scientific research going on in the world. The invention of electricity 
has been one of the most important inventions in the history and progress of 
mankind. Electricity plays a vital role in our day to day life. Majority of household 
equipment like tube lights, fridge, machines, electric motor etc. runs on 
electricity. We are going to learn the basic concept of electricity to understand the 
working of these electrical equipment. What is electric current? What should be 
the type of electric connection for the flow of electricity? Why does it need an 
electric wire as a conductor? We will understand all these concepts through the 
following lesson. 
 
Objectives - 
· To know the basic concept of electricity 
· To understand the use of transistor 
· To understand the use of capacitor 
· To understand the concept of electric circuit 
 
Let us understand the flow of electric current through following illustrations. 
· Rainwater flows downwards. River flows down the mountain. 
· Air blows from high pressure area to low pressure area 
· If we put one end of a metal rod into fire, the heat transfers from the fire end 
towards our hand.  
· So, we can conclude that air, water, heat, all move from higher to lower areas. 
This rule applies to electricity as well. 
1. Electric Current - 
Every object in nature consists of very 
small particles called atoms. Protons and 
neutrons are present in the nucleus of 
the atom. Electrons are rotating in 
different levels around the nucleus. They 
are attracted weakly towards the center 
because of central forces. These 
Electrons are called free 
       
Fig 1- Structure of atom 
Electrons. Free electrons are present in all metal elements when electric current 
passes through it. Free electrons are the cathodes. Electricity current passes 
from the cathode to the anode of battery. The speed of these free electrons creates 
electricity current. 
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