Introduction To Electrical Techniques And Practices

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UNIT 2: ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

SESSION 1: INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL
TECHNIQUES AND PRACTICES

In the 21
st
century, there has been tremendous development in technology due to
the extensive scientific research going on in the world. The invention of electricity
has been one of the most important inventions in the history and progress of
mankind. Electricity plays a vital role in our day to day life. Majority of household
equipment like tube lights, fridge, machines, electric motor etc. runs on
electricity. We are going to learn the basic concept of electricity to understand the
working of these electrical equipment. What is electric current? What should be
the type of electric connection for the flow of electricity? Why does it need an
electric wire as a conductor? We will understand all these concepts through the
following lesson.

Objectives -
· To know the basic concept of electricity
· To understand the use of transistor
· To understand the use of capacitor
· To understand the concept of electric circuit

Let us understand the flow of electric current through following illustrations.
· Rainwater flows downwards. River flows down the mountain.
· Air blows from high pressure area to low pressure area
· If we put one end of a metal rod into fire, the heat transfers from the fire end
towards our hand.
· So, we can conclude that air, water, heat, all move from higher to lower areas.
This rule applies to electricity as well.
1. Electric Current -
Every object in nature consists of very
small particles called atoms. Protons and
neutrons are present in the nucleus of
the atom. Electrons are rotating in
different levels around the nucleus. They
are attracted weakly towards the center
because of central forces. These
Electrons are called free

Fig 1- Structure of atom
Electrons. Free electrons are present in all metal elements when electric current
passes through it. Free electrons are the cathodes. Electricity current passes
from the cathode to the anode of battery. The speed of these free electrons creates
electricity current.
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