Mobility is a basic human need. From the times immemorial, everyone travels either for food or leisure. A closely associated need is the transport of raw materials to a manufacturing unit or finished goods for consumption. Transportation fulfils these basic needs of humanity. Transportation plays a major role in the development of the human civilization.
Basic Definition: A facility consisting of the means and equipment necessary for the movement of passengers or goods. At its most basic, the term “transportation system” is used to refer to the equipment and logistics of transporting passengers and goods. It covers movement by all forms of transport, from cars and buses to boats, aircraft and even space travel. Transportation systems are employed in troop movement logistics and planning, as well as in running the local school bus service.
Function: The purpose of a transportation system is to coordinate the movement of people, goods and vehicles in order to utilize routes most efficiently. When implemented, transportation systems seek to reduce transport costs and improve delivery times through effective timetabling and route management. Periodic re-evaluations and the development of alternative routes allow for timely changes to the transportation system in order to maintain efficiency.
Features: A standard transportation system will usually feature multiple timetables designed to inform the user of where each vehicle in the fleet is expected to be at any given point in time. These timetables are developed alongside an array of route plans designed to coordinate vehicle movements in a way that prevents bottlenecks in any one location
Benefits: The main benefit of implementing a transportation system is delivery of goods and personnel to their destinations in a timely manner. This in turn increases the efficiency of vehicle use, as the same vehicle can be used for “multi-drop” jobs, such as bus services or home delivery networks, far more effectively when their routes are planned in advance rather than being generated “on the fly.”
Size: Transportation systems are developed in a wide variety of sizes. Local transport networks spanning the bus network for a city and its suburbs are common, as are wide delivery networks for haulage firms. Airlines use international transportation systems to coordinate their flights. The larger the distance being covered, the more effective the use of vehicles when a transportation system is used.
Scope of transportation: Transportation is a non separable part of any society. It exhibits a very close relation to the style of life, the range and location of activities and the goods and services which will be available for consumption. Advances in transportation has made possible changes in the way of living and the way in which societies are organized and therefore have a great influence in the development of civilizations.
Functions of transportation: Transportation is responsible for the development of civilizations from very old times by meeting travel requirement of people and transport requirement of goods. Such movement has changed the way people live and travel. In developed and developing nations, a large fraction of people travel daily for work, shopping and social reasons. But transport also consumes a lot of resources like time, fuel, materials and land.
Importance of Transportation
Transportation is a toll to measure the Economic, Industrial, Social and Cultural development of any country. The world that we live in now will most likely be impossible had it not been for innovations in transportation. There would not have been any great infrastructure, industrialization, or massive production, if transportation was incompetent. Life would not have kept up with the fast changing times if there were no huge trucks, bulldozers, trailers, cargo ships, or large aircrafts to carry them to different places. In other words, the global society would not have experienced comfort and convenience had it not been for advancements in the transportation sector.
It is vital for the economic development of any region people and the communities are essentially to be transported material from one place to other. In the production stage transportation is required for carrying raw materials like seeds, manure, coal, steel etc. In the distribution stage transportation is required from the production centres viz; farms and factories to the marketing centres and later to the retailers and the consumers for distribution. The transportation has lots of advantages and even disadvantages. The more focus is on advantages as we cannot think about the life without transportation. The importance of transportation may include:
1.Availability of raw materials: Transportation helps in carrying the raw materials from one place to another place. Initially raw materials are made at one place and are being transported to another place for processing and for manufacturing goods.
2.Availability of goods to the customer: The goods are being transported from one place to another place. These goods which are produced at one place are transported to other distant places for their usage. It flexibly moves the goods from one place to another place.
3.Enhances the Standard Of Living: It improves the standard of living. As the transportation of each and every good is being done then the productivity increases which results in the reduced or the effective costs. Because of reduction in the cost they can use different commodities for different purposes and can lead a secure life.
4. Helps a lot during the emergencies and even during natural disasters: Transportation helps during the natural disturbances. It helps in quick moving from one place to another place and supplies the required operations.
5.Helps for the employment: Transportation provides employment for many people as drivers, captains, conductors, cabin crew and even the people are used for the construction of different types of transportation vehicles. And even by the use of transportation the remote people are being employed with the access to the urban facilities and the opportunities.
6.Helps in mobility of the laborers: Many people are traveling to other countries on their employment basis. Transportation plays an important role in such cases.
7.Helps for bringing nations together: Transportation on the whole is used for globalization i.e. it brings nations together and it creates awareness about the cultural activities and even about the industries and helps a lot for importing and exporting of different goods. These above are some of the necessities which make us to use transportation. The importance and adequacy of transportation system of a country indicates its economic and social development.
Economic Activity: Two important factors well known in economic activity are:
1.Production or supply.
2.Consumption for human wants or demand.
Economic activity are the process by means of which the products are utilized to satisfy human demand .the role of transportation in the economic activity starts its function from production stage to the final distribution.
Social Effects: The various social effects of transportation may be further classified into:
1. Sectionalism and transportation: improved transportation has important implication in reducing sectionalism with in the country and also outside the country. More frequently travels in other part of the country and outside the country tends to increases knowledge of the people from other section of society.
2.Concentration of population into urban area: the prosperity and employment opportunities of urban area attract the population from other areas resulting in enhanced the population from other areas movements to and from factories, officer, schools, hospitals and other social needs.
3.Aspect of safety, law and order.: transport facilities are essential for rusting aids to areas affecting by an emergency .to maintain law and order at home it is required to have an efficient system of transport network. to defined the territory of the country against external aggression and to guard the borders with the foreign territories transport facilities are needed.