Computer Science Engineering (CSE)  >  Database Management System (DBMS)  >  Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System)

Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Notes | Study Database Management System (DBMS) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Document Description: Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) for Computer Science Engineering (CSE) 2022 is part of Database Management System (DBMS) preparation. The notes and questions for Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) have been prepared according to the Computer Science Engineering (CSE) exam syllabus. Information about Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) covers topics like and Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Example, for Computer Science Engineering (CSE) 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System).

Introduction of Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) in English is available as part of our Database Management System (DBMS) for Computer Science Engineering (CSE) & Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) in Hindi for Database Management System (DBMS) course. Download more important topics related with notes, lectures and mock test series for Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Exam by signing up for free. Computer Science Engineering (CSE): Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Notes | Study Database Management System (DBMS) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)
1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

Important Terminology

Database: Database is a collection of inter-related data which helps in efficient retrieval, insertion and deletion of data from database and organizes the data in the form of tables, views, schemas, reports etc. For Example, university database organizes the data about students, faculty, and admin staff etc. which helps in efficient retrieval, insertion and deletion of data from it.

DDL is short name of Data Definition Language, which deals with database schemas and descriptions, of how the data should reside in the database.

  • CREATE: to create a database and its objects like (table, index, views, store procedure, function, and triggers)
  • ALTER: alters the structure of the existing database
  • DROP: delete objects from the database
  • TRUNCATE: remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for the records are removed
  • COMMENT: add comments to the data dictionary
  • RENAME: rename an object

DML is short name of Data Manipulation Language which deals with data manipulation and includes most common SQL statements such SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, etc., and it is used to store, modify, retrieve, delete and update data in a database.

  • SELECT: retrieve data from a database
  • INSERT: insert data into a table
  • UPDATE: updates existing data within a table
  • DELETE: Delete all records from a database table
  • MERGE: UPSERT operation (insert or update)
  • CALL: call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram
  • EXPLAIN PLAN: interpretation of the data access path
  • LOCK TABLE: concurrency Control

Database Management System: The software which is used to manage database is called Database Management System (DBMS). For Example, MySQL, Oracle etc. are popular commercial DBMS used in different applications. DBMS allows users the following tasks:

Data Definition: It helps in creation, modification and removal of definitions that define the organization of data in database.

Data Updation: It helps in insertion, modification and deletion of the actual data in the database.

Data Retrieval: It helps in retrieval of data from the database which can be used by applications for various purposes.

User Administration: It helps in registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control and recovering information corrupted by unexpected failure.

Paradigm Shift from File System to DBMS

File System manages data using files in hard disk. Users are allowed to create, delete, and update the files according to their requirement. Let us consider the example of file based University Management System. Data of students is available to their respective Departments, Academics Section, Result Section, Accounts Section, Hostel Office etc. Some of the data is common for all sections like Roll No, Name, Father Name, Address and Phone number of students but some data is available to a particular section only like Hostel allotment number which is a part of hostel office. Let us discuss the issues with this system:

  • Redundancy of data: Data is said to be redundant if same data is copied at many places. If a student wants to change Phone number, he has to get it updated at various sections. Similarly, old records must be deleted from all sections representing that student.
  • Inconsistency of Data: Data is said to be inconsistent if multiple copies of same data does not match with each other. If Phone number is different in Accounts Section and Academics Section, it will be inconsistent. Inconsistency may be because of typing errors or not updating all copies of same data.
  • Difficult Data Access: A user should know the exact location of file to access data, so the process is very cumbersome and tedious. If user wants to search student hostel allotment number of a student from 10000 unsorted students’ records, how difficult it can be.
  • Unauthorized Access: File System may lead to unauthorized access to data. If a student gets access to file having his marks, he can change it in unauthorized way.
  • No Concurrent Access: The access of same data by multiple users at same time is known as concurrency. File system does not allow concurrency as data can be accessed by only one user at a time.
  • No Backup and Recovery: File system does not incorporate any backup and recovery of data if a file is lost or corrupted.

These are the main reasons which made a shift from file system to DBMS.

DBMS 3-tier Architecture

DBMS 3-tier architecture divides the complete system into three inter-related but independent modules as shown below:

Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Notes | Study Database Management System (DBMS) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

  1. Physical Level: At the physical level, the information about the location of database objects in the data store is kept. Various users of DBMS are unaware of the locations of these objects.In simple terms,physical level of a database describes how the data is being stored in secondary storage devices like disks and tapes and also gives insights on additional storage details.
  2. Conceptual Level: At conceptual level, data is represented in the form of various database tables. For Example, STUDENT database may contain STUDENT and COURSE tables which will be visible to users but users are unaware of their storage.Also referred as logical schema,it describes what kind of data is to be stored in the database.
  3. External Level:  An external level specifies a view of the data in terms of conceptual level tables.  Each external level view is used to cater to the needs of a particular category of users. For Example, FACULTY of a university is interested in looking course details of students, STUDENTS are interested in looking at all details related to academics, accounts, courses and hostel details as well. So, different views can be generated for different users. The main focus of external level is data abstraction.

Data Independence

Data independence means a change of data at one level should not affect another level. Two types of data independence are present in this architecture:

  1. Physical Data Independence: Any change in the physical location of tables and indexes should not affect the conceptual level or external view of data. This data independence is easy to achieve and implemented by most of the DBMS.
  2. Conceptual Data Independence: The data at conceptual level schema and external level schema must be independent. This means a change in conceptual schema should not affect external schema. e.g.; Adding or deleting attributes of a table should not affect the user’s view of the table. But this type of independence is difficult to achieve as compared to physical data independence because the changes in conceptual schema are reflected in the user’s view.
Phases of database design

Database designing for a real-world application starts from capturing the requirements to physical implementation using DBMS software which consists of following steps shown below:

Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Notes | Study Database Management System (DBMS) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

  1. Conceptual Design: The requirements of database are captured using high level conceptual data model. For Example, the ER model is used for the conceptual design of the database.
  2. Logical Design: Logical Design represents data in the form of relational model. ER diagram produced in the conceptual design phase is used to convert the data into the Relational Model.
  3. Physical Design: In physical design, data in relational model is implemented using commercial DBMS like Oracle, DB2.
Advantages of DBMS

DBMS helps in efficient organization of data in database which has following advantages over typical file system:

  • Minimized redundancy and data inconsistency: Data is normalized in DBMS to minimize the redundancy which helps in keeping data consistent. For Example, student information can be kept at one place in DBMS and accessed by different users. This minimized redundancy is due to primary key and foreign keys
  • Simplified Data Access: A user need only name of the relation not exact location to access data, so the process is very simple.
  • Multiple data views: Different views of same data can be created to cater the needs of different users. For Example, faculty salary information can be hidden from student view of data but shown in admin view.
  • Data Security: Only authorized users are allowed to access the data in DBMS. Also, data can be encrypted by DBMS which makes it secure.
  • Concurrent access to data: Data can be accessed concurrently by different users at same time in DBMS.
  • Backup and Recovery mechanism: DBMS backup and recovery mechanism helps to avoid data loss and data inconsistency in case of catastrophic failures.

The document Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Notes | Study Database Management System (DBMS) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) is a part of the Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Course Database Management System (DBMS).
All you need of Computer Science Engineering (CSE) at this link: Computer Science Engineering (CSE)
Download as PDF

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Summary

,

Extra Questions

,

video lectures

,

past year papers

,

MCQs

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Free

,

ppt

,

Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Notes | Study Database Management System (DBMS) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

,

mock tests for examination

,

Important questions

,

pdf

,

Sample Paper

,

practice quizzes

,

Exam

,

Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Notes | Study Database Management System (DBMS) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

,

Objective type Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Viva Questions

,

Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) Notes | Study Database Management System (DBMS) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

,

Semester Notes

,

study material

;