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Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

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  • Facial and Meridional Isomers: In facial isomers three identical donor atoms lie on the corners of a triangular face and in meridional isomer three identical donor atoms lie on the corners of the plane bisecting the complex.

There are four types of complexes which exist in fac- or mer-isomeric forms.

(i) [Ma3b3]: These types of complexes exist as fac- and mer- isomers.
For examples: [Co(NH3)3Cl3]

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

In fac- isomer, the three Cl—Co—Cl bond angles are 90˚ while in mer- isomer, two Cl-Co-Cl bond angles are 90˚ and one is 180˚.

(ii) [M(AB)3]: In this type of complexes AB is unsymmetric bidentate ligand.
For example: [Co(gly)3] and [Cr(gly)3]. The facial and meridional isomers of [Co(gly)3] are shown below:

 

 Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

(iii) [M(AAA)b3]: The complex [Co(dien)(NO2)3] (where dien = NH2-CH2-CH2-NH-CH2-CH2-NH2)
also exists in facial and meridional isomeric forms.

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

(iv) [M(AAA)2] The complex [Co(dien)2] also exist as facial and meridional isomers

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

 

  • [Ma2b2c2]: Five geometrical isomers are possible for these type of complexes.
    For example: [Pt(NH3)2 (Py)2Cl2 ]2+

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

  • [Mabcdef]: Fifteen isomers are possible for this type of complex.

For example: Only one example, [Pt(Py)(NH3)(NO2)(Cl)(Br)(I)]

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

  • [M(AA)ab]: Two geometrical isomers (cis and trans).

For examples: [Co(en)2 (NH3)(Cl)]2+ , [Co(en)2 (Py)(Cl)]2+ [Cr(OX)2 (NO2 )(Cl)]3-

 

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

  • [M(AA)a2b2]: Three geometrical isomers are possible for this type of complexes.

For example: [Co(en)(NH3)2Cl2]+ , [Co(en)(Py)2Cl2 ]+

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

  • [M(AB)2a2]: Five geometrical isomers are possible.
    For example: [Co(gly)2Cl2 ]-

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

  • [M(AB)2ab]: Six geometrical isomers are possible for this type of complexes.
    For example: [Co(gly)2 (NH3)(Py)]+ Ion

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

 

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

  • Octahedral Complexes Containing Optically Active Bidentate Ligand: An example of this type of complex is [Co(en)(pn)(NO2)2]+ ion.

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry       Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Three geometrical isomers are possible for this complex.

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Optical Isomerism:
Optical isomers or enantiomers are pairs of molecules or ions which are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. Non-superimposable means that if one structure is laid over the other of the same molecule, the positions of all the atoms will not match. Isomers that are non-superimposable of each other are called chiral or optically active because they rotate the plane of polarised light.
The essential condition for a substance to be chiral (optically active) is that the substance has no plane of symmetry. The substances having no plane of symmetry are always non-superimposable on their mirror images.

(a) Square Planar Complexes
Square planar complexes rarely show optical isomerism because all the four ligands and the metal cation lie in the same plane and hence have a plane of symmetry.
Meanwhile, there are some exceptions. For example, (isobutylenediamine) (meso-diphenylethylenediamine) palladium (II) or platinum (II) complexes are square planar complexes and are optically active.

 

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

 

EDTA forms a square planar complex ion with palladium (II) in which EDTA4- acts as tetradentate
ligand. This complex ion also exists as optical isomers.

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Tetrahedral Complexes
Only [Mabcd] type tetrahedral complexes show optical isomerism. For example,
[As3+(CH3)(C2H5)(S)(C6H5COO)]2+ ion show optical isomers.

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

Tetrahedral complexes of Be (II), B (III) and Zn (II) with unsymmetric chelating ligand also exist as
optical isomers.

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

 

Octahedral Complexes
Octahedral complexes of [Ma6], [Ma5b] are optically inactive and do not show optical isomerism
because of the presence of plane of symmetry.

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

For octahedral complexes which exist as cis and trans isomers, see the optical activity in both the
isomers individually.

  •  [Ma4b2]: These types of complexes exist as cis and trans isomeric forms. Both these forms have plane of symmetry and therefore, are optically inactive. Thus this type of complexes do not show optical isomerism.

For example: [Co(NH3)4Cl2 ]+

Isomerism In Coordination Compounds-2 - Coordination Chemistry Notes | Study Inorganic Chemistry - Chemistry

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