Kinds of Conjunctions - Conjunctions Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8

Class 8: Kinds of Conjunctions - Conjunctions Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8

The document Kinds of Conjunctions - Conjunctions Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8 is a part of the Class 8 Course English Class 8.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8

A Conjunction is a word used to join words, groups of words or sentences. 

For example:
 (i) I helped him because he was needy.
 (ii) Ratna is studying but her brother is playing.
 (iii) John and David are good friends.
 (iv) Do you know that he is a man of knowledge?

All the italicised words are conjunctions because they join words, groups of words or sentences.

KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS

1. Co-ordinating Conjunction
 2. Sub-ordinating Conjunction

1. Co-ordinating conjunctions are conjunctions which join two words or sentences of equal rank or order together.
For example:

  • The sun rises in the east. The sun sets in the west.
     The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 
  • Nidhi loves noodles. Her sister loves chocolates.
     Nidhi loves noodles but her sister loves chocolates. 
  • Walk fast. You will miss the bus.
     Walk fas t or  you will miss the bus. 
  • Ratna is intelligent. She does not get good marks.
     Ratna is intelligent yet she does not get good marks

Take the first pair of sentences. The sentences “The sun rises in the east.” and “The sun sets in the west.” are two independent sentences, each can stand alone. They are of equal rank or order. None of the part depends on the other for its complete meaning. If we join these two independent sentences by the word and, we make one sentence. “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.” Here, the joining word and is a Co-ordinating Conjunction.
 In other pair of sentences also words like but, or and yet join together the sentences of equal rank or order. Therefore, they are all Co-ordinating Conjunctions.
 We also call a conjunction co-ordinating when it joins single words together because single words are of the same rank or order.

For example: 
 Two and two make four.
 Time and tide wait for none.

In the above sentences, the word and is a co-ordinating conjunction.

2. Sub-ordinating Conjunctions are conjunctions which join two sentences of unequal rank or order. One of the two is dependent upon, or subordinate to, the other.

For example:

  • I could not go to school because I was ill. 
  • I shall be happy if I get good marks.
  • My grandmother is very active though she is very old. 
  • He won’t come unless we cordially invite him.

Take the first sentence. It contains two statements—

  • I could not go to school, because I was ill. These two statements or sentences are not independent. They cannot stand alone. The sentence, ‘because I was ill’ is dependent upon the sentence. ‘I could not go to school’ for its complete meaning. We can also say that two sentences are not of equal rank or order. Hence, the word because is  Sub-ordinating conjunction.

In other sentences also, the words like if, though and unless join two sentences of unequal rank or order. Therefore, they are all Sub-ordinating conjunctions.
Note: The sub-ordinating conjunction is always the first word in the dependent sentence.

The document Kinds of Conjunctions - Conjunctions Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8 is a part of the Class 8 Course English Class 8.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8

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