Q. 1. Define the term “Population Density ”. Mention the geographical factors that influence the population distribution in the world.
What is the meaning of density of population? Describe the four geographical factors that influence the distribution of population in the world.
Define ‘Population density’. Explain any four geographical factors that affect the distribution of population in the world.
What is density of population? Explain with examples four geographical factors influencing the distribution of population in the world.
Define the term ‘density of population’. Explain four geographical factors affecting the distribution of population in the world, with examples.
Ans. Meaning of Population Density :
The ratio between the number of people to the size of the land is the population density. Density of Population = Population/Area
Geographical factors that influence the population distribution in the world.
(i) Availability of water (ii) Landforms (iii) Climate (iv) Soils (v) Natural resources.
(Any four factors to be explained with suitable examples)
Detailed Answer : Meaning of Population Density : The ratio between the number of people to the size of the land. The number of people inhabiting per unit of land is called population density.
Density of Population = Population/Area.
(i) Availability of water : The distribution of population is influenced by the availability of water in the particular area. Areas where water is easily available experiences high density of population as compared to areas where the water accessibility is limited.
(ii) Landforms : High altitude in general imposes an ultimate physiological limit upon human existence due to reduced atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content. Abrupt changes in the density of population can be seen on the world map of population distribution where plains meet mountain ranges. In mountainous areas valleys provide suitable locations for human settlements.
(iii) Climate : Extremes of temperature, rainfall and humidity limit the concentration of population in any part of the world. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, extreme cold conditions in the high latitude areas have prevented human habitation. Likewise, extremely hot high temperatures and aridity in hot deserts of the world restrict human habitability.
(iv) Soils : The type and quality of soils available all across the world also exert an undeniable influence on the distribution of world population. The fertile alluvial and deltaic soils can support dense populations. Thus, most of the major concentrations of population in the world are located in the river valleys and deltas. Great civilizations of the world have almost invariably flourished on good fertile alluvial soils.
(v) Natural resources : Location of mineral and energy resources has led to dense concentration of population in many parts of the world, which otherwise do not provide suitable conditions for human habitation. Large towns have grown up in inaccessible and extremely inhospitable areas such as deserts, Polar regions or in the midst of forests where precious minerals and metals have been found.
Q. 2. Why is the population of the world unevenly distributed?
The density of population around the world is dependent on a variety of factors. Elaborate giving reasons.
Ans. Population density is closely related to physical and socio-economic factors. Dense population in UP, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Kerala is due to flat and fertile plains, favourable climate, water availability and socio-economic factors. Sparse population of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, North-Eastern States is due to hilly terrain, dense forests and harsh climate. Rajasthan has water shortage and its hot and dry climate accounts for low population density. Moderate density is seen in Odisha, Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc. due to possibilities of agriculture, industrial development and favourable climate to some extent. Mediterranean regions were inhabited from early periods in history due to their pleasant climate. Favourable factors for transport network, industrialization, urbanization in Maharashtra, Goa, Delhi NCR, etc. account for high population density. The Kobe-Osaka region of Japan is thickly populated because of the presence of a number of industries.
Q. 3. How is the population density closely related to the physical and socio-economic factors?
Ans. Population density is closely related to physical and socio-economic factors. Dense population in UP, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Kerala is due to flat and fertile plains, favourable climate, water availability and socio-economic factors. Sparse population of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, North-Eastern States is due to hilly terrain, dense forests and harsh climate. Rajasthan has water shortage and its hot and dry climate accounts for low population density. Moderate density is seen in Odisha, Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc. due to possibilities of agriculture, industrial development and favourable climate to some extent. Mediterranean regions were inhabited from early periods in history due to their pleasant climate. Favourable factors for transport network, industrialization, urbanization in Maharashtra, Goa, Delhi NCR, etc. account for high population density. The Kobe-Osaka region of Japan is thickly populated because of the presence of a number of industries .
Q. 4. Explain with examples any five factors that affect the population distribution across the world.
Discuss the factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world.
Ans. The major factors that affect human population distribution are :
(i) Physical factors (ii) Agriculture (iii) Fresh water (iv) Climate (v) Availability of power (vi) Access to other communities
Furthermore various physical and natural factors that affect the distribution of population across the world are :
Q. 5. Explain three economic and two social and cultural factors influencing the distribution of population in the world.
Ans. Factors influencing the distribution of population in the world are : Economic factors:
(i) Minerals : The regions which are rich in natural resources like coal, water, etc, favour the growth of population. These resources help in the development of trade, commerce and industry.
(ii) Urbanization : People move from villages to live in cities in order to hunt for better employment opportunities, medical facilities and other amenities which results in the growth of the population of the cities.
(iii) Industrialization : Industrial areas provide better job opportunities for the people as a result more and more people prefer to move towards the industrial belt.
(iv) Agriculture : Rich and fertile soil always help in the development of agricultural activities and hence results in the growth of dense population.
Social and cultural factors :
(i) People are attracted towards certain areas as these areas have some religious and cultural significance.
(ii) Social and political unrest such as riots results in the movement of people towards areas where they can live a peaceful life.
(iii) Government of some places offer incentives to people to live in sparsely populated areas.
Q. 6. How do push factors compel the people to migrate in the world ? Explain any five factors with examples.
Ans. Push factors which make the place of origin less attractive and compel the people to migrate are :
(i) Unemployment (ii) Poor living conditions (iii) Political turmoil (iv) Unpleasant climate (v) Frequent occurrence of natural disasters (vi) Continual hitting of epidemics (vii) Socio-economic backwardness
Detailed Answer :
(i) Unemployment : People migrate to land of opportunities in order to find employment or to improve their financial conditions. In past, people generally moved from poorer to richer countries in search of better opportunities. Prospects of higher wages, better employment opportunities make individuals migrate. For example, people from poor countries like Bangladesh move to European countries for better job prospects.
(ii) Poor living conditions : Food, sanitation, housing and water are expected to become a more salient issue over the coming decades. It has been observed that regions which can no longer sustain agriculture are likely to experience migration.
(iii) Political turmoil : Increasing level of political intolerance has been a major factor for migration. In some places clashes between the political groups lead to increase in threat and tension and hence forcing people to leave and settle in a new place. Many asylum seekers flee to the nearest safe countries that are ready to accept them. For example, most of the asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iran, etc migrate to countries like France, etc.
(iv) Unpleasant climate : Of the ecological factors that push individuals to migrate, climate change is the most serious. Over many years, climate change has potentially intensified the movement of people who were intolerant to a certain type of climate.
(v) Frequent occurrence of natural disasters : Vulnerability to climate change which leads to natural disasters in poor countries is also a major push factor. For example, the natural disaster such as the massive earthquake that devastated Nepal in 2015, has played a significant role in influencing migration patterns. Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, cyclones, etc, influence the migration pattern.
(vi) Continual hitting of Epidemics : The spread of epidemic in a particular area also acts as a push factor as people start migrating from the epidemic infected areas to areas which are relatively safe and adequate healthcare facilities, improved sanitation conditions are available.
(vii) Socio-economic backwardness : Places which are socially and economically backward experience a gush of out migration as people prefer to settle in places which are more developed and basic facilities are easily available.
Q. 7. How do pull factors make the place of destination seem more attractive for migration in the world? Explain any five pull factors with examples.
How are ‘pull factors’ responsible for migration of people from one place to another? Explain with examples.
Ans. Pull factors make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin :
(i) Better job opportunities (ii) Better living conditions (iii) Peace (iv) Stability (v) Security of life and property (vi) Pleasant climate
Detailed Answer :
(i) Better job opportunities : Mostly people from rural areas migrate to urban areas for a new occupation and employment purpose. For example, people from Central American countries migrate into US, where they often get better employment opportunities.
(ii) Better living conditions : The places of destination chosen by individuals are those places where facilities are made available so as to fulfill the needs of the people. People migrate to those places where needs of the people can be fulfilled. People migrate to those places where they have better facilities of health services, education, transportation, communication, etc., to make life easy and comfortable.
(iii) Peace : People do not like to stay where there is political violence and disturbance. They intend to go to the places where there exists political peace and safe environment.
(iv) Stability : Stability proves to be a big pull factor as individuals prefer to stay in a place which provides social, political and economic stability unlike a place which is prone to social, political and economic disturbances.
(v) Security for life and property : People like to live in a place which ensures safety, security for life as well as moveable and immovable property.
(vi) Pleasant climate : People prefer to live in acceptable climate. For example, The Alps pull French people to Eastern France. Spain attracts migrants, especially retirees, who seek warmer winters.
Q. 8. Explain the three components of population change in the world. Analyse the impacts of population change.
Ans. The three components of population change in the world are :
(i) Higher birth rate
(ii) Lower death rate
Impact of population change :
(i) In many developing countries such as India, the level of maternal and infant mortality rate is quite high. Repeated childbirths are taken as security against multiple infant and child deaths. Large number of people cannot avail a number of facilities provided by the government such as family planning programmes even though they are available, due to lack of knowledge and accessibility.
(ii) A s the population grows, the pressure on the available natural resources automatically increases.
(iii) Increase in population will also have a direct impact on the per capita availability of land for farming, which will affect the availability of basic amenities.
Q. 9. Explain the trends in population growth of the world with special reference to the help of science and technology.
Ans. The trends in population growth:
(i) T he population spread over the world is more than six billion. It took many years to grow up to this size. In the early times, the rate of population growth was very slow.
(ii) During the last few hundred years the population all across the globe has increased at a rapid speed.
(iii) The rapid growth of population was caused due to the expansion of trade.
(iv) The birth rate was brought under control by the help of science and technology.
(v) A dvancement of medical facilities also resulted in the slowing down of death rate caused due to spread of diseases.
Q. 10. “Many places where people are few and a few places where people are many in the world”. Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. Many places where people are few and few places where people are many is true about the pattern of population distribution of the world. Broadly, 90 per cent of the world population lives in about 10 per cent of its land area. The 10 most populous countries of the world contribute about 60 per cent of the world’s population. Of these 10 countries, six are located in Asia. The North-Eastern part of USA, North-Western part of Europe, South, South-East and East Asia are the densely populated parts of the world with more than 200 persons on every sq. km. Other areas like those near the North and South Poles, the hot and the cold deserts and high rainfall zones near the Equator have very low density of population. These are the sparsely populated regions of the world with less than one person per sq. km. In between these two types are the areas of medium density. There are 11 to 50 persons per sq. km in these areas. Western China, Southern India in Asia, Norway, Sweden in Europe are some examples.
Q. 11. Define the term “Demographic Cycle”. Explain the three-staged model of Demographic Transition Theory.
Discuss the three stages of demographic transition.
Ans. Demographic Cycle : The population of any region changes from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as the society progresses from rural agrarian and illiterate to urban, industrial and literate society. These changes are termed as demographic cycle.
Transition theory is a three staged model :
(i) First stage : High fertility and high mortality.
(ii) Second stage : High fertility and mortality declines.
(iii) Third stage : Both fertility and mortality declines.