1. Metal based oxidizing reagents
(1) Cr: PCC, PDC, Jones Reagents, Collions Reagents, CrO2Cl2, K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 or Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4
(2) Mn: KMnO4, MnO2
(3) Ag: Ag2O, Ag2O on celite (Fetizons), Ag(OAc)2
(4) Cu: CuO
(5) Os: OsO4
(6) Ru: RuO4
(7) Pb: Pb(OAc)4
2. Non Metal Based
X2 + OH–, O3, Peroxyacid, SeO2, DCC, DDQ
3. DMSO Based oxidizing reagents
(a) DMSO + Oxallyl chlonide: Swern Oxidation (b) DCC + DMSD: Moffatt Oxidatioin
Oxidation Addition of oxidation or Removal Hydrogen
The classical procedure for the subsequennt oxidation of primary alcoholls to carboxylic acid via aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones involves treatment of the appropriate alcohol with chromium (VI) reagent.
General Mechanism: The E2-like oxidation mechanism is supported by the observation that deuterium substitution of the a-H in isopropanol slows the rate of chromic acid oxidation by sevenfold. Deuterium replacement at the methyl positions does not diminish the oxidation rate. Since C-D bonds are broken more slowly than C-H bonds, these results suggest that the a-H is removed in a slow step
Table: Method for Alcohol Oxidation.
CrO3 based oxidizing Reagents:
1. PCC (Pyridium chlorochromate):
Since there is presence of HCl in PCC reagent hence it can give some side reaction catalyzed by HCl. If any double or triple bond is present in the compound having alcoholic group can give cyclisation reaction after the formation of aldehyde with PCC.
To avoid side reactions during the oxidation of PCC buffer solution are used along with PCC which make the oxidationprocess neutral and side reaction will not take place.
In the case of 1,4-diol, 1, 5-diol when PCC is used it will oxidize these compound into lactone.
Oxidation of Tertiary Allylic Alcohols with PCC (The Babler Oxidation)
A carbonyl transposition can be effected via the addition of a vinyl or an alkyl Grignard reagent to an a, b-unsaturated ketone. Acid-catalyzed rearrangement of the resultant allylic alcohol during oxidation with PCC affords the transposeda, b- unsaturated carbonyl substrate.
Tertiary bis(allylic) alcohols are oxidized by PCC or PDC to the carbonyl trans-posed dienones
Alert: PCC does not oxidize the tertiary alcohol but if the 3°-alcohol is allylic then PCC can give the oxidation process via [3, 3] sigmatropic rearrangement.
Primary and secondary alcohols are readily oxidized in CH2Cl2 utilizing 1 to 1.5 equivalents of PCC. Since PCC is slightly acidic, oxidations of compounds containing acid-sensitive groups should be carried out in the presence of powdered NaOAc. Oxidation of primary alcohols with PCC in the presence of molecular sieves (3 A or 4 A) results in higher yields of aldehyde.
2. Pyndinium dichromate (PDC):
PDC is soluble in H2O, DMF, and DMSO but sparingly soluble in CH2Cl, or CHCl3. The reagent is less acidic than PCC. Hence, oxidations in CH2Cl2 can be carried out under nearly neutral conditions. This permits the conversion of primary alcohols containing acid-sensitive groups into the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, as illustrated below.
In DMF solution, however, PDC oxidizes non-conjugated primary alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids.
Oxidations of 2° alcohols by PDC in DMF proceed to give the corresponding ketones.
3. Jones Reagent
CrO3 + H2SO4 + H2O + acetone Or Na2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 + H2O + acetone
The Jones reagent is an excellent reagent for the oxidation of secondary alcohols that do not contain acid-sensitive groups such as acetal. Oxidation of primary alcohols with Jones reagent may result in the conversion of the aldehydes initially formed to the corresponding carboxylic acids. The reagent is added to the alcohol contained in acetone at 0-25°C, and the excess Cr(V1) is destroyed in the reaction workup by adding some isopropyl alcohol (color change from orange to blue green).
4. Collin’s Reagent
Since HCl is not used in Collin’s reagent hence no side reaction likes PCC.
5. CrO2Cl2 (Etard Reaction)