Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi

UPSC : Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi.
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Mixtures  

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev
Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Mixtures

  • A material containing two or more elements or compounds in any proportion is a mixture.
  • It can be separated into its constituents. e.g. air, milk, paints, cements etc.

Types of mixtures

Homogeneous

  • A mixture is said to be homogeneous if its composition is uniform throughout

Heterogeneous

  • A mixture is said to be Heterogeneous if its composition is not uniform.
  • Properties of a mixture are the properties of its constituents.
  • A mixture with definite boiling points is known as azeotropic mixture

Solutions

  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. For example soda water.
  • we can also have solid solutions (alloys) and gaseous solutions (air).
  • In a solution there is homogeneity at the particle level.
  • A solution has a solvent and a solute as its components.
  • The component of the solution that dissolves the other component in it (usually the component present in larger amount) is called the solvent.
  • The component of the solution that is dissolved in the solvent (usually present in lesser quantity) is called the solute.

Properties of a solution

  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture.
  • The particles of a solution are smaller than 1 nm (10-9 metre) in diameter. So, they cannot be seen by naked eyes.
  • Because of very small particle size, they do not scatter a beam of light passing through the solution. So, the path of light is not visible in a solution.
  • The solute particles cannot be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration. The solute particles do not settle down when left undisturbed, that is, a solution is stable.

Suspension

  • Non-homogeneous systems in which solids are dispersed in liquids, are called suspensions.
  • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve but remain suspended throughout the bulk of the medium.
  • Particles of a suspension are visible to the naked eye.

Properties of a Suspension

  • Suspension is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • The particles of a suspension can be seen by the naked eye.
  • The particles of a suspension scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible.
  • The solute particles settle down when a suspension is left undisturbed, that is, a suspension is unstable.
  • They can be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration

COLLOIDAL SOLUTION

  • The particles of a colloid are uniformly spread throughout the solution. 
  • Due to the relatively smaller size of particles, as compared to that of a suspension, the mixture appears to be homogeneous. 
  • But actually, a colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture, for example, milk. 
  • Because of the small size of colloidal particles, we cannot see them with naked eyes. 
  • But, these particles can easily scatter a beam of visible light as observed in activity 2.2. 
  • This scattering of a beam of light is called the Tyndall effect after the name of the scientist who discovered this effect.

Properties of a colloid

  • A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • The size of particles of a colloid is too small to be individually seen by naked eyes.
  • Colloids are big enough to scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible.
  • They do not settle down when left undisturbed, that is, a colloid is quite stable.
  • They cannot be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration. But, a special technique of separation known as centrifugation can be used to separate the colloidal particles. 

Examples of colloids

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev
Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Separation of mixture

Sublimation 

  •  in this process, a solid substance passes directly into its vapours on application of heat, and when vapours are cooled, they give back the original substance, e.g iodine, naphthalene, benzoic acid etc.

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Sedimentation and decantation 

  • This method is used when one component is liquid and the other is insoluble solid.

Crystallization 

  • This method is based on the difference in solubility of the yarious  compounds in a solvent, e.g, mixture of KNO3 and NaCI can be separated by this process. 

Filtration

  • It is used  for quick and complete removal of solid suspended particles from a liquid (or gas) by passing the suspension through a filter.

Distillation 

  • A mixture of two substance, only one of which is volatile can be separated by this process, e.g,. NaCI can be separated from water by distillation.

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Evaporation
 In this method the solution  is heated so that the solvent vaporises to give the solute ( solid substance ) e.g. salt can be obtained from salt solution.

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Fractional distillation 

  • This process is used if both the components of a mixture are volatile. It is based on the difference of boiling points e.g the various fractions of crude petroleum can be separated by this process.

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Mechanical separation 

  • Two immiscible liquid can be separated  by using a reparatory funnel e.g. oil and water.

Magnetic separated 

  • Two solid one of which is magnetic substance can be separated by this method.

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Mixtures - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

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