SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Give two examples for each of the following:
(a) Acute diseases
(b) Chronic diseases
(c) Infectious diseases
Ans: (a) Influenza, Viral fever
(b) Tuberculosis (T.B.), Elephantiasis
(c) Chicken pox, Smallpox
(d) Goitre, Diabetes
Q.2. Name two diseases caused by Protozoans. What are their causal organisms?
Ans: (a) Sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosorrn gambiense.
(b) Kala-azar caused by Leishmania donovani.
Q.3. Which bacterium causes peptic ulcers? Who discovered the above pathogen for the first time?
Ans: Helicobacter pylori bacterium causes peptic ulcers.
Barry Marshall and Robin Warren discovered the pathogen for the first time.
Q.4. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Pneumonia is an example of ________ disease.
(b) Many skin diseases are caused by _______ .
(c) Antibiotics commonly block biochemical pathways important for the growth of_______.
(d) Living organisms carrying the infecting agents from one person to another are called_______.
Ans: (a) communicable
Q.5. Name the target organs for the following diseases
(a) Hepatitis targets _______.
(b) Fits or unconsciousness targets________.
(c) Pneumonia targets________.
(d) Fungal disease targets________.
Q.6. Who discovered 'Vaccine' for the first time? Name two diseases which can be prevented by using vaccines.
Ans: Edward Jenner discovered ‘vaccine’ for the first time.
The diseases can be prevented by using vaccines are — Diphtheria and Polio.
Q.7. Fill in the blanks:
(a)______disease continues for many days and causes______on body.
(b)_______disease continues for a few days and causes no longer term effect on body.
(c)________is defined as physical, mental and social well-being and comfort.
(d) Common cold is______disease.
(e) Many skin diseases are caused by________.
Ans: (a) Chronic, long-term effect
(d) infectious (communicable)
Q.8. Classify the following diseases as infectious or non-infectious.
(d) High blood pressure
(e) Heart disease
Ans: (a) infectious
Q.9. Name any two groups of microorganisms from which antibiotics could be extracted.
Ans: Bacteria and fungi.
Q.10. Name any three diseases transmitted through vectors.
Ans: Malaria (vector - Anopheles), Dengue (vector - Aedes) and Kala-azar (vector - Sandfly)
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.11. Explain giving reasons:
(a) Balanced diet is necessary for maintaining healthy body.
Ans: Balanced diet is required for maintaining a healthy body. It provides raw materials and energy in appropriate amount which is needed for the substances such as carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals, etc., that in turn are essential for the proper growth and functioning of the healthy body.
(b) Health of an organism depends upon the surrounding environmental conditions.
Ans: Health of an organism depends upon the surrounding environmental conditions. It is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially. These conditions depend upon the surrounding environmental conditions. If there is unhygienic conditions in surrounding area, it is likely we might get infected or diseased.
(c) Our surrounding area should be free of stagnant water.
Ans: Our surrounding area should be free of stagnant water because many water borne diseases and insect vectors flourish in stagnant water that cause diseases in human beings.
(d) Social harmony and good economic conditions are necessary for good health.
Ans: Human beings live in societies and different localities like villages or cities which determines the social and physical environment. Hence, both are to be kept in harmony. Public cleanliness is important for individual health. We need good food for healthy body for better living conditions and for the treatment of diseases the economic conditions should also be good.
Q.12. What is a disease? How many types of diseases have you studied? Give examples.
Ans: When the functioning or the appearance of one or more systems of the body change for the worse, then there is a disease.
Examples: Influenza, tuberculosis, pneumonia (infectious), cancer (non-infectious), etc. Types of Diseases:
(a) Acute and chronic on the basis of duration. Acute disease — Common cold Chronic disease — Tuberculosis of lungs
(b) Congenital and acquired on the basis of period of occurrence.
Congenital disease — Colour blindness
Acquired disease — Malaria
Acquired diseases are of two kinds — Infectious and
non-infectious on the basis of causal agent.
Infectious disease — Typhoid
Non-infectious disease — Cancer
Q.13. What do you mean by disease symptoms? Explain giving two examples.
Ans: When the functioning or the appearance of one or more systems of the body change for the worse, it gives certain abnormal signs of the disease. These visual changes in human beings with indication of the presence of a particular disease is called disease symptoms.
(a) Skin lesions are the symptoms of Chickenpox.
(b) Cough is the symptom of lung infection.
Q.14. Why is immune system essential for our health?
Ans: The immune system is essential for our health as it functions as a defensive mechanism to fight against pathogenic microbes. It has cells that are specialised to kill infecting microbes and keep our body healthy.
Q.15. What precautions will you take to justify “Prevention is better than cure”?
Ans: Following precautions should be taken for prevention of disease:
(a) Maintaining hygienic conditions.
(b) Awareness about the disease and causal organism.
(c) Proper nutrition with balanced diet, clean food and water.
(d) Regular medical check up.
(e) Regular exercise and relaxation.
Q.16. Why do some children fall ill more frequently than others living in the same locality?
Ans: Some children fall ill more frequently due to poor domestic and personal hygiene, unclean food and lack of proper nutrition and balanced diet. Due to these immune systems become weak.
Q.17. Why are antibiotics not effective for viral disease?
Ans: Antibiotics arc not effective for viral diseases as they block the biosynthetic pathways of the microbes/bacteria. However, viruses have very few biochemical mechanisms of their own and hence are unaffected by antibiotics.
Q.18. Becoming exposed to or infected with an infectious microbe does not necessarily mean developing noticeable disease. Explain.
Ans: Infected with a microbe does not mean developing a disease because an infectious microbe is able to cause a disease only if the immune system of the person is weak and a person with strong immune system normally fights off microbes. We have cells which are specialised to kill the pathogenic microbes. These cells are active when infecting microbes enter the body and if they are successful in removing the pathogen, we remain disease-free. So, even if we are exposed to infectious microbes, the person will not catch the disease.
Q.19. Give any four factors necessary for a healthy person.
Ans: Factors necessary for a healthy person are as follows:
(a) A clean environment with proper public health services.
(b) Personal hygiene prevents infectious diseases.
(c) A proper balanced diet and sufficient nourishment are necessary for good immune system of our body.
(d) Immunisation/vaccination against severe diseases.
Q.20. Why is AIDS considered to be a ‘Syndrome’ and not a disease?
Ans: AIDS is considered a syndrome and not a disease because AIDS causing virus—HIV comes into the body via the sexual organs or any other means like blood transfusion and spread to lymph nodes all over the body. The virus damages the immune system of the body and the body can no longer fight off even minor infections. Instead, every small cold can become pneumonia, or minor gut infection can become severe diarrhoea. The effect of disease becomes very severe and complex, at times killing the person suffering from AIDS. Hence, there is no specific disease symptoms for AIDS but it results in a complex diseases and symptoms.