Q.1. Which of the following is not true of intestinal villi?
(a) They possess microvilli
(b) They increase the surface area
(c) They are supplied with capillaries and the lacteal vessels
(d) They only participate in digestion of fats
Sol. They only participate in digestion of fats.
Structure of Intestinal VilliQ.2. Hepato-pancreatic duct opens into the duodenum and carries
(b) Pancreatic juice
(c) Both bile and pancreatic juice
Sol. Hepato-pancreatic duct opens into the duodenum and carries both bile and pancreatic juice.
Q.3. Which of the following is not a common disorder associated with digestive system?
Sol. Tetanus is not a common disorder associated with digestive system.
Q.4. A gland not associated with the alimentary canal is
(d) Salivary glands
Sol. A gland not associated with the alimentary canal is adrenal (this is endocrine gland).
Q.5. Match the two columns and select the correct among options given
(a) A-ii, B-i, C-v, D-iii, E-iv
(b) A-iv, B-i, C-v, D-ii, E-iii
(c) A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv, E-v
(d) A-i, B-iii, C-ii, D-iv, E-v
Q.6. Match the two columns and select the right one among options given
(a) A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv
(b) A-iv, B-iii, C-ii, D-i
(c) A-iii, B-i, C-iv, D-ii
(d) A-ii, B-iv, C-i, D-iii
Q.7. Match the enzyme with their respective substrate and choose the right one among options given
(a) A-ii, B-iii, C-i, D-iv
(b) A-iii, B-iv, C-ii, D-i
(c) A-iii, B-i, C-iv, D-ii
(d) A-ii, B-iii, C-iv, D-i
Q.8. Dental formula in human beings is
Sol. Dental formula in human beings is 2123/2123.
Q.9. Liver is the largest gland and is associated with various functions. Choose which is not correct from the following.
(a) Metabolism of carbohydrate
(b) Digestion of fat
(c) Formation of bile
(d) Secretion of hormone called gastrin
Sol. Liver is the largest gland and is associated with functions metabolism of carbohydrate, digestion of fat and formation of bile.
Q.10. Mark the right statement among the following
(a) Trypsinogen is an inactive enzyme
(b) Trypsinogen is secreted by intestinal mucosa
(c) Enterokinase is secreted by pancreas
(d) Bile contains trypsin
Q.1. The food mixes thoroughly with the acidic gastric juice of the stomach by the churning movements of its muscular wall. What do we call the food then?
Q.2. Trypsinogen is an inactive enzyme of pancreatic juice. An enzyme, enterokinase, activates it. Which tissue/ cells secrete this enzyme?/ How is it activated?
Ans. Intestinal mucosa
Q.3. In which part of alimentary canal does absorption of water, simple sugars and alcohol takes place?
Q.4. Name the enzymes involved in the breakdown of nucleotides into sugars and bases?
Ans. Nucleotidases and Nucleosidases
Q.5. Define digestion in one sentence.
Ans. The process of conversion of complex food substances in the digestive system to simple absorbable forms is called digestion.
Q.6. What do we call the type of teeth attachment to jaw bones in which each tooth is embedded in a socket of jaws bones?
Q.7. Stomach is located in upper left portion of the abdominal cavity and has three major parts. Name these three parts.
Ans. Cardiac, fundic and pyloric.
Q.8. Does gall bladder make bile?
Ans. No, it only stores.
Q.9. Correct the following statements by deleting one of entries (underlined).
(a) Goblet cells are located in the intestinal mucosal epithelium and secrete chymotrypsin / mucus.
(b) Fats are broken down into di- and monoglycerides with the help of amylase / lipases.
(c) Gastric glands of stomach mucosa have oxyntic cell / chief cells which secrete HCl.
(d) Saliva contains enzymes that digest starch / protein.
(a) Goblet cells are located in the intestinal mucosal epithelium and secrete mucus.
(b) Fats are broken down into di- and monoglycerides with the help of lipases.
(c) Gastric glands of stomach mucosa have oxyntic cell which secrete HCl.
(d) Saliva contains enzymes that digest starch.
Q.1. What is pancreas? Mention the major secretions of pancreas that are helpful in digestion.
Ans. Pancreas is a gland having exocrine and endocrine portions involved in secreting digestive enzymes as well as hormones. Major secretions of pancreas involved in digestion are inactive enzymes listed below:
Q.2. Name the part of the alimentary canal where major absorption of digested food takes place. What are the absorbed forms of different kinds of food materials?
Ans. Small intestine is the part of alimentary canal where digested food materials are mainly absorbed. Amino acids (proteins), monosaccharides like glucose, fructose, galactose, etc. (carbohydrate) and fatty acids and glycerol (fats) are different absorbable forms of food materials.
Q.3. List the organs of human alimentary canal and name the major digestive glands with their location.
Q.4. What is the role of gall bladder? What may happen if it stops functioning or is removed?
Ans. The bile secreted by the hepatic cells passes through the hepatic ducts and is stored and concentrated in a thin muscular sac called the gall bladder. Bile helps in emulsification of fats, i.e., breaking down of the fats into very small micelles. Bile also activates lipases. If it stops functioning or is removed then digestion of fat will be affected.
Q.5. Correct the statement given below by the right option shown in the bracket against them
(a) Absorption of amino acids and glycerol takes place in the (small intestine / large intestine).
(b) The faeces in the rectum initiate a reflex causing an urge for its removal (neural / hormonal).
(c) Skin and eyes turn yellow in infection (liver / stomach).
(d) Rennin is a proteolytic enzyme found in gastric juice in (infants / adults).
(e) Pancreatic juice and bile are released through. (intestine pancreatic / hepato- pancreatic duct)
(f) Dipeptides, disaccharides and glycerides are broken down into simple substances in region of small intestine (jejunum / duodenum).
(a) Absorption of amino acids and glycerol takes place in the small intestine.
(b) The faeces in the rectum initiate a neural reflex causing an urge for its removal.
(c) Skin and eyes turn yellow in infection of liver.
(d) Rennin is a proteolytic enzyme found in gastric juice in infants.
(e) Pancreatic juice and bile are released through hepato-pancreatic duct.
(f) Dipeptides, disaccharides and glycerides are broken down into simple substances in duodenum region of small intestine.
Q.6. What are three major types of cells found in the gastric glands? Name their secretions.
Ans. The mucosa of stomach has gastric glands.
Gastric glands have three major types of cells namely:
(i) Mucus neck cells which secrete mucus
(ii) Peptic or chief cells which secrete the proenzyme pepsinogen
(iii) Parietal or oxyntic cells which secrete HC1 and intrinsic factor (factor essential for absorption of vitamin B12).
Q.7. How is the intestinal mucosa protected from the acidic food entering from stomach?
Ans. The mucus and bicarbonates present in the gastric juice play an important role in lubrication and protection of the mucosal epithelium from excoriation by the highly concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Q.8. How are the activities of gastro-intestinal tract regulated?
Q.9. Distinguish between constipation and indigestion. Mention their major causes.
Q.10. Describe the enzymatic action on fats in the duodenum.
Q.1. A person had roti and dal for his lunch. Trace the changes in those during its passage through the alimentary canal.
Q.2. What are the various enzymatic types of glandular secretions in our gut helping digestion of food? What is the nature of end products obtained after complete digestion of food?
Ans. Enzymatic types of glandular secretions in our gut are:
(a) Salivary glands
(b) Gastric glands
The mucosa of stomach has gastric glands.
Gastric glands have three major types of cells namely:
(c) The Bile, Pancreatic and the Intestinal juice
The nature of end products obtained after digestion of food:
Q.3. Discuss mechanisms of absorption.
Q.4. Discuss the role of hepato – pancreatic complex in digestion of carbohydrate, protein and fat components of food.
Q.5. Explain the process of digestion in the buccal cavity with a note on the arrangement of teeth.
Arrangement of Teeth
Arrangement of Teeth on one side and the sockets on the other side
Process of digestion in Buccal cavity