Q.1. As we go from species to kingdom in a taxonomic hierarchy, the number of common characteristics
(a) Will decrease
(b) Will increase
(c) Remain the same
(d) May increase or decrease
Classification of living things
Q.2. Which of the following ‘suffixes’ used for units of classification in plants indicates a taxonomic category of 'family’?
(a) —Ales —> Order (plant)
(b) —Onae —> Class (plant)
(c) —Aceae —> Family (plant)
(d) —Ae —> Phylum (plant)
Q.3. The term ‘systematics’ refers to
(a) Identification and study of organ systems of plants and animals
(b) Identification and preservation of plants and animals
(c) Diversity of kinds of organisms and their relationship
(d) Study of habitats of organisms and their classification
Q.4. Genus represents
(a) An individual plant or animal
(b) A collection of plants or animals
(c) A group of closely related species of plants or animals
(d) None of these
Solution: Genus comprises a group of related species with more common characteristics than species of other genera.
Q.5. The taxonomic unit ‘Phylum’ in the classification of animals is equivalent to which hierarchical level in the classification of plants?
Q.6. Botanical gardens and zoological parks have
(a) Collection of endemic living species only
(b) Collection of exotic living species only
(c) Collection of endemic and exotic living species
(d) Collection of only local plants and animals
Botanical GardenQ.7. The taxonomic key is one of the taxonomic tools in the identification and classification of plants and animals. It is used in the preparation of
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these
(i) Flora contains the actual account of habitat and distribution of plants of a given area. These provide the index to the plant species found in a particular area.
(ii) Manuals are useful in providing information to identify names of species found in an area. Monographs contain information on anyone taxon, i.e. anyone genus or family at a particular time. They also help with incorrect identification.
Q.8. All living organisms are linked to one another because
(a) They have the common genetic material of the same type
(b) They share common genetic material but to varying degrees
(c) All have a common cellular organization
(d) All of the above
Solution: All living organisms - present, past, and future are linked to one another by the sharing of the common genetic material, but to varying degrees.
Q.9. Which of the following is a defining characteristic of living organisms?
(b) Ability to make sound
(d) Response to external stimuli
Q.10. Match the following and choose the correct option.
(a) D—(i), C—(ii), E—(iii), B—(iv), A-(v)
(b) E—(i), D—(ii), B—(iii), A—(iv), C-(v)
(c) D—(C), E—(ii), B—(iii), A—(iv), C-(v)
(d) E—(i), C—(ii), B—(iii), A—(iv), D-(v)
Q.1. Linnaeus is considered as Father of Taxonomy. Name two other botanists known for their contribution to the field of plant taxonomy?
Ans. The natural system of classification for flowering plants was given by George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker, in a three-volume of Genera Plantarum.
Q.2. What does ICZN stand for?
Ans. ICZN stands for International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Q.3. Couplet in taxonomic key means _____
Ans. The keys are based on the contrasting characters generally in a pair called a couplet. It represents the choice made between two opposite options. This results in the acceptance of only one and the rejection of the other.
Q.4. What is Monograph?
Ans. Monographs contain information on anyone taxon, i.e. anyone genus or family at a particular time.Q.5. Amoeba multiplies by mitotic cell division. Is this phenomenon growth or reproduction? Explain.
Ans. Amoeba is a unicellular organism. It undergoes division and gives rise to two Amoeba. Therefore, in unicellular organisms, cell division is the same as reproduction. It is a form of asexual reproduction called binary fission.
Q.6. Define Metabolism.
Ans. Metabolism refers to a series of chemical reactions that occur in a living organism to sustain life.
Q.7. Which is the largest botanical garden in the world? Name a few well known botanical gardens in India.
Q.1. A ball of snow when rolled over snow increases in mass, volume, and size. Is this comparable to growth as seen in living organisms? Why?
Ans. No, this is not comparable to growth as seen in living organisms. Non-living objects like snowball also grow if we increase body mass as a criterion for growth. However, this kind of growth exhibited by non-living objects is by accumulating material on the surface (accretion). In living organisms, growth is from the inside.
Q.2. In a given habitat we have 20 plant species and 20 animal species. Should we call this ‘diversity’ or ‘biodiversity’? Justify your answer.
Ans. In a given habitat we have 20 plant species and 20 animal species. We can call this ‘biodiversity’. Because “bio” refers to living and diversity means “variation or variety”. Each different kind of plant, animal, or organism that we see represents a species. This refers to biodiversity or the number and types of organisms present on earth.
Q.3. International Code of Botanical nomenclature (ICBN) has provided a code for the classification of plants. Give hierarchy of units of classification botanists follow while classifying plants and mention different ‘Suffixes’ used for the units.
Q.4. A plant species shows several morphological variations in response to the altitudinal gradient. When grown under similar growth conditions, the morphological variations disappear, and all the variants have common morphology. What are these variants called?
Q.5. How do you prepare your own Herbarium sheets? What are the different tools you carry with you while collecting plants for the preparation of a herbarium? What information should a preserved plant material on the herbarium sheet provide for taxonomical studies?
Ans. Following are the various steps of preparing a herbarium:
Q.6. What is the difference between flora, fauna, and vegetation? Eichhornia crassipes is called an exotic species while Rauwolfia serpentina is an endemic species in India. What do these terms exotic and endemic refer to?
Ans. The sum of plant species in a given geographical area is called the flora of that area. The sum of animal species in a given geographical area is called the fauna of that area. The term ‘vegetation’ has a wider scope than the term ‘flora’. Vegetation is often used for a much wider geographical area than a particular ecosystem. In many cases, the term ‘vegetation’ is used for all the plants globally.
Q.7. A plant may have different names in different regions of the country or world. How do botanists solve this problem?
Q.8. Brinjal and potato belong to the same genus Solarium, but to two different species. What defines them as separate species?
Ans. “Species is a group of potentially interbreeding groups that are reproductively isolated from other such groups”. Brinjal and potato belong to the same genus Solarium, but to two different species as they are reproductively isolated.
Q.9. Properties of cell organelles are not always found in the molecular constituents of cell organelles. Justify.
Q.10. The number and kinds of an organism are not constant. How do you explain this statement?