NCERT Solutions - The Delhi Sultans, SST (History), Class 7
Q1. Which ruler first established his or her capital in Delhi?
Answer Ananga Pala of Tomara Rajputs first established his or her capital at Delhi.
Q2. What was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans?
Answer Persian was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
Q3. In whose reign did the Sultanate reach its farthest extent?
Answer Sultanate reach its farthest extent in the reign of Muhammad Tughluq.
Q4. From which country did Ibn Battuta traveled to India?
Answer Ibn Battuta travelled to India from Morocco.
Q5. According to the "Circle of Justice", why was it important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind?
Answer According to the "Circle of Justice", it was important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind because a king cannot survive without soldiers and soldiers cannot live without salaries. Salaries of the soldiers came from the revenue collected from peasants. But peasants can pay revenue only when they are prosperous and happy.
Q6. What is meant by the "internal" and "external" frontiers of the Sultanate?
Answer Internal frontiers of the Sultanate include hinterlands of the garrison towns and Ganga-Yamuna doab. External frontiers of the Sultanate include unconquered areas of southern India which is away from Delhi.
Q7. What were the steps taken to ensure that muqtis performed their duties? Why do you think they may have wanted to defy the orders of the Sultans?
Steps were taken to ensure that muqtis performed their duties:
(i) The duty of the muqtis was to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas.
(ii) Their office was made not inheritable.
(iii) They were assigned iqtas for a short period of time before being shifted.
(iv) Accountants were appointed by the state to check the amount of revenue collected.
(v) Care was taken that the muqti collected only the taxes prescribed by the state and that he kept the required number of soldiers. They may have wanted to defy the orders of the Sultans as they were maintaining their own armies and collecting revenues which may provoke them to rebel against kingdom. Also, the harsh conditions of service can be the reason for defying the orders of the Sultans.
Q8. What was the impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate?
Impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate:
(i) The rulers of Delhi Sultanate raised a large standing army.
(ii) Alauddin constructed a new garrison town named Siri for his soldiers while Muhammad Tughluq emptied residents and the soldiers garrisoned there.
(iii) To feed a large number of soldiers, harsh taxes were imposed on peasants.
(iv) They started paying their soldiers in cash rather than iqtas.
(v) These measures posed a huge administrative challenge.
Q9. Do you think the authors of tawarikh would provide information about the lives of ordinary men and women?
Answer No, I don't think the authors of tawarikh would provide information about the lives of ordinary men and women because their writing was for praising the Sultans and get a reward. They had nothing to do with common folks. Also, they were the part of the administration and lived in towns and were mostly unaware of the life of common people.
Q10. Razia Sultan was unique in the history of the Delhi Sultanate. Do you think women leaders are accepted more readily today?
Answer: Razia Sultan was unique in the history of the Delhi Sultanate because she is the first woman to become the ruler of the Sultanate. She was more able and qualified than all her brothers. Yes, I think women leaders are accepted more readily today because of democracy. Now, the world has become an open-minded in terms of gender equality and would never mind in having a woman as their leaders. Many women in this period proved that a woman too can be at the top of leaders. Moreover, people widely supported the woman as their leader.
Q11. Why were the Delhi Sultans interested in cutting down forests? Does deforestation occur for the same reasons today?
Answer: The Delhi Sultans interested in cutting down forests to give land to the peasants and carry out agricultural practices. Also, new fortresses and towns were established to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade. They also cleared forests in order to safeguard their frontiers and quick movement of their army. In today's world, deforestation occurs due to construction of roads, railways, houses and industries. So, we can say that deforestation occurs for the same reasons today only the perspective of views has been changed.