Exercise 7.1
1. In quadrilateral ACBD, AC = AD and AB bisects ∠A (see Fig. 7.16). Show that ΔABC ≅ ΔABD. What can you say about BC and BD?
Answer
Given,
AC = AD and AB bisects ∠A
To prove,
ΔABC ≅ ΔABD
Proof,
In ΔABC and ΔABD,
AB = AB (Common)
AC = AD (Given)
∠CAB = ∠DAB (AB is bisector)
Therefore, ΔABC ≅ ΔABD by SAS congruence condition.
BC and BD are of equal length.
2. ABCD is a quadrilateral in which AD = BC and ∠DAB = ∠CBA (see Fig. 7.17). Prove that
(i) ΔABD ≅ ΔBAC
(ii) BD = AC
(iii) ∠ABD = ∠BAC.
Answer
Given,
AD = BC and ∠DAB = ∠CBA
(i) In ΔABD and ΔBAC,
AB = BA (Common)
∠DAB = ∠CBA (Given)
AD = BC (Given)
Therefore, ΔABD ≅ ΔBAC by SAS congruence condition.
(ii) Since, ΔABD ≅ ΔBAC
Therefore BD = AC by CPCT
(iii) Since, ΔABD ≅ ΔBAC
Therefore ∠ABD = ∠BAC by CPCT
3. AD and BC are equal perpendiculars to a line segment AB (see Fig. 7.18). Show that CD bisects AB.
Answer
Given,
AD and BC are equal perpendiculars to AB.
To prove,
CD bisects AB
Proof,
In ΔAOD and ΔBOC,
∠A = ∠B (Perpendicular)
∠AOD = ∠BOC (Vertically opposite angles)
AD = BC (Given)
Therefore, ΔAOD ≅ ΔBOC by AAS congruence condition.
Now,
AO = OB (CPCT). CD bisects AB.
4. l and m are two parallel lines intersected by another pair of parallel lines p and q (see Fig. 7.19). Show that ΔABC ≅ ΔCDA.
Answer
Given,
l  m and p  q
To prove,
ΔABC ≅ ΔCDA
Proof,
In ΔABC and ΔCDA,
∠BCA = ∠DAC (Alternate interior angles)
AC = CA (Common)
∠BAC = ∠DCA (Alternate interior angles)
Therefore, ΔABC ≅ ΔCDA by ASA congruence condition.
5. Line l is the bisector of an angle ∠A and B is any point on l. BP and BQ are perpendiculars from B to the arms of ∠A (see Fig. 7.20). Show that:
(i) ΔAPB ≅ ΔAQB
(ii) BP = BQ or B is equidistant from the arms of ∠A.
Answer
Given,
l is the bisector of an angle ∠A.
BP and BQ are perpendiculars.
(i) In ΔAPB and ΔAQB,
∠P = ∠Q (Right angles)
∠BAP = ∠BAQ (l is bisector)
AB = AB (Common)
Therefore, ΔAPB ≅ ΔAQB by AAS congruence condition.
(ii) BP = BQ by CPCT. Therefore, B is equidistant from the arms of ∠A.
6. In Fig. 7.21, AC = AE, AB = AD and ∠BAD = ∠EAC. Show that BC = DE.
Answer
Given,
AC = AE, AB = AD and ∠BAD = ∠EAC
To show,
BC = DE
Proof,
∠BAD = ∠EAC (Adding ∠DAC both sides)
∠BAD + ∠DAC = ∠EAC + ∠DAC
⇒ ∠BAC = ∠EAD
In ΔABC and ΔADE,
AC = AE (Given)
∠BAC = ∠EAD
AB = AD (Given)
Therefore, ΔABC ≅ ΔADE by SAS congruence condition.
BC = DE by CPCT.
7. AB is a line segment and P is its midpoint. D and E are points on the same side of AB such that ∠BAD = ∠ABE and ∠EPA = ∠DPB (see Fig. 7.22). Show that
(i) ΔDAP ≅ ΔEBP
(ii) AD = BE
Answer
Given,
P is midpoint of AB.
∠BAD = ∠ABE and ∠EPA = ∠DPB
(i) ∠EPA = ∠DPB (Adding ∠DPE both sides)
∠EPA + ∠DPE = ∠DPB + ∠DPE
⇒ ∠DPA = ∠EPB
In ΔDAP ≅ ΔEBP,
∠DPA = ∠EPB
AP = BP (P is midpoint of AB)
∠BAD = ∠ABE (Given)
Therefore, ΔDAP ≅ ΔEBP by ASA congruence condition.
(ii) AD = BE by CPCT.
8. In right triangle ABC, right angled at C, M is the midpoint of hypotenuse AB. C is joined to M and produced to a point D such that DM = CM. Point D is joined to point B (see Fig. 7.23). Show that:
(i) ΔAMC ≅ ΔBMD
(ii) ∠DBC is a right angle.
(iii) ΔDBC ≅ ΔACB
(iv) CM = 1/2 AB
Answer
Given,
∠C = 90°, M is the midpoint of AB and DM = CM
(i) In ΔAMC and ΔBMD,
AM = BM (M is the midpoint)
∠CMA = ∠DMB (Vertically opposite angles)
CM = DM (Given)
Therefore, ΔAMC ≅ ΔBMD by SAS congruence condition.
(ii) ∠ACM = ∠BDM (by CPCT)
Therefore, AC  BD as alternate interior angles are equal.
Now,
∠ACB + ∠DBC = 180° (cointeriors angles)
⇒ 90° + ∠B = 180°
⇒ ∠DBC = 90°
(iii) In ΔDBC and ΔACB,
BC = CB (Common)
∠ACB = ∠DBC (Right angles)
DB = AC (byy CPCT, already proved)
Therefore, ΔDBC ≅ ΔACB by SAS congruence condition.
(iv) DC = AB (ΔDBC ≅ ΔACB)
⇒ DM = CM = AM = BM (M is midpoint)
⇒ DM + CM = AM + BM
⇒ CM + CM = AB
⇒ CM = 1/2AB
Exercise 7.2
1. In an isosceles triangle ABC, with AB = AC, the bisectors of ∠B and ∠C intersect each other at O. Join A to O. Show that :
(i) OB = OC
(ii) AO bisects ∠A
Answer
Given,
AB = AC, the bisectors of ∠B and ∠C intersect each other at O
(i) Since ABC is an isosceles with AB = AC,
∴ ∠B = ∠C
⇒ 1/2∠B = 1/2∠C
⇒ ∠OBC = ∠OCB (Angle bisectors.)
⇒ OB = OC (Side opposite to the equal angles are equal.)
(ii) In ΔAOB and ΔAOC,
AB = AC (Given)
AO = AO (Common)
OB = OC (Proved above)
Therefore, ΔAOB ≅ ΔAOC by SSS congruence condition.
∠BAO = ∠CAO (by CPCT)
Thus, AO bisects ∠A.
2. In ΔABC, AD is the perpendicular bisector of BC (see Fig. 7.30). Show that ΔABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC.
Answer
Given,
AD is the perpendicular bisector of BC
To show,
AB = AC
Proof,
In ΔADB and ΔADC,
AD = AD (Common)
∠ADB = ∠ADC
BD = CD (AD is the perpendicular bisector)
Therefore, ΔADB ≅ ΔADC by SAS congruence condition.
AB = AC (by CPCT)
3. ABC is an isosceles triangle in which altitudes BE and CF are drawn to equal sides AC and AB respectively (see Fig. 7.31). Show that these altitudes are equal.
Answer
Given,
BE and CF are altitudes.
AC = AB
To show,
BE = CF
Proof,
In ΔAEB and ΔAFC,
∠A = ∠A (Common)
∠AEB = ∠AFC (Right angles)
AB = AC (Given)
Therefore, ΔAEB ≅ ΔAFC by AAS congruence condition.
Thus, BE = CF by CPCT.
4. ABC is a triangle in which altitudes BE and CF to sides AC and AB are equal (see Fig. 7.32). Show that
(i) ΔABE ≅ ΔACF
(ii) AB = AC, i.e., ABC is an isosceles triangle.
Answer
Given,
BE = CF
(i) In ΔABE and ΔACF,
∠A = ∠A (Common)
∠AEB = ∠AFC (Right angles)
BE = CF (Given)
Therefore, ΔABE ≅ ΔACF by AAS congruence condition.
(ii) Thus, AB = AC by CPCT and therefore ABC is an isosceles triangle.
5. ABC and DBC are two isosceles triangles on the same base BC (see Fig. 7.33). Show that ∠ABD = ∠ACD.
Answer
Given,
ABC and DBC are two isosceles triangles.
To show,
∠ABD = ∠ACD
Proof,
In ΔABD and ΔACD,
AD = AD (Common)
AB = AC (ABC is an isosceles triangle.)
BD = CD (BCD is an isosceles triangle.)
Therefore, ΔABD ≅ ΔACD by SSS congruence condition. Thus, ∠ABD = ∠ACD by CPCT.
6. ΔABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC. Side BA is produced to D such that AD = AB (see Fig. 7.34). Show that ∠BCD is a right angle.
Answer
Given,
AB = AC and AD = AB
To show,
∠BCD is a right angle.
Proof,
In ΔABC,
AB = AC (Given)
⇒ ∠ACB = ∠ABC (Angles opposite to the equal sides are equal.)
In ΔACD,
AD = AB
⇒ ∠ADC = ∠ACD (Angles opposite to the equal sides are equal.)
Now,
In ΔABC,
∠CAB + ∠ACB + ∠ABC = 180°
⇒ ∠CAB + 2∠ACB = 180°
⇒ ∠CAB = 180°  2∠ACB  (i)
Similarly in ΔADC,
∠CAD = 180°  2∠ACD  (ii)
also,
∠CAB + ∠CAD = 180° (BD is a straight line.)
Adding (i) and (ii)
∠CAB + ∠CAD = 180°  2∠ACB + 180°  2∠ACD
⇒ 180° = 360°  2∠ACB  2∠ACD
⇒ 2(∠ACB + ∠ACD) = 180°
⇒ ∠BCD = 90°
7. ABC is a right angled triangle in which ∠A = 90° and AB = AC. Find ∠B and ∠C.
Answer
Given,
∠A = 90° and AB = AC
A/q,
AB = AC
⇒ ∠B = ∠C (Angles opposite to the equal sides are equal.)
Now,
∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 180° (Sum of the interior angles of the triangle.)
⇒ 90° + 2∠B = 180°
⇒ 2∠B = 90°
⇒ ∠B = 45°
Thus, ∠B = ∠C = 45°
8. Show that the angles of an equilateral triangle are 60° each.
Answer
Let ABC be an equilateral triangle.
BC = AC = AB (Length of all sides is same)
⇒ ∠A = ∠B = ∠C (Sides opposite to the equal angles are equal.)
Also,
∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 180°
⇒ 3∠A = 180°
⇒ ∠A = 60°
Therefore, ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = 60°
Thus, the angles of an equilateral triangle are 60° each.
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