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Q1. Answer the following questions.
(i) Name any three common minerals used by you every day.
Ans: Salt, Gold and Copper are three common minerals used every day.
(ii) What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?
Ans: Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores. For any material to be called ore of any mineral, it must contain minimum adequate quantity of that mineral so that it can be extracted profitably.
Examples of ores.
(iii) Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.
Ans: Russia and Norway are the two regions rich in natural gas resources.
(iv) Which sources of energy would you suggest for
(a) Rural areas
(b) Coastal areas
(c) Arid regions
(a) Biogas energy for rural areas
(b) Hydel and tidal energy for coastal areas
Hydel power.(c) Wind and solar energy for arid regions
(v) Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.
Ans: Five ways in which energy can be saved at home:
Q2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Which one of the following is not a characteristic of minerals?
(a) They are created by natural processes.
(b) They have a definite chemical composition.
(c) They are inexhaustible.
(d) Their distribution is uneven.
Correct Answer is Option (c)
(ii) Which one of the following is not a producer of mica?
(d) Andhra Pradesh
Correct Answer is Option (b)
(iii) Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?
Correct Answer is Option (c)
(iv) Which one of the following practices will not conserve LPG in your kitchen?
(a) Soaking the dal for some time before cooking it.
(b) Cooking food in a pressure cooker.
(c) Keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking.
(d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.
Correct Answer is Option (d)
Q3. Give reasons.
(i) Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.
Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams because of the following reasons -
(ii) Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.
Ans: Coal is used as a source of energy and power and also as a raw material in most of the industries. Hence most industries are concentrated around coal mines of the purpose of saving cost of transportation of coal (cost-effectiveness).
(iii) Petroleum is referred to as “black gold”.
Ans: Petroleum is referred to as “black gold” because it is black in colour in the crude form and its derivatives are extremely valuable as petroleum itself. Today it is almost inevitable in our day-to-day life. A variety of products like – kerosene, diesel, petrol, wax, plastics, lubricants etc. are produced from these mineral resources.
Petroleum: Black gold.
(iv) Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.
Ans: Quarrying can become a major environmental concern because of the following reasons:
Q4. Distinguish between the following.
(i) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
Conventional sources of energy
Non-conventional sources of energy
Have been in common use for a long time
Are not commonly used
Are generally exhaustible
Are generally inexhaustible
Are mostly polluting
Are mostly non-polluting
Example: Firewood, coal
Example: Solar energy, nuclear energy
(ii) Biogas and natural gas
Formed using organic wastes such as dead plants.
Found along with petroleum deposits and gets
and animal matter, animal dung and kitchen waste
released when crude oil is brought to the surface
Is a non-conventional source of energy
Is a conventional source of energy
Is easily available, especially in rural areas
Is not easily available; very few countries have sufficient natural gas reserves of their own
Is polluting; causes greenhouse effect as it releases carbon dioxide
Is a cleaner fuel
Used as a domestic fuel for cooking and lighting
Used as a domestic fuel as well as an industrial
(iii) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
A metallic mineral that contains iron
A metallic mineral that does not contain iron
Example: Iron ore, manganese
Example: Gold, silver
(iv) Metallic and non-metallic minerals
A mineral containing metal in raw form
A mineral not containing metal
Example: Bauxite, iron ore
Example: Limestone, gypsum