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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3 - In The Earliest Cities

Let’s Recall

Q1. How do archaeologists know that cloth was used in the Harappan civilisation?
Ans: Archaeologists have discovered actual pieces of cloth attached to artifacts such as the lid of a silver vase and some copper objects at Mohenjodaro. Additionally, they have found spindle whorls made of terracotta and faience, which were used for spinning thread, providing further evidence of the use of cloth in the Harappan civilization.


Q2. Match the columns
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3 - In The Earliest Cities
Ans: 

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3 - In The Earliest Cities


Q3. Why were metals, writing, the wheel, and the plough important for the Harappans?
Ans: Things and its importance:

  • Metals – For making tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels
  • Writing – For maintaining records.
  • Wheels – Used as means of transport.
  • Ploughing – For tilling the land so that farming could be done.


Let’s Discuss

Q4. Make a list of all the terracotta toys shown in the lesson. Which do you think children would have enjoyed playing with the most?
Ans: List of terracotta toys shown in the lesson:

  • Animal figures
  • Wheeled vehicles
  • Toy plough

Children would have enjoyed playing with the wheeled vehicles most.
Terracotta toys of Harappa Terracotta toys of Harappa 


Q5. Make a list of what the Harappans ate, and put a tick mark against the things you eat today.
Ans: The Harappans consumed a variety of food items including wheat, barley, pulses, mustard, peas, and linseed. While rice consumption among the Harappans is debated, many of these food items are still commonly consumed today, such as wheat, barley, pulses, and peas.


Q6. Do you think that the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was different from that of the farmers and herders you read about in Chapter 2? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans: 
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3 - In The Earliest Cities


Let’s do

Q7. Describe three important buildings in your city or village. Are they located in a special part of the settlement (e.g. the centre)? What are the activities that take place in these buildings?
Ans: [In this question, you'll have the chance to come up with your own response. However, we've also included an example answer below to give you an idea of what's expected. ]

The three important building in my city, Delhi, are:
(i) Rashtrapati bhavan: It is the official residence of the president of india.
(ii) Parliment house: Here the elected representatives of the people meet and discuss all important issues regarding the country.
(iii) Supreme court: It is the highest court of the country where all the cases are decided. The building is called the surpeme court building. 


Q8. Are there any old buildings in your locality? Find out how old they are and who looks after them.
Ans: [In this question, you'll have the chance to come up with your own response. However, we've also included an example answer below to give you an idea of what's expected. ]

An exemplary old building in my locality is the Red Fort, which served as a residence for numerous Mughal emperors. Construction began in 1639, and it took nearly nine years to complete. The Archaeological Survey of India, a governmental organization, is responsible for the preservation and maintenance of the Red Fort, ensuring its historical significance is preserved for future generations.

The document NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3 - In The Earliest Cities is a part of the Class 6 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 6.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 3 - In The Earliest Cities

1. What is the significance of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans. The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the earliest urban civilizations in the world, which flourished in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE. It was characterized by well-planned cities, advanced drainage systems, intricate trade networks, and a script that is yet to be deciphered. This civilization played a crucial role in shaping the cultural, social, and economic landscape of the Indian subcontinent.
2. What were the primary occupations of the people in the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization were primarily engaged in agriculture, trade, and crafts. The fertile soil of the Indus Valley provided an ideal environment for cultivation, and the people grew a variety of crops such as wheat, barley, and cotton. The civilization also had a well-developed trade network, which facilitated the exchange of goods such as pottery, beads, and metals. The people of the Indus Valley were skilled craftsmen and produced a range of objects such as terracotta figurines, seals, and jewelry.
3. What was the political structure of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans. The political structure of the Indus Valley Civilization is not clear as no written records have been found. However, archaeologists have found evidence of well-planned cities with a centralized authority that oversaw the construction of public buildings and infrastructure. The presence of large granaries and public baths suggests that the rulers of the civilization had a significant role in organizing the economy and maintaining public welfare.
4. What led to the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans. The decline of the Indus Valley Civilization is not well-understood, and there are a number of theories that attempt to explain it. Some scholars believe that climate change, such as droughts and floods, may have played a role in the civilization's decline. Others suggest that invasions by the Aryans or other groups may have contributed to the collapse. Still, others argue that factors such as environmental degradation, economic decline, and political instability may have been responsible for the civilization's demise.
5. What are some of the enduring legacies of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans. The Indus Valley Civilization has left a lasting legacy on the Indian subcontinent. Its well-planned cities, advanced drainage systems, and intricate trade networks influenced subsequent civilizations in the region. The civilization's script, which is yet to be deciphered, has also contributed to the development of writing systems in the region. The Indus Valley Civilization's legacy can be seen in the cultural, social, and economic practices that are still prevalent in the Indian subcontinent today.
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