NCERT Textbook: पाठ 11 - जब सिनेमा ने बोलना सीखा, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 8

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 11 - जब सिनेमा ने बोलना सीखा, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


62 olar Hkkx 3
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk
^os lHkh ltho gSa] lk¡l ys jgs gSa] 'kr&izfr'kr cksy jgs gSa] vBgÙkj
eqnkZ bulku ftank gks x,] mudks cksyrs] ckrsa djrs ns[kksA* ns'k dh igyh
loko~Q (cksyrh) fiQYe ^vkye vkjk* osQ iksLVjksa ij foKkiu dh ;s iafDr;k¡
fy[kh gqbZ FkhaA 14 ekpZ 1931 dh og ,sfrgkfld rkjh[k Hkkjrh; flusek esa
cM+s cnyko dk fnu FkkA blh fnu igyh ckj Hkkjr osQ flusek us cksyuk
lh[kk FkkA gkyk¡fd og nkSj ,slk Fkk tc ewd flusek yksdfiz;rk osQ f'k[kj
ij FkkA ^igyh cksyrh fiQYe ftl lky iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlh lky dbZ ewd
fiQYesa Hkh fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa esa cuhaA exj cksyrh fiQYeksa dk u;k nkSj 'kq:
gks x;k FkkA
igyh cksyrh fiQYe vkye
vkjk cukusokys fiQYedkj Fks vnsZf'kj
,e-bZjkuhA vnsZf'kj us 1929 esa
gkWyhoqM dh ,d cksyrh fiQYe
^'kks cksV* ns[kh vkSj muosQ eu esa
cksyrh fiQYe cukus dh bPNk txhA
ikjlh jaxeap osQ ,d yksdfiz;
ukVd dks vkèkkj cukdj mUgksaus
viuh fiQYe dh iVdFkk cukbZA
bl ukVd osQ dbZ xkus T;ksa osQ R;ksa
fiQYe esa ys fy, x,A ,d baVjO;w
esa vnsZf'kj us ml oDr dgk
Fkkµ^gekjs ikl dksbZ laokn ys[kd
11
2020-21
Page 2


62 olar Hkkx 3
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk
^os lHkh ltho gSa] lk¡l ys jgs gSa] 'kr&izfr'kr cksy jgs gSa] vBgÙkj
eqnkZ bulku ftank gks x,] mudks cksyrs] ckrsa djrs ns[kksA* ns'k dh igyh
loko~Q (cksyrh) fiQYe ^vkye vkjk* osQ iksLVjksa ij foKkiu dh ;s iafDr;k¡
fy[kh gqbZ FkhaA 14 ekpZ 1931 dh og ,sfrgkfld rkjh[k Hkkjrh; flusek esa
cM+s cnyko dk fnu FkkA blh fnu igyh ckj Hkkjr osQ flusek us cksyuk
lh[kk FkkA gkyk¡fd og nkSj ,slk Fkk tc ewd flusek yksdfiz;rk osQ f'k[kj
ij FkkA ^igyh cksyrh fiQYe ftl lky iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlh lky dbZ ewd
fiQYesa Hkh fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa esa cuhaA exj cksyrh fiQYeksa dk u;k nkSj 'kq:
gks x;k FkkA
igyh cksyrh fiQYe vkye
vkjk cukusokys fiQYedkj Fks vnsZf'kj
,e-bZjkuhA vnsZf'kj us 1929 esa
gkWyhoqM dh ,d cksyrh fiQYe
^'kks cksV* ns[kh vkSj muosQ eu esa
cksyrh fiQYe cukus dh bPNk txhA
ikjlh jaxeap osQ ,d yksdfiz;
ukVd dks vkèkkj cukdj mUgksaus
viuh fiQYe dh iVdFkk cukbZA
bl ukVd osQ dbZ xkus T;ksa osQ R;ksa
fiQYe esa ys fy, x,A ,d baVjO;w
esa vnsZf'kj us ml oDr dgk
Fkkµ^gekjs ikl dksbZ laokn ys[kd
11
2020-21
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk 63
ugha Fkk] xhrdkj ugha Fkk] laxhrdkj ugha FkkA* bu lcdh 'kq#vkr gksuh
FkhA vnsZf'kj us fiQYe osQ xkuksa osQ fy, Lo;a dh èkqusa pquhaA fiQYe osQ
laxhr esa egt rhu ok|&rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkSj ok;fyu dk bLrseky
fd;k x;kA vkye vkjk esa laxhrdkj ;k xhrdkj esa Lora=k :i ls fdlh
dk uke ugha Mkyk x;kA bl fiQYe esa igys ik'oZxk;d cus MCyw- ,e-
[kkuA igyk xkuk Fkkµ^ns ns [kqnk osQ uke ij I;kjs] vxj nsus dh rkdr gSA*
vkye vkjk dk laxhr ml le; fMLd iQkWeZ esa fjdkMZ ugha fd;k tk
ldk] fiQYe dh 'kwfVax 'kq: gqbZ rks lkmaM osQ dkj.k gh bldh 'kwfVax jkr
esa djuh iM+rh FkhA ewd ;qx dh vfèkdrj fiQYeksa dks fnu osQ izdk'k esa
'kwV dj fy;k tkrk Fkk] exj vkye vkjk dh 'kwfVax jkr esa gksus osQ dkj.k
blesa Ñf=ke izdk'k O;oLFkk djuh iM+hA ;gha ls izdk'k iz.kkyh cuh tks
vkxs fiQYe fuekZ.k dk t:jh
fgLlk cuhA
^vkye vkjk* us Hkfo";
osQ dbZ LVkj vkSj rduhf'k;u
rks fn, gh] vnsZf'kj dh
oaQiuh rd us Hkkjrh; flusek
osQ fy, Ms<+ lkS ls vfèkd
ewd vkSj yxHkx lkS loko~Q
fiQYesa cukb±A
vkye vkjk fiQYe
^vjsfc;u ukbV~l* tSlh
iSaQVslh FkhA fiQYe us fganh&mnwZ
osQ esyokyh ^fganqLrkuh* Hkk"kk
dks yksdfiz; cuk;kA blesa
xhr] laxhr rFkk u`R; osQ
vuks[ks la;kstu FksA fiQYe dh
2020-21
Page 3


62 olar Hkkx 3
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk
^os lHkh ltho gSa] lk¡l ys jgs gSa] 'kr&izfr'kr cksy jgs gSa] vBgÙkj
eqnkZ bulku ftank gks x,] mudks cksyrs] ckrsa djrs ns[kksA* ns'k dh igyh
loko~Q (cksyrh) fiQYe ^vkye vkjk* osQ iksLVjksa ij foKkiu dh ;s iafDr;k¡
fy[kh gqbZ FkhaA 14 ekpZ 1931 dh og ,sfrgkfld rkjh[k Hkkjrh; flusek esa
cM+s cnyko dk fnu FkkA blh fnu igyh ckj Hkkjr osQ flusek us cksyuk
lh[kk FkkA gkyk¡fd og nkSj ,slk Fkk tc ewd flusek yksdfiz;rk osQ f'k[kj
ij FkkA ^igyh cksyrh fiQYe ftl lky iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlh lky dbZ ewd
fiQYesa Hkh fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa esa cuhaA exj cksyrh fiQYeksa dk u;k nkSj 'kq:
gks x;k FkkA
igyh cksyrh fiQYe vkye
vkjk cukusokys fiQYedkj Fks vnsZf'kj
,e-bZjkuhA vnsZf'kj us 1929 esa
gkWyhoqM dh ,d cksyrh fiQYe
^'kks cksV* ns[kh vkSj muosQ eu esa
cksyrh fiQYe cukus dh bPNk txhA
ikjlh jaxeap osQ ,d yksdfiz;
ukVd dks vkèkkj cukdj mUgksaus
viuh fiQYe dh iVdFkk cukbZA
bl ukVd osQ dbZ xkus T;ksa osQ R;ksa
fiQYe esa ys fy, x,A ,d baVjO;w
esa vnsZf'kj us ml oDr dgk
Fkkµ^gekjs ikl dksbZ laokn ys[kd
11
2020-21
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk 63
ugha Fkk] xhrdkj ugha Fkk] laxhrdkj ugha FkkA* bu lcdh 'kq#vkr gksuh
FkhA vnsZf'kj us fiQYe osQ xkuksa osQ fy, Lo;a dh èkqusa pquhaA fiQYe osQ
laxhr esa egt rhu ok|&rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkSj ok;fyu dk bLrseky
fd;k x;kA vkye vkjk esa laxhrdkj ;k xhrdkj esa Lora=k :i ls fdlh
dk uke ugha Mkyk x;kA bl fiQYe esa igys ik'oZxk;d cus MCyw- ,e-
[kkuA igyk xkuk Fkkµ^ns ns [kqnk osQ uke ij I;kjs] vxj nsus dh rkdr gSA*
vkye vkjk dk laxhr ml le; fMLd iQkWeZ esa fjdkMZ ugha fd;k tk
ldk] fiQYe dh 'kwfVax 'kq: gqbZ rks lkmaM osQ dkj.k gh bldh 'kwfVax jkr
esa djuh iM+rh FkhA ewd ;qx dh vfèkdrj fiQYeksa dks fnu osQ izdk'k esa
'kwV dj fy;k tkrk Fkk] exj vkye vkjk dh 'kwfVax jkr esa gksus osQ dkj.k
blesa Ñf=ke izdk'k O;oLFkk djuh iM+hA ;gha ls izdk'k iz.kkyh cuh tks
vkxs fiQYe fuekZ.k dk t:jh
fgLlk cuhA
^vkye vkjk* us Hkfo";
osQ dbZ LVkj vkSj rduhf'k;u
rks fn, gh] vnsZf'kj dh
oaQiuh rd us Hkkjrh; flusek
osQ fy, Ms<+ lkS ls vfèkd
ewd vkSj yxHkx lkS loko~Q
fiQYesa cukb±A
vkye vkjk fiQYe
^vjsfc;u ukbV~l* tSlh
iSaQVslh FkhA fiQYe us fganh&mnwZ
osQ esyokyh ^fganqLrkuh* Hkk"kk
dks yksdfiz; cuk;kA blesa
xhr] laxhr rFkk u`R; osQ
vuks[ks la;kstu FksA fiQYe dh
2020-21
64 olar Hkkx 3
ukf;dk tqcSnk FkhaA uk;d Fks fo_yA os ml nkSj osQ lokZfèkd ikfjJfed
ikusokys LVkj FksA muosQ p;u dks ysdj Hkh ,d fdLlk dkiQh pfpZr gSA
fo_y dks mnwZ cksyus esa eqf'dysa vkrh FkhaA igys mudk crkSj uk;d p;u
fd;k x;k exj blh deh osQ dkj.k mUgsa gVkdj mudh txg esgcwc dks
uk;d cuk fn;k x;kA fo_y ukjkt gks x, vkSj viuk gd ikus osQ fy,
mUgksaus eqdnek dj fn;kA
ml nkSj esa mudk eqdnek eksgEen vyh ftUuk us yM+k tks rc osQ
e'kgwj odhy gqvk djrs FksA fo_y eqdnek thrs vkSj Hkkjr dh igyh
cksyrh fiQYe osQ uk;d cusA mudh dke;kch vkxs Hkh tkjh jghA ejkBh
vkSj fganh fiQYeksa esa os yacs le; rd uk;d vkSj LVaVeSu osQ :i esa
lfØ; jgsA blosQ vykok ^vkye vkjk* esa lksgjkc eksnh] i`Fohjkt diwj]
;kowQc vkSj txnh'k lsBh tSls vfHkusrk Hkh ekStwn jgs vkxs pydj tks
fiQYeks|ksx osQ izeq[k LraHk cusA
;g fiQYe 14 ekpZ 1931 dks eqacbZ osQ ^eStsfLVd* flusek esa iznf'kZr
gqbZA fiQYe 8 lIrkg rd ^gkmliqQy* pyh vkSj HkhM+ bruh meM+rh Fkh fd
iqfyl osQ fy, fu;a=k.k djuk eqf'dy gks tk;k djrk FkkA leh{kdksa us bls
^HkM+dhyh iSaQVslh* fiQYe djkj fn;k Fkk exj n'kZdksa osQ fy, ;g fiQYe
,d vuks[kk vuqHko FkhA ;g fiQYe 10 g”kkj iqQV yach Fkh vkSj bls pkj
eghuksa dh dM+h esgur ls rS;kj fd;k x;k FkkA
loko~Q fiQYeksa osQ fy, ikSjkf.kd dFkkvksa] ikjlh jaxeap osQ ukVdksa]
vjch isze&dFkkvksa dks fo"k; osQ :i esa pquk x;kA buosQ vykok dbZ
lkekftd fo"k;ksa okyh fiQYesa Hkh cuhaA ,slh gh ,d fiQYe Fkhµ^[kqnk
dh 'kkuA* blesa ,d fdjnkj egkRek xkaèkh tSlk FkkA blosQ dkj.k loko~Q
flusek dks fczfV'k iz'kkldksa dh rh[kh u”kj dk lkeuk djuk iM+kA
loko~Q flusek osQ u, nkSj dh 'kq#vkr djkusokys fuekZrk&funZs'kd vnZsf'kj
brus fouez Fks fd tc 1956 esa ^vkye vkjk* osQ izn'kZu osQ iPphl o"kZ iwjs
gksus ij mUgsa lEekfur fd;k x;k vkSj mUgsa ^Hkkjrh; loko~Q fiQYeksa dk firk*
2020-21
Page 4


62 olar Hkkx 3
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk
^os lHkh ltho gSa] lk¡l ys jgs gSa] 'kr&izfr'kr cksy jgs gSa] vBgÙkj
eqnkZ bulku ftank gks x,] mudks cksyrs] ckrsa djrs ns[kksA* ns'k dh igyh
loko~Q (cksyrh) fiQYe ^vkye vkjk* osQ iksLVjksa ij foKkiu dh ;s iafDr;k¡
fy[kh gqbZ FkhaA 14 ekpZ 1931 dh og ,sfrgkfld rkjh[k Hkkjrh; flusek esa
cM+s cnyko dk fnu FkkA blh fnu igyh ckj Hkkjr osQ flusek us cksyuk
lh[kk FkkA gkyk¡fd og nkSj ,slk Fkk tc ewd flusek yksdfiz;rk osQ f'k[kj
ij FkkA ^igyh cksyrh fiQYe ftl lky iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlh lky dbZ ewd
fiQYesa Hkh fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa esa cuhaA exj cksyrh fiQYeksa dk u;k nkSj 'kq:
gks x;k FkkA
igyh cksyrh fiQYe vkye
vkjk cukusokys fiQYedkj Fks vnsZf'kj
,e-bZjkuhA vnsZf'kj us 1929 esa
gkWyhoqM dh ,d cksyrh fiQYe
^'kks cksV* ns[kh vkSj muosQ eu esa
cksyrh fiQYe cukus dh bPNk txhA
ikjlh jaxeap osQ ,d yksdfiz;
ukVd dks vkèkkj cukdj mUgksaus
viuh fiQYe dh iVdFkk cukbZA
bl ukVd osQ dbZ xkus T;ksa osQ R;ksa
fiQYe esa ys fy, x,A ,d baVjO;w
esa vnsZf'kj us ml oDr dgk
Fkkµ^gekjs ikl dksbZ laokn ys[kd
11
2020-21
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk 63
ugha Fkk] xhrdkj ugha Fkk] laxhrdkj ugha FkkA* bu lcdh 'kq#vkr gksuh
FkhA vnsZf'kj us fiQYe osQ xkuksa osQ fy, Lo;a dh èkqusa pquhaA fiQYe osQ
laxhr esa egt rhu ok|&rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkSj ok;fyu dk bLrseky
fd;k x;kA vkye vkjk esa laxhrdkj ;k xhrdkj esa Lora=k :i ls fdlh
dk uke ugha Mkyk x;kA bl fiQYe esa igys ik'oZxk;d cus MCyw- ,e-
[kkuA igyk xkuk Fkkµ^ns ns [kqnk osQ uke ij I;kjs] vxj nsus dh rkdr gSA*
vkye vkjk dk laxhr ml le; fMLd iQkWeZ esa fjdkMZ ugha fd;k tk
ldk] fiQYe dh 'kwfVax 'kq: gqbZ rks lkmaM osQ dkj.k gh bldh 'kwfVax jkr
esa djuh iM+rh FkhA ewd ;qx dh vfèkdrj fiQYeksa dks fnu osQ izdk'k esa
'kwV dj fy;k tkrk Fkk] exj vkye vkjk dh 'kwfVax jkr esa gksus osQ dkj.k
blesa Ñf=ke izdk'k O;oLFkk djuh iM+hA ;gha ls izdk'k iz.kkyh cuh tks
vkxs fiQYe fuekZ.k dk t:jh
fgLlk cuhA
^vkye vkjk* us Hkfo";
osQ dbZ LVkj vkSj rduhf'k;u
rks fn, gh] vnsZf'kj dh
oaQiuh rd us Hkkjrh; flusek
osQ fy, Ms<+ lkS ls vfèkd
ewd vkSj yxHkx lkS loko~Q
fiQYesa cukb±A
vkye vkjk fiQYe
^vjsfc;u ukbV~l* tSlh
iSaQVslh FkhA fiQYe us fganh&mnwZ
osQ esyokyh ^fganqLrkuh* Hkk"kk
dks yksdfiz; cuk;kA blesa
xhr] laxhr rFkk u`R; osQ
vuks[ks la;kstu FksA fiQYe dh
2020-21
64 olar Hkkx 3
ukf;dk tqcSnk FkhaA uk;d Fks fo_yA os ml nkSj osQ lokZfèkd ikfjJfed
ikusokys LVkj FksA muosQ p;u dks ysdj Hkh ,d fdLlk dkiQh pfpZr gSA
fo_y dks mnwZ cksyus esa eqf'dysa vkrh FkhaA igys mudk crkSj uk;d p;u
fd;k x;k exj blh deh osQ dkj.k mUgsa gVkdj mudh txg esgcwc dks
uk;d cuk fn;k x;kA fo_y ukjkt gks x, vkSj viuk gd ikus osQ fy,
mUgksaus eqdnek dj fn;kA
ml nkSj esa mudk eqdnek eksgEen vyh ftUuk us yM+k tks rc osQ
e'kgwj odhy gqvk djrs FksA fo_y eqdnek thrs vkSj Hkkjr dh igyh
cksyrh fiQYe osQ uk;d cusA mudh dke;kch vkxs Hkh tkjh jghA ejkBh
vkSj fganh fiQYeksa esa os yacs le; rd uk;d vkSj LVaVeSu osQ :i esa
lfØ; jgsA blosQ vykok ^vkye vkjk* esa lksgjkc eksnh] i`Fohjkt diwj]
;kowQc vkSj txnh'k lsBh tSls vfHkusrk Hkh ekStwn jgs vkxs pydj tks
fiQYeks|ksx osQ izeq[k LraHk cusA
;g fiQYe 14 ekpZ 1931 dks eqacbZ osQ ^eStsfLVd* flusek esa iznf'kZr
gqbZA fiQYe 8 lIrkg rd ^gkmliqQy* pyh vkSj HkhM+ bruh meM+rh Fkh fd
iqfyl osQ fy, fu;a=k.k djuk eqf'dy gks tk;k djrk FkkA leh{kdksa us bls
^HkM+dhyh iSaQVslh* fiQYe djkj fn;k Fkk exj n'kZdksa osQ fy, ;g fiQYe
,d vuks[kk vuqHko FkhA ;g fiQYe 10 g”kkj iqQV yach Fkh vkSj bls pkj
eghuksa dh dM+h esgur ls rS;kj fd;k x;k FkkA
loko~Q fiQYeksa osQ fy, ikSjkf.kd dFkkvksa] ikjlh jaxeap osQ ukVdksa]
vjch isze&dFkkvksa dks fo"k; osQ :i esa pquk x;kA buosQ vykok dbZ
lkekftd fo"k;ksa okyh fiQYesa Hkh cuhaA ,slh gh ,d fiQYe Fkhµ^[kqnk
dh 'kkuA* blesa ,d fdjnkj egkRek xkaèkh tSlk FkkA blosQ dkj.k loko~Q
flusek dks fczfV'k iz'kkldksa dh rh[kh u”kj dk lkeuk djuk iM+kA
loko~Q flusek osQ u, nkSj dh 'kq#vkr djkusokys fuekZrk&funZs'kd vnZsf'kj
brus fouez Fks fd tc 1956 esa ^vkye vkjk* osQ izn'kZu osQ iPphl o"kZ iwjs
gksus ij mUgsa lEekfur fd;k x;k vkSj mUgsa ^Hkkjrh; loko~Q fiQYeksa dk firk*
2020-21
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk 65
dgk x;k rks mUgksaus ml ekSosQ ij dgk Fkk] ¶eq>s bruk cM+k f[krkc nsus dh
t:jr ugha gSA eSaus rks ns'k osQ fy, vius fgLls dk t:jh ;ksxnku fn;k gSA¸
tc igyh ckj flusek us cksyuk lh[k fy;k] flusek esa dke djus osQ
fy, i<+s&fy[ks vfHkusrk&vfHkusf=k;ksa dh t:jr Hkh 'kq: gqbZ D;ksafd vc
laokn Hkh cksyus Fks] fliZQ vfHku; ls dke ugha pyusokyk FkkA ewd fiQYeksa
osQ nkSj eas rks igyoku tSls 'kjhjokys] LVaV djusokys vkSj mNy&owQn djusokys
vfHkusrkvksa ls dke py tk;k djrk FkkA vc mUgsa laokn cksyuk Fkk vkSj
xk;u dh izfrHkk dh dnz Hkh gksus yxh FkhA blfy, ^vkye vkjk* osQ ckn
vkjafHkd ^loko~Q* nkSj dh fiQYeksa esa dbZ ^xk;d&vfHkusrk* cMs+ inZs ij
u”kj vkus yxsA fganh&mnwZ Hkk"kkvksa dk egÙo c<+kA flusek esa nsg vkSj rduhd
dh Hkk"kk dh txg tu izpfyr cksypky dh Hkk"kkvksa dk nkf[kyk gqvkA
flusek ”;knk nslh gqvkA ,d rjg dh u;h vk”kknh Fkh ftlls vkxs pydj
gekjs nSfud vkSj lkoZtfud thou dk izfrfcac fiQYeksa esa csgrj gksdj
mHkjus yxkA
vfHkusrkvksa&vfHkusf=k;ksa dh yksdfiz;rk dk vlj ml nkSj osQ n'kZdksa ij
Hkh [kwc iM+ jgk FkkA ^ekèkqjh* uke dh fiQYe esa ukf;dk lqykspuk dh gs;j
LVkby ml nkSj esa vkSjrksa esa yksdfiz; FkhA vkSjrsa viuh osQ'klTtk mlh rjg
dj jgh FkhaA vnsZf'kj bZjkuh dh fiQYeksa esa Hkkjrh; osQ vykok bZjkuh dykdkjksa
us Hkh vfHku; fd;k FkkA Lo;a ^vkye vkjk* Hkkjr osQ vykok Jhyadk]
cekZ vkSj if'pe ,f'k;k esa ilan dh xbZA
Hkkjrh; flusek osQ tud iQkYosQ dks ^loko~Q* flusek osQ tud vnsZf'kj
bZjkuh dh miyfCèk dks viukuk gh Fkk] D;ksafd ogk¡ ls flusek dk ,d u;k
;qx 'kq: gks x;k FkkA
&iznhi frokjh
2020-21
Page 5


62 olar Hkkx 3
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk
^os lHkh ltho gSa] lk¡l ys jgs gSa] 'kr&izfr'kr cksy jgs gSa] vBgÙkj
eqnkZ bulku ftank gks x,] mudks cksyrs] ckrsa djrs ns[kksA* ns'k dh igyh
loko~Q (cksyrh) fiQYe ^vkye vkjk* osQ iksLVjksa ij foKkiu dh ;s iafDr;k¡
fy[kh gqbZ FkhaA 14 ekpZ 1931 dh og ,sfrgkfld rkjh[k Hkkjrh; flusek esa
cM+s cnyko dk fnu FkkA blh fnu igyh ckj Hkkjr osQ flusek us cksyuk
lh[kk FkkA gkyk¡fd og nkSj ,slk Fkk tc ewd flusek yksdfiz;rk osQ f'k[kj
ij FkkA ^igyh cksyrh fiQYe ftl lky iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlh lky dbZ ewd
fiQYesa Hkh fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa esa cuhaA exj cksyrh fiQYeksa dk u;k nkSj 'kq:
gks x;k FkkA
igyh cksyrh fiQYe vkye
vkjk cukusokys fiQYedkj Fks vnsZf'kj
,e-bZjkuhA vnsZf'kj us 1929 esa
gkWyhoqM dh ,d cksyrh fiQYe
^'kks cksV* ns[kh vkSj muosQ eu esa
cksyrh fiQYe cukus dh bPNk txhA
ikjlh jaxeap osQ ,d yksdfiz;
ukVd dks vkèkkj cukdj mUgksaus
viuh fiQYe dh iVdFkk cukbZA
bl ukVd osQ dbZ xkus T;ksa osQ R;ksa
fiQYe esa ys fy, x,A ,d baVjO;w
esa vnsZf'kj us ml oDr dgk
Fkkµ^gekjs ikl dksbZ laokn ys[kd
11
2020-21
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk 63
ugha Fkk] xhrdkj ugha Fkk] laxhrdkj ugha FkkA* bu lcdh 'kq#vkr gksuh
FkhA vnsZf'kj us fiQYe osQ xkuksa osQ fy, Lo;a dh èkqusa pquhaA fiQYe osQ
laxhr esa egt rhu ok|&rcyk] gkjeksfu;e vkSj ok;fyu dk bLrseky
fd;k x;kA vkye vkjk esa laxhrdkj ;k xhrdkj esa Lora=k :i ls fdlh
dk uke ugha Mkyk x;kA bl fiQYe esa igys ik'oZxk;d cus MCyw- ,e-
[kkuA igyk xkuk Fkkµ^ns ns [kqnk osQ uke ij I;kjs] vxj nsus dh rkdr gSA*
vkye vkjk dk laxhr ml le; fMLd iQkWeZ esa fjdkMZ ugha fd;k tk
ldk] fiQYe dh 'kwfVax 'kq: gqbZ rks lkmaM osQ dkj.k gh bldh 'kwfVax jkr
esa djuh iM+rh FkhA ewd ;qx dh vfèkdrj fiQYeksa dks fnu osQ izdk'k esa
'kwV dj fy;k tkrk Fkk] exj vkye vkjk dh 'kwfVax jkr esa gksus osQ dkj.k
blesa Ñf=ke izdk'k O;oLFkk djuh iM+hA ;gha ls izdk'k iz.kkyh cuh tks
vkxs fiQYe fuekZ.k dk t:jh
fgLlk cuhA
^vkye vkjk* us Hkfo";
osQ dbZ LVkj vkSj rduhf'k;u
rks fn, gh] vnsZf'kj dh
oaQiuh rd us Hkkjrh; flusek
osQ fy, Ms<+ lkS ls vfèkd
ewd vkSj yxHkx lkS loko~Q
fiQYesa cukb±A
vkye vkjk fiQYe
^vjsfc;u ukbV~l* tSlh
iSaQVslh FkhA fiQYe us fganh&mnwZ
osQ esyokyh ^fganqLrkuh* Hkk"kk
dks yksdfiz; cuk;kA blesa
xhr] laxhr rFkk u`R; osQ
vuks[ks la;kstu FksA fiQYe dh
2020-21
64 olar Hkkx 3
ukf;dk tqcSnk FkhaA uk;d Fks fo_yA os ml nkSj osQ lokZfèkd ikfjJfed
ikusokys LVkj FksA muosQ p;u dks ysdj Hkh ,d fdLlk dkiQh pfpZr gSA
fo_y dks mnwZ cksyus esa eqf'dysa vkrh FkhaA igys mudk crkSj uk;d p;u
fd;k x;k exj blh deh osQ dkj.k mUgsa gVkdj mudh txg esgcwc dks
uk;d cuk fn;k x;kA fo_y ukjkt gks x, vkSj viuk gd ikus osQ fy,
mUgksaus eqdnek dj fn;kA
ml nkSj esa mudk eqdnek eksgEen vyh ftUuk us yM+k tks rc osQ
e'kgwj odhy gqvk djrs FksA fo_y eqdnek thrs vkSj Hkkjr dh igyh
cksyrh fiQYe osQ uk;d cusA mudh dke;kch vkxs Hkh tkjh jghA ejkBh
vkSj fganh fiQYeksa esa os yacs le; rd uk;d vkSj LVaVeSu osQ :i esa
lfØ; jgsA blosQ vykok ^vkye vkjk* esa lksgjkc eksnh] i`Fohjkt diwj]
;kowQc vkSj txnh'k lsBh tSls vfHkusrk Hkh ekStwn jgs vkxs pydj tks
fiQYeks|ksx osQ izeq[k LraHk cusA
;g fiQYe 14 ekpZ 1931 dks eqacbZ osQ ^eStsfLVd* flusek esa iznf'kZr
gqbZA fiQYe 8 lIrkg rd ^gkmliqQy* pyh vkSj HkhM+ bruh meM+rh Fkh fd
iqfyl osQ fy, fu;a=k.k djuk eqf'dy gks tk;k djrk FkkA leh{kdksa us bls
^HkM+dhyh iSaQVslh* fiQYe djkj fn;k Fkk exj n'kZdksa osQ fy, ;g fiQYe
,d vuks[kk vuqHko FkhA ;g fiQYe 10 g”kkj iqQV yach Fkh vkSj bls pkj
eghuksa dh dM+h esgur ls rS;kj fd;k x;k FkkA
loko~Q fiQYeksa osQ fy, ikSjkf.kd dFkkvksa] ikjlh jaxeap osQ ukVdksa]
vjch isze&dFkkvksa dks fo"k; osQ :i esa pquk x;kA buosQ vykok dbZ
lkekftd fo"k;ksa okyh fiQYesa Hkh cuhaA ,slh gh ,d fiQYe Fkhµ^[kqnk
dh 'kkuA* blesa ,d fdjnkj egkRek xkaèkh tSlk FkkA blosQ dkj.k loko~Q
flusek dks fczfV'k iz'kkldksa dh rh[kh u”kj dk lkeuk djuk iM+kA
loko~Q flusek osQ u, nkSj dh 'kq#vkr djkusokys fuekZrk&funZs'kd vnZsf'kj
brus fouez Fks fd tc 1956 esa ^vkye vkjk* osQ izn'kZu osQ iPphl o"kZ iwjs
gksus ij mUgsa lEekfur fd;k x;k vkSj mUgsa ^Hkkjrh; loko~Q fiQYeksa dk firk*
2020-21
tc flusek us cksyuk lh[kk 65
dgk x;k rks mUgksaus ml ekSosQ ij dgk Fkk] ¶eq>s bruk cM+k f[krkc nsus dh
t:jr ugha gSA eSaus rks ns'k osQ fy, vius fgLls dk t:jh ;ksxnku fn;k gSA¸
tc igyh ckj flusek us cksyuk lh[k fy;k] flusek esa dke djus osQ
fy, i<+s&fy[ks vfHkusrk&vfHkusf=k;ksa dh t:jr Hkh 'kq: gqbZ D;ksafd vc
laokn Hkh cksyus Fks] fliZQ vfHku; ls dke ugha pyusokyk FkkA ewd fiQYeksa
osQ nkSj eas rks igyoku tSls 'kjhjokys] LVaV djusokys vkSj mNy&owQn djusokys
vfHkusrkvksa ls dke py tk;k djrk FkkA vc mUgsa laokn cksyuk Fkk vkSj
xk;u dh izfrHkk dh dnz Hkh gksus yxh FkhA blfy, ^vkye vkjk* osQ ckn
vkjafHkd ^loko~Q* nkSj dh fiQYeksa esa dbZ ^xk;d&vfHkusrk* cMs+ inZs ij
u”kj vkus yxsA fganh&mnwZ Hkk"kkvksa dk egÙo c<+kA flusek esa nsg vkSj rduhd
dh Hkk"kk dh txg tu izpfyr cksypky dh Hkk"kkvksa dk nkf[kyk gqvkA
flusek ”;knk nslh gqvkA ,d rjg dh u;h vk”kknh Fkh ftlls vkxs pydj
gekjs nSfud vkSj lkoZtfud thou dk izfrfcac fiQYeksa esa csgrj gksdj
mHkjus yxkA
vfHkusrkvksa&vfHkusf=k;ksa dh yksdfiz;rk dk vlj ml nkSj osQ n'kZdksa ij
Hkh [kwc iM+ jgk FkkA ^ekèkqjh* uke dh fiQYe esa ukf;dk lqykspuk dh gs;j
LVkby ml nkSj esa vkSjrksa esa yksdfiz; FkhA vkSjrsa viuh osQ'klTtk mlh rjg
dj jgh FkhaA vnsZf'kj bZjkuh dh fiQYeksa esa Hkkjrh; osQ vykok bZjkuh dykdkjksa
us Hkh vfHku; fd;k FkkA Lo;a ^vkye vkjk* Hkkjr osQ vykok Jhyadk]
cekZ vkSj if'pe ,f'k;k esa ilan dh xbZA
Hkkjrh; flusek osQ tud iQkYosQ dks ^loko~Q* flusek osQ tud vnsZf'kj
bZjkuh dh miyfCèk dks viukuk gh Fkk] D;ksafd ogk¡ ls flusek dk ,d u;k
;qx 'kq: gks x;k FkkA
&iznhi frokjh
2020-21
66 olar Hkkx 3
ikB ls
1- tc igyh cksyrh fiQYe iznf'kZr gqbZ rks mlosQ iksLVjksa ij dkSu&ls okD;
Nkis x,\ ml fiQYe esa fdrus psgjs Fks\ Li"V dhft,A
2- igyk cksyrk flusek cukus osQ fy, fiQYedkj vnsZf'kj ,e- bZjkuh dks
izsj.kk dgk¡ ls feyh\ mUgksaus vkye vkjk fiQYe osQ fy, vk/kj dgk¡ ls
fy;k\ fopkj O;Dr dhft,A
3- fo_y dk p;u vkye vkjk fiQYe osQ uk;d osQ :i gqvk ysfdu mUgsa
gVk;k D;ksa x;k\ fo_y us iqu% uk;d gksus osQ fy, D;k fd;k\ fopkj
izdV dhft,A
4- igyh loko~Q fiQYe osQ fuekZrk&funs'kd vnsZf'kj dks tc lEekfur fd;k
x;k rc lEekudrkZvksa us muosQ fy, D;k dgk Fkk\ vnsZf'kj us D;k dgk\
vkSj bl izlax esa ys[kd us D;k fVIi.kh dh gS\ fyf[k,A
ikB ls vkxs
1- ewd flusek esa laokn ugha gksrs] mlesa nSfgd vfHku; dh iz/kurk gksrh gSA
ij] tc flusek cksyus yxk] mlesa vusd ifjorZu gq,A mu ifjorZuksa dks
vfHkusrk] n'kZd vkSj oqQN rduhdh n`f"V ls ikB dk vk/kj ysdj [kkstas]
lkFk gh viuh dYiuk dk Hkh lg;ksx ysaA
2- Mc fiQYeas fdls dgrs gSa\ dHkh&dHkh Mc fiQYeksa esa vfHkusrk osQ eq¡g
[kksyus vkSj vkok”k esa varj vk tkrk gSA bldk dkj.k D;k gks ldrk gS\
vuqeku vkSj dYiuk
1- fdlh ewd flusek esa fcuk vkok”k osQ BgkosQnkj g¡lh oSQlh fn[ksxh\ vfHku;
djosQ vuqHko dhft,A
2- ewd fiQYe ns[kus dk ,d mik; ;g gS fd vki Vsyhfotu dh vkok”k
can djosQ fiQYe ns[ksaA mldh dgkuh dks le>us dk iz;kl djsa vkSj
vuqeku yxk,¡ fd fiQYe eas laokn vkSj n`'; dh fgLlsnkjh fdruh gS\
iz'u&vH;kl
2020-21
Read More
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