NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - टोपी शुक्ला, संचयन II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 3 - टोपी शुक्ला, संचयन II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


gfjgj dkdk
gfjgj dkdk osQ ;gk¡ ls eSa vHkh&vHkh ykSVk gw¡A dy Hkh muosQ ;gk¡ x;k Fkk] ysfdu u rks og
dy gh oqQN dg losQ vkSj u vkt ghA nksuksa fnu muosQ ikl eSa nsj rd cSBk jgk] ysfdu
mUgkasus dksbZ ckrphr ugha dhA tc mudh rch;r osQ ckjs esa iwNk rc mUgksaus flj mBkdj ,d
ckj eq>s ns[kkA fiQj flj >qdk;k rks nqckjk esjh vksj ugha ns[kkA gkyk¡fd mudh ,d gh u”kj
cgqr oqQN dg xbZA ftu ;a=k.kkvksa
1
 osQ chp og f?kjs Fks vkSj ftl eu%fLFkfr esa th jgs Fks] mlesa
vk¡[ksa gh cgqr oqQN dg nsrh gSa] eq¡g [kksyus dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rhA
gfjgj dkdk dh ¯”knxh ls eSa cgqr xgjs esa tqM+k g¡wA vius xk¡o esa ftu pan yksxksa dks eSa lEeku
nsrk gw¡] muesa gfjgj dkdk Hkh ,d gSaA gfjgj dkdk osQ izfr esjh vklfDr
2
 osQ vusd O;kogkfjd
vkSj oSpkfjd dkj.k gSaA mueas izeq[k dkj.k nks gSaA ,d rks ;g fd gfjgj dkdk esjs iM+ksl esa jgrs
gSa vkSj nwljk dkj.k ;g fd esjh ek¡ crkrh gS] gfjgj dkdk cpiu esa eq>s cgqr nqykj djrs FksA
vius oaQèks ij cSBkdj ?kqek;k djrs FksA ,d firk vius cPps dks ftruk I;kj djrk gS] mlls dgha
”;knk I;kj gfjgj dkdk eq>s djrs FksA vkSj tc eSa l;kuk
3
 gqvk rc esjh igyh nksLrh gfjgj
dkdk osQ lkFk gh gqbZA gfjgj dkdk us Hkh tSls eq>ls nksLrh osQ fy, gh bruh mez rd izrh{kk
dh FkhA ek¡ crkrh gS fd eq>ls igys xk¡o esa fdlh vU; ls mudh bruh xgjh nksLrh ugha gqbZ
FkhA og eq>ls oqQN Hkh ugha fNikrs FksA [kwc [kqydj ckrsa djrs FksA ysfdu fiQygky eq>ls Hkh
oqQN dguk mUgksaus can dj fn;k gSA mudh bl fLFkfr us eq>s ¯pfrr dj fn;k gSA tSls dksbZ uko
chp e>èkkj
4
 esa i¡Qlh gks vkSj ml ij lokj yksx fpYykdj Hkh viuh j{kk u dj ldrs gkas]
D;ksafd mudh fpYYkkgV nwj rd iSQys lkxj osQ chp mBrhµfxjrh ygjksa eas foyhu
5
 gks tkus osQ
vfrfjDr dj gh D;k ldrh gS\ ekSu gksdj tyµlekfèk ysus osQ vfrfjDr dksbZ nwljk fodYi
6
ughaA ysfdu eu bls ekuus dks drbZ rS;kj ughaA thus dh ykylk dh otg ls cspSuh vkSj
NViVkgV c<+ xbZ gks] oqQN ,slh gh fLFkfr osQ chp gfjgj dkdk f?kj x, gSaA
1- ;krukvksa@Dys'kksa@d"Vksa  2- yxko  3-cM+k gksuk  4- ty izokg ;k Hkolkxj osQ eè; eas 5-yqIr gksuk
6- nwljk mik;
Page 2


gfjgj dkdk
gfjgj dkdk osQ ;gk¡ ls eSa vHkh&vHkh ykSVk gw¡A dy Hkh muosQ ;gk¡ x;k Fkk] ysfdu u rks og
dy gh oqQN dg losQ vkSj u vkt ghA nksuksa fnu muosQ ikl eSa nsj rd cSBk jgk] ysfdu
mUgkasus dksbZ ckrphr ugha dhA tc mudh rch;r osQ ckjs esa iwNk rc mUgksaus flj mBkdj ,d
ckj eq>s ns[kkA fiQj flj >qdk;k rks nqckjk esjh vksj ugha ns[kkA gkyk¡fd mudh ,d gh u”kj
cgqr oqQN dg xbZA ftu ;a=k.kkvksa
1
 osQ chp og f?kjs Fks vkSj ftl eu%fLFkfr esa th jgs Fks] mlesa
vk¡[ksa gh cgqr oqQN dg nsrh gSa] eq¡g [kksyus dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rhA
gfjgj dkdk dh ¯”knxh ls eSa cgqr xgjs esa tqM+k g¡wA vius xk¡o esa ftu pan yksxksa dks eSa lEeku
nsrk gw¡] muesa gfjgj dkdk Hkh ,d gSaA gfjgj dkdk osQ izfr esjh vklfDr
2
 osQ vusd O;kogkfjd
vkSj oSpkfjd dkj.k gSaA mueas izeq[k dkj.k nks gSaA ,d rks ;g fd gfjgj dkdk esjs iM+ksl esa jgrs
gSa vkSj nwljk dkj.k ;g fd esjh ek¡ crkrh gS] gfjgj dkdk cpiu esa eq>s cgqr nqykj djrs FksA
vius oaQèks ij cSBkdj ?kqek;k djrs FksA ,d firk vius cPps dks ftruk I;kj djrk gS] mlls dgha
”;knk I;kj gfjgj dkdk eq>s djrs FksA vkSj tc eSa l;kuk
3
 gqvk rc esjh igyh nksLrh gfjgj
dkdk osQ lkFk gh gqbZA gfjgj dkdk us Hkh tSls eq>ls nksLrh osQ fy, gh bruh mez rd izrh{kk
dh FkhA ek¡ crkrh gS fd eq>ls igys xk¡o esa fdlh vU; ls mudh bruh xgjh nksLrh ugha gqbZ
FkhA og eq>ls oqQN Hkh ugha fNikrs FksA [kwc [kqydj ckrsa djrs FksA ysfdu fiQygky eq>ls Hkh
oqQN dguk mUgksaus can dj fn;k gSA mudh bl fLFkfr us eq>s ¯pfrr dj fn;k gSA tSls dksbZ uko
chp e>èkkj
4
 esa i¡Qlh gks vkSj ml ij lokj yksx fpYykdj Hkh viuh j{kk u dj ldrs gkas]
D;ksafd mudh fpYYkkgV nwj rd iSQys lkxj osQ chp mBrhµfxjrh ygjksa eas foyhu
5
 gks tkus osQ
vfrfjDr dj gh D;k ldrh gS\ ekSu gksdj tyµlekfèk ysus osQ vfrfjDr dksbZ nwljk fodYi
6
ughaA ysfdu eu bls ekuus dks drbZ rS;kj ughaA thus dh ykylk dh otg ls cspSuh vkSj
NViVkgV c<+ xbZ gks] oqQN ,slh gh fLFkfr osQ chp gfjgj dkdk f?kj x, gSaA
1- ;krukvksa@Dys'kksa@d"Vksa  2- yxko  3-cM+k gksuk  4- ty izokg ;k Hkolkxj osQ eè; eas 5-yqIr gksuk
6- nwljk mik;
2 lap;u
gfjgj dkdk osQ ckjs esa eSa lksprk gw¡ rks eq>s yxrk gS fd og ;g le> ugha ik jgs gSa
fd dgsa rks D;k dgsa\ vc dksbZ ,slh ckr ugha ftls dgdj og gydk gks losaQA dksbZ ,slh
mfDr ugha ftls dgdj os eqfDr ik losaQA gfjgj dkdk dh fLFkfr esa eSa Hkh gksrk rks fu'p;
gh bl xw¡xsiu dk f'kdkj gks tkrkA
gfjgj dkdk bl fLFkfr esa dSls vk i¡Qls\ ;g dkSu&lh fLFkfr gS\ blosQ fy, dkSu f”kEesokj
gS\ ;g lc crkus ls igys vius xk¡o dk vkSj [kkldj vius xk¡o dh BkoqQjckjh
7
 dk laf{kIr
ifjp; eSa vkidks ns nsuk mfpr le>rk gw¡ D;ksafd mlosQ fcuk rks ;g dgkuh vèkwjh gh jg tk,xhA
esjk xk¡o dLckbZ 'kgj vkjk ls pkyhl fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij gSA gluck”kkj cl LVSaM osQ
iklA xk¡o dh oqQy vkcknh <kbZ&rhu g”kkj gksxhA xk¡o esa rhu izeq[k LFkku gSaA xk¡o osQ if'pe
fdukjs dk cM+k&lk rkykcA xk¡o osQ eè; fLFkr cjxn dk iqjkuk o`{k vkSj xk¡o osQ iwjc esa BkoqQjth
dk fo'kky eafnj] ftls xk¡o osQ yksx BkoqQjckjh dgrs gSaA
xk¡o esa bl BkoqQjckjh dh LFkkiuk dc gqbZ] bldh Bhd&Bhd tkudkjh fdlh dks ughaA bl
lacaèk esa xk¡o esa tks dgkuh izpfyr gS og ;g fd o"kks± igys tc ;g xk¡o iwjh rjg clk Hkh
ugha Fkk] dgha ls ,d lar vkdj bl LFkku ij >ksaiM+h cuk jgus yxs FksA og lqcg&'kke ;gk¡
BkoqQjth dh iwtk djrs FksA yksxksa ls ek¡xdj [kk ysrs Fks vkSj iwtk&ikB dh Hkkouk tkxzr djrs FksA
ckn esa yksxksa us pank djosQ ;gk¡ BkoqQjth dk ,d NksVk&lk eafnj cuok fn;kA fiQj tSls&tSls xk¡o
clrk x;k vkSj vkcknh c<+rh xbZ] eafnj osQ dysoj esa Hkh foLrkj gksrk x;kA yksx BkoqQjth dks
eukSrh eukrs fd iq=k gks] eqdnes esa fot; gks] yM+dh dh 'kknh vPNs ?kj eas r; gks] yM+osQ dks
ukSdjh fey tk,A fiQj blesa ftudks liQyrk feyrh] og [kq'kh esa BkoqQjth ij #i;s] ”ksoj]
vukt p<+krsA vfèkd [kq'kh gksrh rks BkoqQjth osQ uke vius [ksr dk ,d NksVk&lk VqdM+k fy[k
nsrsA ;g ijaijk vkt rd tkjh gSA vfèkdka'k yksxksa dks fo'okl gS fd mUgsa vPNh iQly gksrh
gS rks BkoqQjth dh Ñik lsA eqdnes esa mudh thr gqbZ rks BkoqQjth osQ pyrsA yM+dh dh 'kknh
blhfy, tYnh r; gks xbZ] D;ksafd BkoqQjth dks eukSrh eukbZ xbZ FkhA yksxksa osQ bl fo'okl dk
gh ;g ifj.kke gS fd xk¡o dh vU; ph”kksa dh rqyuk esa BkoqQjckjh dk fodkl g”kkj xquk vfèkd
gqvk gSA vc rks ;g xk¡o BkoqQjckjh ls gh igpkuk tkrk gSA ;g BkoqQjckjh u flI
+
kZQ esjs xk¡o dh
,d cM+h vkSj fo'kky BkoqQjckjh gS cfYd iwjs bykosQ esa bldh tksM+ dh nwljh BkoqQjckjh ughaA
BkoqQjckjh osQ uke ij chl ch?ks [ksr gSaA èkkfeZd yksxksa dh ,d lfefr gS] tks BkoqQjckjh dh ns[k&js[k
vkSj lapkyu
8
 osQ fy, izR;sd rhu lky ij ,d egar vkSj ,d iqtkjh dh fu;qfDr
9
 djrh gSA
7- nsoLFkku  8- pykuk  9- yxk;k x;k
Page 3


gfjgj dkdk
gfjgj dkdk osQ ;gk¡ ls eSa vHkh&vHkh ykSVk gw¡A dy Hkh muosQ ;gk¡ x;k Fkk] ysfdu u rks og
dy gh oqQN dg losQ vkSj u vkt ghA nksuksa fnu muosQ ikl eSa nsj rd cSBk jgk] ysfdu
mUgkasus dksbZ ckrphr ugha dhA tc mudh rch;r osQ ckjs esa iwNk rc mUgksaus flj mBkdj ,d
ckj eq>s ns[kkA fiQj flj >qdk;k rks nqckjk esjh vksj ugha ns[kkA gkyk¡fd mudh ,d gh u”kj
cgqr oqQN dg xbZA ftu ;a=k.kkvksa
1
 osQ chp og f?kjs Fks vkSj ftl eu%fLFkfr esa th jgs Fks] mlesa
vk¡[ksa gh cgqr oqQN dg nsrh gSa] eq¡g [kksyus dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rhA
gfjgj dkdk dh ¯”knxh ls eSa cgqr xgjs esa tqM+k g¡wA vius xk¡o esa ftu pan yksxksa dks eSa lEeku
nsrk gw¡] muesa gfjgj dkdk Hkh ,d gSaA gfjgj dkdk osQ izfr esjh vklfDr
2
 osQ vusd O;kogkfjd
vkSj oSpkfjd dkj.k gSaA mueas izeq[k dkj.k nks gSaA ,d rks ;g fd gfjgj dkdk esjs iM+ksl esa jgrs
gSa vkSj nwljk dkj.k ;g fd esjh ek¡ crkrh gS] gfjgj dkdk cpiu esa eq>s cgqr nqykj djrs FksA
vius oaQèks ij cSBkdj ?kqek;k djrs FksA ,d firk vius cPps dks ftruk I;kj djrk gS] mlls dgha
”;knk I;kj gfjgj dkdk eq>s djrs FksA vkSj tc eSa l;kuk
3
 gqvk rc esjh igyh nksLrh gfjgj
dkdk osQ lkFk gh gqbZA gfjgj dkdk us Hkh tSls eq>ls nksLrh osQ fy, gh bruh mez rd izrh{kk
dh FkhA ek¡ crkrh gS fd eq>ls igys xk¡o esa fdlh vU; ls mudh bruh xgjh nksLrh ugha gqbZ
FkhA og eq>ls oqQN Hkh ugha fNikrs FksA [kwc [kqydj ckrsa djrs FksA ysfdu fiQygky eq>ls Hkh
oqQN dguk mUgksaus can dj fn;k gSA mudh bl fLFkfr us eq>s ¯pfrr dj fn;k gSA tSls dksbZ uko
chp e>èkkj
4
 esa i¡Qlh gks vkSj ml ij lokj yksx fpYykdj Hkh viuh j{kk u dj ldrs gkas]
D;ksafd mudh fpYYkkgV nwj rd iSQys lkxj osQ chp mBrhµfxjrh ygjksa eas foyhu
5
 gks tkus osQ
vfrfjDr dj gh D;k ldrh gS\ ekSu gksdj tyµlekfèk ysus osQ vfrfjDr dksbZ nwljk fodYi
6
ughaA ysfdu eu bls ekuus dks drbZ rS;kj ughaA thus dh ykylk dh otg ls cspSuh vkSj
NViVkgV c<+ xbZ gks] oqQN ,slh gh fLFkfr osQ chp gfjgj dkdk f?kj x, gSaA
1- ;krukvksa@Dys'kksa@d"Vksa  2- yxko  3-cM+k gksuk  4- ty izokg ;k Hkolkxj osQ eè; eas 5-yqIr gksuk
6- nwljk mik;
2 lap;u
gfjgj dkdk osQ ckjs esa eSa lksprk gw¡ rks eq>s yxrk gS fd og ;g le> ugha ik jgs gSa
fd dgsa rks D;k dgsa\ vc dksbZ ,slh ckr ugha ftls dgdj og gydk gks losaQA dksbZ ,slh
mfDr ugha ftls dgdj os eqfDr ik losaQA gfjgj dkdk dh fLFkfr esa eSa Hkh gksrk rks fu'p;
gh bl xw¡xsiu dk f'kdkj gks tkrkA
gfjgj dkdk bl fLFkfr esa dSls vk i¡Qls\ ;g dkSu&lh fLFkfr gS\ blosQ fy, dkSu f”kEesokj
gS\ ;g lc crkus ls igys vius xk¡o dk vkSj [kkldj vius xk¡o dh BkoqQjckjh
7
 dk laf{kIr
ifjp; eSa vkidks ns nsuk mfpr le>rk gw¡ D;ksafd mlosQ fcuk rks ;g dgkuh vèkwjh gh jg tk,xhA
esjk xk¡o dLckbZ 'kgj vkjk ls pkyhl fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij gSA gluck”kkj cl LVSaM osQ
iklA xk¡o dh oqQy vkcknh <kbZ&rhu g”kkj gksxhA xk¡o esa rhu izeq[k LFkku gSaA xk¡o osQ if'pe
fdukjs dk cM+k&lk rkykcA xk¡o osQ eè; fLFkr cjxn dk iqjkuk o`{k vkSj xk¡o osQ iwjc esa BkoqQjth
dk fo'kky eafnj] ftls xk¡o osQ yksx BkoqQjckjh dgrs gSaA
xk¡o esa bl BkoqQjckjh dh LFkkiuk dc gqbZ] bldh Bhd&Bhd tkudkjh fdlh dks ughaA bl
lacaèk esa xk¡o esa tks dgkuh izpfyr gS og ;g fd o"kks± igys tc ;g xk¡o iwjh rjg clk Hkh
ugha Fkk] dgha ls ,d lar vkdj bl LFkku ij >ksaiM+h cuk jgus yxs FksA og lqcg&'kke ;gk¡
BkoqQjth dh iwtk djrs FksA yksxksa ls ek¡xdj [kk ysrs Fks vkSj iwtk&ikB dh Hkkouk tkxzr djrs FksA
ckn esa yksxksa us pank djosQ ;gk¡ BkoqQjth dk ,d NksVk&lk eafnj cuok fn;kA fiQj tSls&tSls xk¡o
clrk x;k vkSj vkcknh c<+rh xbZ] eafnj osQ dysoj esa Hkh foLrkj gksrk x;kA yksx BkoqQjth dks
eukSrh eukrs fd iq=k gks] eqdnes esa fot; gks] yM+dh dh 'kknh vPNs ?kj eas r; gks] yM+osQ dks
ukSdjh fey tk,A fiQj blesa ftudks liQyrk feyrh] og [kq'kh esa BkoqQjth ij #i;s] ”ksoj]
vukt p<+krsA vfèkd [kq'kh gksrh rks BkoqQjth osQ uke vius [ksr dk ,d NksVk&lk VqdM+k fy[k
nsrsA ;g ijaijk vkt rd tkjh gSA vfèkdka'k yksxksa dks fo'okl gS fd mUgsa vPNh iQly gksrh
gS rks BkoqQjth dh Ñik lsA eqdnes esa mudh thr gqbZ rks BkoqQjth osQ pyrsA yM+dh dh 'kknh
blhfy, tYnh r; gks xbZ] D;ksafd BkoqQjth dks eukSrh eukbZ xbZ FkhA yksxksa osQ bl fo'okl dk
gh ;g ifj.kke gS fd xk¡o dh vU; ph”kksa dh rqyuk esa BkoqQjckjh dk fodkl g”kkj xquk vfèkd
gqvk gSA vc rks ;g xk¡o BkoqQjckjh ls gh igpkuk tkrk gSA ;g BkoqQjckjh u flI
+
kZQ esjs xk¡o dh
,d cM+h vkSj fo'kky BkoqQjckjh gS cfYd iwjs bykosQ esa bldh tksM+ dh nwljh BkoqQjckjh ughaA
BkoqQjckjh osQ uke ij chl ch?ks [ksr gSaA èkkfeZd yksxksa dh ,d lfefr gS] tks BkoqQjckjh dh ns[k&js[k
vkSj lapkyu
8
 osQ fy, izR;sd rhu lky ij ,d egar vkSj ,d iqtkjh dh fu;qfDr
9
 djrh gSA
7- nsoLFkku  8- pykuk  9- yxk;k x;k
gfjgj dkdk      3
BkoqQjckjh dk dke yksxksa osQ vanj BkoqQjth osQ izfr HkfDr&Hkkouk iSnk djuk rFkk èkeZ ls
foeq[k gks jgs yksxksa dks jkLrs ij ykuk gSA BkoqQjckjh esa Hktu&dhrZu dh vkok”k cjkcj xw¡trh jgrh
gSA xk¡o tc Hkh ck<+ ;k lw[ks dh pisV esa vkrk gS] BkoqQjckjh osQ vgkrs esa racw yx tkrk gSA yksx
vkSj BkoqQjckjh osQ lkèkq&lar v[kaM gfjdhrZu 'kq: dj nsrs gaSA blosQ vfrfjDr xk¡o esa fdlh Hkh
ioZ&R;ksgkj dh 'kqjQvkr BkoqQjckjh ls gh gksrh gSA gksyh esa lcls igys xqyky BkoqQjth dks gh
p<+k;k tkrk gSA nhokyh dk igyk nhi BkoqQjckjh esa gh tyrk gSA tUe] 'kknh vkSj tusmQ osQ
volj ij vUu&oL=k dh igyh HksaV BkoqQjth osQ uke dh tkrh gSA BkoqQjckjh osQ czkã.k&lkèkq
ozrµdFkkvksa osQ fnu ?kj&?kj ?kwedj dFkkokpu djrs gSaA yksxksa osQ [kfygku esa tc iQly dh
nouh
10
 gksdj vukt dh ^<sjh* rS;kj gks tkrh gS] rc BkoqQjth osQ uke ^vxme
11
* fudkydj gh
yksx vukt vius ?kj ys tkrs gaSA
BkoqQjckjh osQ lkFk vfèkdka'k yksxksa dk lacaèk cgqr gh ?kfu"B
12
 gSµeu vkSj ru nksuksa Lrj ijA
Ñf"k&dk;Z ls viuk cpk gqvk le; os BkoqQjckjh esa gh fcrkrs gSaA BkoqQjckjh esa lkèkq&larks dk
izopu
13
 lqu vkSj BkoqQjth dk n'kZu dj os viuk ;g thou lkFkZd ekuus yxrs gSaA mUgas ;g
eglwl gksrk gS fd BkoqQjckjh esa izos'k djrs gh os ifo=k gks tkrs gaSA muosQ fiNys lkjs iki vius
vki [kRe gks tkrs gSaA
ifjfLFkfro'k bèkj gfjgj dkdk us BkoqQjckjh esa tkuk can dj fn;k gSA igys og vdlj gh
BkoqQjckjh esa tkrs FksA eu cgykus osQ fy, dHkh&dHkh eSa Hkh BkoqQjckjh esa tkrk gw¡A ysfdu ogk¡
osQ lkèkq&lar eq>s iwQVh vk¡[kksa ugha lqgkrsA dke&èkke djus esa mudh dksbZ #fp ughaA BkoqQjth dks
Hkksx yxkus osQ uke ij nksuksa twu gyok&iwM+h [kkrs gSa vkSj vkjke ls iM+s jgrs gSaA mUgsa vxj oqQN
vkrk gS rks flI
+
kZQ ckr cukuk vkrk gSA
gfjgj dkdk pkj HkkbZ gSaA lcdh 'kknh gks pqdh gSA gfjgj dkdk osQ vykok lcosQ cky&cPps
gSaA cM+s vkSj NksVs HkkbZ osQ yM+osQ dkI
+
kQh l;kus gks x, gSaA nks dh 'kkfn;k¡ gks xbZ gSaA muesa ls ,d
i<+&fy[kdj 'kgj osQ fdlh nÝ
+
rj esa DydhZ djus yxk gSA ysfdu gfjgj dkdk dh viuh nsg
ls dksbZ vkSykn ughaA Hkkb;ksa esa gfjgj dkdk dk uacj nwljk gSA vkSykn osQ fy, mUgksaus nks 'kkfn;k¡
dhaA yacs le; rd izrh{kkjr jgsA ysfdu fcuk cPpk tus mudh nksuksa ifRu;k¡ LoxZ flèkkj xb±A
yksxksa us rhljh 'kknh djus dh lykg nh ysfdu viuh fxjrh gqbZ mez vkSj èkkfeZd laLdkjksa dh
otg ls gfjgj dkdk us badkj dj fn;kA og bRehuku vkSj izse ls vius Hkkb;ksa osQ ifjokj osQ
lkFk jgus yxsA
10- xsgw¡@èkku fudkyus dh izfØ;k  11- iz;ksx eas ykus ls igys nsork osQ fy, fudkyk x;k va'k  12- xgjk  13-Hkk"k.k@mins'k
Page 4


gfjgj dkdk
gfjgj dkdk osQ ;gk¡ ls eSa vHkh&vHkh ykSVk gw¡A dy Hkh muosQ ;gk¡ x;k Fkk] ysfdu u rks og
dy gh oqQN dg losQ vkSj u vkt ghA nksuksa fnu muosQ ikl eSa nsj rd cSBk jgk] ysfdu
mUgkasus dksbZ ckrphr ugha dhA tc mudh rch;r osQ ckjs esa iwNk rc mUgksaus flj mBkdj ,d
ckj eq>s ns[kkA fiQj flj >qdk;k rks nqckjk esjh vksj ugha ns[kkA gkyk¡fd mudh ,d gh u”kj
cgqr oqQN dg xbZA ftu ;a=k.kkvksa
1
 osQ chp og f?kjs Fks vkSj ftl eu%fLFkfr esa th jgs Fks] mlesa
vk¡[ksa gh cgqr oqQN dg nsrh gSa] eq¡g [kksyus dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rhA
gfjgj dkdk dh ¯”knxh ls eSa cgqr xgjs esa tqM+k g¡wA vius xk¡o esa ftu pan yksxksa dks eSa lEeku
nsrk gw¡] muesa gfjgj dkdk Hkh ,d gSaA gfjgj dkdk osQ izfr esjh vklfDr
2
 osQ vusd O;kogkfjd
vkSj oSpkfjd dkj.k gSaA mueas izeq[k dkj.k nks gSaA ,d rks ;g fd gfjgj dkdk esjs iM+ksl esa jgrs
gSa vkSj nwljk dkj.k ;g fd esjh ek¡ crkrh gS] gfjgj dkdk cpiu esa eq>s cgqr nqykj djrs FksA
vius oaQèks ij cSBkdj ?kqek;k djrs FksA ,d firk vius cPps dks ftruk I;kj djrk gS] mlls dgha
”;knk I;kj gfjgj dkdk eq>s djrs FksA vkSj tc eSa l;kuk
3
 gqvk rc esjh igyh nksLrh gfjgj
dkdk osQ lkFk gh gqbZA gfjgj dkdk us Hkh tSls eq>ls nksLrh osQ fy, gh bruh mez rd izrh{kk
dh FkhA ek¡ crkrh gS fd eq>ls igys xk¡o esa fdlh vU; ls mudh bruh xgjh nksLrh ugha gqbZ
FkhA og eq>ls oqQN Hkh ugha fNikrs FksA [kwc [kqydj ckrsa djrs FksA ysfdu fiQygky eq>ls Hkh
oqQN dguk mUgksaus can dj fn;k gSA mudh bl fLFkfr us eq>s ¯pfrr dj fn;k gSA tSls dksbZ uko
chp e>èkkj
4
 esa i¡Qlh gks vkSj ml ij lokj yksx fpYykdj Hkh viuh j{kk u dj ldrs gkas]
D;ksafd mudh fpYYkkgV nwj rd iSQys lkxj osQ chp mBrhµfxjrh ygjksa eas foyhu
5
 gks tkus osQ
vfrfjDr dj gh D;k ldrh gS\ ekSu gksdj tyµlekfèk ysus osQ vfrfjDr dksbZ nwljk fodYi
6
ughaA ysfdu eu bls ekuus dks drbZ rS;kj ughaA thus dh ykylk dh otg ls cspSuh vkSj
NViVkgV c<+ xbZ gks] oqQN ,slh gh fLFkfr osQ chp gfjgj dkdk f?kj x, gSaA
1- ;krukvksa@Dys'kksa@d"Vksa  2- yxko  3-cM+k gksuk  4- ty izokg ;k Hkolkxj osQ eè; eas 5-yqIr gksuk
6- nwljk mik;
2 lap;u
gfjgj dkdk osQ ckjs esa eSa lksprk gw¡ rks eq>s yxrk gS fd og ;g le> ugha ik jgs gSa
fd dgsa rks D;k dgsa\ vc dksbZ ,slh ckr ugha ftls dgdj og gydk gks losaQA dksbZ ,slh
mfDr ugha ftls dgdj os eqfDr ik losaQA gfjgj dkdk dh fLFkfr esa eSa Hkh gksrk rks fu'p;
gh bl xw¡xsiu dk f'kdkj gks tkrkA
gfjgj dkdk bl fLFkfr esa dSls vk i¡Qls\ ;g dkSu&lh fLFkfr gS\ blosQ fy, dkSu f”kEesokj
gS\ ;g lc crkus ls igys vius xk¡o dk vkSj [kkldj vius xk¡o dh BkoqQjckjh
7
 dk laf{kIr
ifjp; eSa vkidks ns nsuk mfpr le>rk gw¡ D;ksafd mlosQ fcuk rks ;g dgkuh vèkwjh gh jg tk,xhA
esjk xk¡o dLckbZ 'kgj vkjk ls pkyhl fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij gSA gluck”kkj cl LVSaM osQ
iklA xk¡o dh oqQy vkcknh <kbZ&rhu g”kkj gksxhA xk¡o esa rhu izeq[k LFkku gSaA xk¡o osQ if'pe
fdukjs dk cM+k&lk rkykcA xk¡o osQ eè; fLFkr cjxn dk iqjkuk o`{k vkSj xk¡o osQ iwjc esa BkoqQjth
dk fo'kky eafnj] ftls xk¡o osQ yksx BkoqQjckjh dgrs gSaA
xk¡o esa bl BkoqQjckjh dh LFkkiuk dc gqbZ] bldh Bhd&Bhd tkudkjh fdlh dks ughaA bl
lacaèk esa xk¡o esa tks dgkuh izpfyr gS og ;g fd o"kks± igys tc ;g xk¡o iwjh rjg clk Hkh
ugha Fkk] dgha ls ,d lar vkdj bl LFkku ij >ksaiM+h cuk jgus yxs FksA og lqcg&'kke ;gk¡
BkoqQjth dh iwtk djrs FksA yksxksa ls ek¡xdj [kk ysrs Fks vkSj iwtk&ikB dh Hkkouk tkxzr djrs FksA
ckn esa yksxksa us pank djosQ ;gk¡ BkoqQjth dk ,d NksVk&lk eafnj cuok fn;kA fiQj tSls&tSls xk¡o
clrk x;k vkSj vkcknh c<+rh xbZ] eafnj osQ dysoj esa Hkh foLrkj gksrk x;kA yksx BkoqQjth dks
eukSrh eukrs fd iq=k gks] eqdnes esa fot; gks] yM+dh dh 'kknh vPNs ?kj eas r; gks] yM+osQ dks
ukSdjh fey tk,A fiQj blesa ftudks liQyrk feyrh] og [kq'kh esa BkoqQjth ij #i;s] ”ksoj]
vukt p<+krsA vfèkd [kq'kh gksrh rks BkoqQjth osQ uke vius [ksr dk ,d NksVk&lk VqdM+k fy[k
nsrsA ;g ijaijk vkt rd tkjh gSA vfèkdka'k yksxksa dks fo'okl gS fd mUgsa vPNh iQly gksrh
gS rks BkoqQjth dh Ñik lsA eqdnes esa mudh thr gqbZ rks BkoqQjth osQ pyrsA yM+dh dh 'kknh
blhfy, tYnh r; gks xbZ] D;ksafd BkoqQjth dks eukSrh eukbZ xbZ FkhA yksxksa osQ bl fo'okl dk
gh ;g ifj.kke gS fd xk¡o dh vU; ph”kksa dh rqyuk esa BkoqQjckjh dk fodkl g”kkj xquk vfèkd
gqvk gSA vc rks ;g xk¡o BkoqQjckjh ls gh igpkuk tkrk gSA ;g BkoqQjckjh u flI
+
kZQ esjs xk¡o dh
,d cM+h vkSj fo'kky BkoqQjckjh gS cfYd iwjs bykosQ esa bldh tksM+ dh nwljh BkoqQjckjh ughaA
BkoqQjckjh osQ uke ij chl ch?ks [ksr gSaA èkkfeZd yksxksa dh ,d lfefr gS] tks BkoqQjckjh dh ns[k&js[k
vkSj lapkyu
8
 osQ fy, izR;sd rhu lky ij ,d egar vkSj ,d iqtkjh dh fu;qfDr
9
 djrh gSA
7- nsoLFkku  8- pykuk  9- yxk;k x;k
gfjgj dkdk      3
BkoqQjckjh dk dke yksxksa osQ vanj BkoqQjth osQ izfr HkfDr&Hkkouk iSnk djuk rFkk èkeZ ls
foeq[k gks jgs yksxksa dks jkLrs ij ykuk gSA BkoqQjckjh esa Hktu&dhrZu dh vkok”k cjkcj xw¡trh jgrh
gSA xk¡o tc Hkh ck<+ ;k lw[ks dh pisV esa vkrk gS] BkoqQjckjh osQ vgkrs esa racw yx tkrk gSA yksx
vkSj BkoqQjckjh osQ lkèkq&lar v[kaM gfjdhrZu 'kq: dj nsrs gaSA blosQ vfrfjDr xk¡o esa fdlh Hkh
ioZ&R;ksgkj dh 'kqjQvkr BkoqQjckjh ls gh gksrh gSA gksyh esa lcls igys xqyky BkoqQjth dks gh
p<+k;k tkrk gSA nhokyh dk igyk nhi BkoqQjckjh esa gh tyrk gSA tUe] 'kknh vkSj tusmQ osQ
volj ij vUu&oL=k dh igyh HksaV BkoqQjth osQ uke dh tkrh gSA BkoqQjckjh osQ czkã.k&lkèkq
ozrµdFkkvksa osQ fnu ?kj&?kj ?kwedj dFkkokpu djrs gSaA yksxksa osQ [kfygku esa tc iQly dh
nouh
10
 gksdj vukt dh ^<sjh* rS;kj gks tkrh gS] rc BkoqQjth osQ uke ^vxme
11
* fudkydj gh
yksx vukt vius ?kj ys tkrs gaSA
BkoqQjckjh osQ lkFk vfèkdka'k yksxksa dk lacaèk cgqr gh ?kfu"B
12
 gSµeu vkSj ru nksuksa Lrj ijA
Ñf"k&dk;Z ls viuk cpk gqvk le; os BkoqQjckjh esa gh fcrkrs gSaA BkoqQjckjh esa lkèkq&larks dk
izopu
13
 lqu vkSj BkoqQjth dk n'kZu dj os viuk ;g thou lkFkZd ekuus yxrs gSaA mUgas ;g
eglwl gksrk gS fd BkoqQjckjh esa izos'k djrs gh os ifo=k gks tkrs gaSA muosQ fiNys lkjs iki vius
vki [kRe gks tkrs gSaA
ifjfLFkfro'k bèkj gfjgj dkdk us BkoqQjckjh esa tkuk can dj fn;k gSA igys og vdlj gh
BkoqQjckjh esa tkrs FksA eu cgykus osQ fy, dHkh&dHkh eSa Hkh BkoqQjckjh esa tkrk gw¡A ysfdu ogk¡
osQ lkèkq&lar eq>s iwQVh vk¡[kksa ugha lqgkrsA dke&èkke djus esa mudh dksbZ #fp ughaA BkoqQjth dks
Hkksx yxkus osQ uke ij nksuksa twu gyok&iwM+h [kkrs gSa vkSj vkjke ls iM+s jgrs gSaA mUgsa vxj oqQN
vkrk gS rks flI
+
kZQ ckr cukuk vkrk gSA
gfjgj dkdk pkj HkkbZ gSaA lcdh 'kknh gks pqdh gSA gfjgj dkdk osQ vykok lcosQ cky&cPps
gSaA cM+s vkSj NksVs HkkbZ osQ yM+osQ dkI
+
kQh l;kus gks x, gSaA nks dh 'kkfn;k¡ gks xbZ gSaA muesa ls ,d
i<+&fy[kdj 'kgj osQ fdlh nÝ
+
rj esa DydhZ djus yxk gSA ysfdu gfjgj dkdk dh viuh nsg
ls dksbZ vkSykn ughaA Hkkb;ksa esa gfjgj dkdk dk uacj nwljk gSA vkSykn osQ fy, mUgksaus nks 'kkfn;k¡
dhaA yacs le; rd izrh{kkjr jgsA ysfdu fcuk cPpk tus mudh nksuksa ifRu;k¡ LoxZ flèkkj xb±A
yksxksa us rhljh 'kknh djus dh lykg nh ysfdu viuh fxjrh gqbZ mez vkSj èkkfeZd laLdkjksa dh
otg ls gfjgj dkdk us badkj dj fn;kA og bRehuku vkSj izse ls vius Hkkb;ksa osQ ifjokj osQ
lkFk jgus yxsA
10- xsgw¡@èkku fudkyus dh izfØ;k  11- iz;ksx eas ykus ls igys nsork osQ fy, fudkyk x;k va'k  12- xgjk  13-Hkk"k.k@mins'k
4 lap;u
gfjgj dkdk osQ ifjokj osQ ikl oqQy lkB ch?ks [ksr gSaA izR;sd HkkbZ osQ fgLls ianzg ch?ks
iMa+sxsA Ñf"k&dk;Z ij ;s yksx fuHkZj gSaA 'kk;n blhfy, vc rd la;qDr ifjokj osQ :i esa gh jgrs
vk jgs gSaA
gfjgj dkdk osQ rhuksa Hkkb;ksa us viuh ifRu;ksa dks ;g lh[k nh Fkh fd gfjgj dkdk dh
vPNh rjg lsok djsaA le; ij mUgsa uk'rk&[kkuk nsaA fdlh ckr dh rdyhI
+
kQ u gksus nsaA oqQN
fnuksa rd os gfjgj dkdk dh [kkst&[kcj ysrh jghaA fiQj mUgsa dkSu iwNus okyk\ ^Bgj&pkSdk*
yxkdj ia[kk >yrs gq, vius enks± dks vPNs&vPNs O;atu f[kykrhaA gfjgj dkdk osQ vkxs rks
cph&[kqph ph”ksa vkrhaA dHkh&dHkh rks gfjgj dkdk dks :[kk&lw[kk [kkdj gh larks"k djuk iM+rkA
vxj dHkh gfjgj dkdk dh rch;r [kjkc gks tkrh rks og eqlhcr esa iM+ tkrsA brus cM+s
ifjokj osQ jgrs gq, Hkh dksbZ mUgsa ikuh nsus okyk rd ughaA lHkh vius dkeksa esa e'kxwy
14
A cPps
;k rks i<+&fy[k jgs gksrs ;k èkekpkSdM+h epkrsA enZ [ksrksa ij x, jgrsA vkSjrsa gky iwNus Hkh ugha
vkrhaA nkyku osQ dejs esa vosQys iM+s gfjgj dkdk dks Lo;a mBdj viuh ”k:jrksa dh iwfrZ djuh
iM+rhA ,sls oDr viuh ifRu;ksa dks ;kn dj&djosQ gfjgj dkdk dh vk¡[ksa Hkj vkrhaA Hkkb;ksa osQ
ifjokj osQ izfr eksgHkax dh 'kq#vkr bUgha {k.kksa esa gqbZ FkhA vkSj fiQj] ,d fnu rks foLiQksV gh gks
x;kA ml fnu gfjgj dkdk dh lgu&'kfDr tokc ns xbZA ml fnu 'kgj esa DydhZ djus okys
Hkrhts dk ,d nksLr xk¡o vk;k FkkA mlh osQ vkxeu osQ miy{; esa nksµrhu rjg dh lC”kh]
ctosQ] pVuh] jk;rk vkfn cus FksA chekjh ls mBs gfjgj dkdk dk eu Lokfn"V Hkkstu osQ fy,
cspSu FkkA eu gh eu mUgksaus vius Hkrhts osQ nksLr dh ljkguk dh] ftlosQ cgkus mUgsa vPNh
ph”ksa [kkus dks feyus okyh FkhaA ysfdu ckrsa fcyoqQy foijhr gqb±A lcksa us [kkuk [kk fy;k] mudks
dksbZ iwNus rd ugha vk;kA muosQ rhuksa HkkbZ [kkuk [kkdj [kfygku esa pys x,A nouh gks jgh FkhA
os bl ckr osQ izfr fuf'apr Fks fd gfjgj dkdk dks rks igys gh f[kyk fn;k x;k gksxkA
var eas gfjgj dkdk us Lo;a nkyku osQ dejs ls fudy gosyh esa izos'k fd;kA rc muosQ NksVs
HkkbZ dh iRuh us :[kk&lw[kk [kkuk ykdj muosQ lkeus ijksl fn;kµHkkr] e_k vkSj vpkjA cl]
gfjgj dkdk osQ cnu esa rks tSls vkx yx xbZA mUgksaus Fkkyh mBkdj chp vk¡xu esa isaQd nhA >Uu
dh rs”k vkok”k osQ lkFk vk¡xu esa Fkkyh fxjhA Hkkr fc[kj x;kA fofHkUu ?kjksa essa cSBh yM+fd;k¡]
cgq,¡ lc ,d gh lkFk ckgj fudy vkb±A gfjgj dkdk xjtrs gq, gosyh ls nkyku dh vksj py
iM+sµ¶le> jgh gks fd eqÝ
+
r esa f[kykrh gks] rks vius eu ls ;g ckr fudky nsukA esjs fgLls
osQ [ksr dh iSnkokj blh ?kj esa vkrh gSA mlesa rks eSa nks&pkj ukSdj j[k yw¡] vkjke ls [kkm¡Q] rc
14- O;Lr
Page 5


gfjgj dkdk
gfjgj dkdk osQ ;gk¡ ls eSa vHkh&vHkh ykSVk gw¡A dy Hkh muosQ ;gk¡ x;k Fkk] ysfdu u rks og
dy gh oqQN dg losQ vkSj u vkt ghA nksuksa fnu muosQ ikl eSa nsj rd cSBk jgk] ysfdu
mUgkasus dksbZ ckrphr ugha dhA tc mudh rch;r osQ ckjs esa iwNk rc mUgksaus flj mBkdj ,d
ckj eq>s ns[kkA fiQj flj >qdk;k rks nqckjk esjh vksj ugha ns[kkA gkyk¡fd mudh ,d gh u”kj
cgqr oqQN dg xbZA ftu ;a=k.kkvksa
1
 osQ chp og f?kjs Fks vkSj ftl eu%fLFkfr esa th jgs Fks] mlesa
vk¡[ksa gh cgqr oqQN dg nsrh gSa] eq¡g [kksyus dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rhA
gfjgj dkdk dh ¯”knxh ls eSa cgqr xgjs esa tqM+k g¡wA vius xk¡o esa ftu pan yksxksa dks eSa lEeku
nsrk gw¡] muesa gfjgj dkdk Hkh ,d gSaA gfjgj dkdk osQ izfr esjh vklfDr
2
 osQ vusd O;kogkfjd
vkSj oSpkfjd dkj.k gSaA mueas izeq[k dkj.k nks gSaA ,d rks ;g fd gfjgj dkdk esjs iM+ksl esa jgrs
gSa vkSj nwljk dkj.k ;g fd esjh ek¡ crkrh gS] gfjgj dkdk cpiu esa eq>s cgqr nqykj djrs FksA
vius oaQèks ij cSBkdj ?kqek;k djrs FksA ,d firk vius cPps dks ftruk I;kj djrk gS] mlls dgha
”;knk I;kj gfjgj dkdk eq>s djrs FksA vkSj tc eSa l;kuk
3
 gqvk rc esjh igyh nksLrh gfjgj
dkdk osQ lkFk gh gqbZA gfjgj dkdk us Hkh tSls eq>ls nksLrh osQ fy, gh bruh mez rd izrh{kk
dh FkhA ek¡ crkrh gS fd eq>ls igys xk¡o esa fdlh vU; ls mudh bruh xgjh nksLrh ugha gqbZ
FkhA og eq>ls oqQN Hkh ugha fNikrs FksA [kwc [kqydj ckrsa djrs FksA ysfdu fiQygky eq>ls Hkh
oqQN dguk mUgksaus can dj fn;k gSA mudh bl fLFkfr us eq>s ¯pfrr dj fn;k gSA tSls dksbZ uko
chp e>èkkj
4
 esa i¡Qlh gks vkSj ml ij lokj yksx fpYykdj Hkh viuh j{kk u dj ldrs gkas]
D;ksafd mudh fpYYkkgV nwj rd iSQys lkxj osQ chp mBrhµfxjrh ygjksa eas foyhu
5
 gks tkus osQ
vfrfjDr dj gh D;k ldrh gS\ ekSu gksdj tyµlekfèk ysus osQ vfrfjDr dksbZ nwljk fodYi
6
ughaA ysfdu eu bls ekuus dks drbZ rS;kj ughaA thus dh ykylk dh otg ls cspSuh vkSj
NViVkgV c<+ xbZ gks] oqQN ,slh gh fLFkfr osQ chp gfjgj dkdk f?kj x, gSaA
1- ;krukvksa@Dys'kksa@d"Vksa  2- yxko  3-cM+k gksuk  4- ty izokg ;k Hkolkxj osQ eè; eas 5-yqIr gksuk
6- nwljk mik;
2 lap;u
gfjgj dkdk osQ ckjs esa eSa lksprk gw¡ rks eq>s yxrk gS fd og ;g le> ugha ik jgs gSa
fd dgsa rks D;k dgsa\ vc dksbZ ,slh ckr ugha ftls dgdj og gydk gks losaQA dksbZ ,slh
mfDr ugha ftls dgdj os eqfDr ik losaQA gfjgj dkdk dh fLFkfr esa eSa Hkh gksrk rks fu'p;
gh bl xw¡xsiu dk f'kdkj gks tkrkA
gfjgj dkdk bl fLFkfr esa dSls vk i¡Qls\ ;g dkSu&lh fLFkfr gS\ blosQ fy, dkSu f”kEesokj
gS\ ;g lc crkus ls igys vius xk¡o dk vkSj [kkldj vius xk¡o dh BkoqQjckjh
7
 dk laf{kIr
ifjp; eSa vkidks ns nsuk mfpr le>rk gw¡ D;ksafd mlosQ fcuk rks ;g dgkuh vèkwjh gh jg tk,xhA
esjk xk¡o dLckbZ 'kgj vkjk ls pkyhl fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij gSA gluck”kkj cl LVSaM osQ
iklA xk¡o dh oqQy vkcknh <kbZ&rhu g”kkj gksxhA xk¡o esa rhu izeq[k LFkku gSaA xk¡o osQ if'pe
fdukjs dk cM+k&lk rkykcA xk¡o osQ eè; fLFkr cjxn dk iqjkuk o`{k vkSj xk¡o osQ iwjc esa BkoqQjth
dk fo'kky eafnj] ftls xk¡o osQ yksx BkoqQjckjh dgrs gSaA
xk¡o esa bl BkoqQjckjh dh LFkkiuk dc gqbZ] bldh Bhd&Bhd tkudkjh fdlh dks ughaA bl
lacaèk esa xk¡o esa tks dgkuh izpfyr gS og ;g fd o"kks± igys tc ;g xk¡o iwjh rjg clk Hkh
ugha Fkk] dgha ls ,d lar vkdj bl LFkku ij >ksaiM+h cuk jgus yxs FksA og lqcg&'kke ;gk¡
BkoqQjth dh iwtk djrs FksA yksxksa ls ek¡xdj [kk ysrs Fks vkSj iwtk&ikB dh Hkkouk tkxzr djrs FksA
ckn esa yksxksa us pank djosQ ;gk¡ BkoqQjth dk ,d NksVk&lk eafnj cuok fn;kA fiQj tSls&tSls xk¡o
clrk x;k vkSj vkcknh c<+rh xbZ] eafnj osQ dysoj esa Hkh foLrkj gksrk x;kA yksx BkoqQjth dks
eukSrh eukrs fd iq=k gks] eqdnes esa fot; gks] yM+dh dh 'kknh vPNs ?kj eas r; gks] yM+osQ dks
ukSdjh fey tk,A fiQj blesa ftudks liQyrk feyrh] og [kq'kh esa BkoqQjth ij #i;s] ”ksoj]
vukt p<+krsA vfèkd [kq'kh gksrh rks BkoqQjth osQ uke vius [ksr dk ,d NksVk&lk VqdM+k fy[k
nsrsA ;g ijaijk vkt rd tkjh gSA vfèkdka'k yksxksa dks fo'okl gS fd mUgsa vPNh iQly gksrh
gS rks BkoqQjth dh Ñik lsA eqdnes esa mudh thr gqbZ rks BkoqQjth osQ pyrsA yM+dh dh 'kknh
blhfy, tYnh r; gks xbZ] D;ksafd BkoqQjth dks eukSrh eukbZ xbZ FkhA yksxksa osQ bl fo'okl dk
gh ;g ifj.kke gS fd xk¡o dh vU; ph”kksa dh rqyuk esa BkoqQjckjh dk fodkl g”kkj xquk vfèkd
gqvk gSA vc rks ;g xk¡o BkoqQjckjh ls gh igpkuk tkrk gSA ;g BkoqQjckjh u flI
+
kZQ esjs xk¡o dh
,d cM+h vkSj fo'kky BkoqQjckjh gS cfYd iwjs bykosQ esa bldh tksM+ dh nwljh BkoqQjckjh ughaA
BkoqQjckjh osQ uke ij chl ch?ks [ksr gSaA èkkfeZd yksxksa dh ,d lfefr gS] tks BkoqQjckjh dh ns[k&js[k
vkSj lapkyu
8
 osQ fy, izR;sd rhu lky ij ,d egar vkSj ,d iqtkjh dh fu;qfDr
9
 djrh gSA
7- nsoLFkku  8- pykuk  9- yxk;k x;k
gfjgj dkdk      3
BkoqQjckjh dk dke yksxksa osQ vanj BkoqQjth osQ izfr HkfDr&Hkkouk iSnk djuk rFkk èkeZ ls
foeq[k gks jgs yksxksa dks jkLrs ij ykuk gSA BkoqQjckjh esa Hktu&dhrZu dh vkok”k cjkcj xw¡trh jgrh
gSA xk¡o tc Hkh ck<+ ;k lw[ks dh pisV esa vkrk gS] BkoqQjckjh osQ vgkrs esa racw yx tkrk gSA yksx
vkSj BkoqQjckjh osQ lkèkq&lar v[kaM gfjdhrZu 'kq: dj nsrs gaSA blosQ vfrfjDr xk¡o esa fdlh Hkh
ioZ&R;ksgkj dh 'kqjQvkr BkoqQjckjh ls gh gksrh gSA gksyh esa lcls igys xqyky BkoqQjth dks gh
p<+k;k tkrk gSA nhokyh dk igyk nhi BkoqQjckjh esa gh tyrk gSA tUe] 'kknh vkSj tusmQ osQ
volj ij vUu&oL=k dh igyh HksaV BkoqQjth osQ uke dh tkrh gSA BkoqQjckjh osQ czkã.k&lkèkq
ozrµdFkkvksa osQ fnu ?kj&?kj ?kwedj dFkkokpu djrs gSaA yksxksa osQ [kfygku esa tc iQly dh
nouh
10
 gksdj vukt dh ^<sjh* rS;kj gks tkrh gS] rc BkoqQjth osQ uke ^vxme
11
* fudkydj gh
yksx vukt vius ?kj ys tkrs gaSA
BkoqQjckjh osQ lkFk vfèkdka'k yksxksa dk lacaèk cgqr gh ?kfu"B
12
 gSµeu vkSj ru nksuksa Lrj ijA
Ñf"k&dk;Z ls viuk cpk gqvk le; os BkoqQjckjh esa gh fcrkrs gSaA BkoqQjckjh esa lkèkq&larks dk
izopu
13
 lqu vkSj BkoqQjth dk n'kZu dj os viuk ;g thou lkFkZd ekuus yxrs gSaA mUgas ;g
eglwl gksrk gS fd BkoqQjckjh esa izos'k djrs gh os ifo=k gks tkrs gaSA muosQ fiNys lkjs iki vius
vki [kRe gks tkrs gSaA
ifjfLFkfro'k bèkj gfjgj dkdk us BkoqQjckjh esa tkuk can dj fn;k gSA igys og vdlj gh
BkoqQjckjh esa tkrs FksA eu cgykus osQ fy, dHkh&dHkh eSa Hkh BkoqQjckjh esa tkrk gw¡A ysfdu ogk¡
osQ lkèkq&lar eq>s iwQVh vk¡[kksa ugha lqgkrsA dke&èkke djus esa mudh dksbZ #fp ughaA BkoqQjth dks
Hkksx yxkus osQ uke ij nksuksa twu gyok&iwM+h [kkrs gSa vkSj vkjke ls iM+s jgrs gSaA mUgsa vxj oqQN
vkrk gS rks flI
+
kZQ ckr cukuk vkrk gSA
gfjgj dkdk pkj HkkbZ gSaA lcdh 'kknh gks pqdh gSA gfjgj dkdk osQ vykok lcosQ cky&cPps
gSaA cM+s vkSj NksVs HkkbZ osQ yM+osQ dkI
+
kQh l;kus gks x, gSaA nks dh 'kkfn;k¡ gks xbZ gSaA muesa ls ,d
i<+&fy[kdj 'kgj osQ fdlh nÝ
+
rj esa DydhZ djus yxk gSA ysfdu gfjgj dkdk dh viuh nsg
ls dksbZ vkSykn ughaA Hkkb;ksa esa gfjgj dkdk dk uacj nwljk gSA vkSykn osQ fy, mUgksaus nks 'kkfn;k¡
dhaA yacs le; rd izrh{kkjr jgsA ysfdu fcuk cPpk tus mudh nksuksa ifRu;k¡ LoxZ flèkkj xb±A
yksxksa us rhljh 'kknh djus dh lykg nh ysfdu viuh fxjrh gqbZ mez vkSj èkkfeZd laLdkjksa dh
otg ls gfjgj dkdk us badkj dj fn;kA og bRehuku vkSj izse ls vius Hkkb;ksa osQ ifjokj osQ
lkFk jgus yxsA
10- xsgw¡@èkku fudkyus dh izfØ;k  11- iz;ksx eas ykus ls igys nsork osQ fy, fudkyk x;k va'k  12- xgjk  13-Hkk"k.k@mins'k
4 lap;u
gfjgj dkdk osQ ifjokj osQ ikl oqQy lkB ch?ks [ksr gSaA izR;sd HkkbZ osQ fgLls ianzg ch?ks
iMa+sxsA Ñf"k&dk;Z ij ;s yksx fuHkZj gSaA 'kk;n blhfy, vc rd la;qDr ifjokj osQ :i esa gh jgrs
vk jgs gSaA
gfjgj dkdk osQ rhuksa Hkkb;ksa us viuh ifRu;ksa dks ;g lh[k nh Fkh fd gfjgj dkdk dh
vPNh rjg lsok djsaA le; ij mUgsa uk'rk&[kkuk nsaA fdlh ckr dh rdyhI
+
kQ u gksus nsaA oqQN
fnuksa rd os gfjgj dkdk dh [kkst&[kcj ysrh jghaA fiQj mUgsa dkSu iwNus okyk\ ^Bgj&pkSdk*
yxkdj ia[kk >yrs gq, vius enks± dks vPNs&vPNs O;atu f[kykrhaA gfjgj dkdk osQ vkxs rks
cph&[kqph ph”ksa vkrhaA dHkh&dHkh rks gfjgj dkdk dks :[kk&lw[kk [kkdj gh larks"k djuk iM+rkA
vxj dHkh gfjgj dkdk dh rch;r [kjkc gks tkrh rks og eqlhcr esa iM+ tkrsA brus cM+s
ifjokj osQ jgrs gq, Hkh dksbZ mUgsa ikuh nsus okyk rd ughaA lHkh vius dkeksa esa e'kxwy
14
A cPps
;k rks i<+&fy[k jgs gksrs ;k èkekpkSdM+h epkrsA enZ [ksrksa ij x, jgrsA vkSjrsa gky iwNus Hkh ugha
vkrhaA nkyku osQ dejs esa vosQys iM+s gfjgj dkdk dks Lo;a mBdj viuh ”k:jrksa dh iwfrZ djuh
iM+rhA ,sls oDr viuh ifRu;ksa dks ;kn dj&djosQ gfjgj dkdk dh vk¡[ksa Hkj vkrhaA Hkkb;ksa osQ
ifjokj osQ izfr eksgHkax dh 'kq#vkr bUgha {k.kksa esa gqbZ FkhA vkSj fiQj] ,d fnu rks foLiQksV gh gks
x;kA ml fnu gfjgj dkdk dh lgu&'kfDr tokc ns xbZA ml fnu 'kgj esa DydhZ djus okys
Hkrhts dk ,d nksLr xk¡o vk;k FkkA mlh osQ vkxeu osQ miy{; esa nksµrhu rjg dh lC”kh]
ctosQ] pVuh] jk;rk vkfn cus FksA chekjh ls mBs gfjgj dkdk dk eu Lokfn"V Hkkstu osQ fy,
cspSu FkkA eu gh eu mUgksaus vius Hkrhts osQ nksLr dh ljkguk dh] ftlosQ cgkus mUgsa vPNh
ph”ksa [kkus dks feyus okyh FkhaA ysfdu ckrsa fcyoqQy foijhr gqb±A lcksa us [kkuk [kk fy;k] mudks
dksbZ iwNus rd ugha vk;kA muosQ rhuksa HkkbZ [kkuk [kkdj [kfygku esa pys x,A nouh gks jgh FkhA
os bl ckr osQ izfr fuf'apr Fks fd gfjgj dkdk dks rks igys gh f[kyk fn;k x;k gksxkA
var eas gfjgj dkdk us Lo;a nkyku osQ dejs ls fudy gosyh esa izos'k fd;kA rc muosQ NksVs
HkkbZ dh iRuh us :[kk&lw[kk [kkuk ykdj muosQ lkeus ijksl fn;kµHkkr] e_k vkSj vpkjA cl]
gfjgj dkdk osQ cnu esa rks tSls vkx yx xbZA mUgksaus Fkkyh mBkdj chp vk¡xu esa isaQd nhA >Uu
dh rs”k vkok”k osQ lkFk vk¡xu esa Fkkyh fxjhA Hkkr fc[kj x;kA fofHkUu ?kjksa essa cSBh yM+fd;k¡]
cgq,¡ lc ,d gh lkFk ckgj fudy vkb±A gfjgj dkdk xjtrs gq, gosyh ls nkyku dh vksj py
iM+sµ¶le> jgh gks fd eqÝ
+
r esa f[kykrh gks] rks vius eu ls ;g ckr fudky nsukA esjs fgLls
osQ [ksr dh iSnkokj blh ?kj esa vkrh gSA mlesa rks eSa nks&pkj ukSdj j[k yw¡] vkjke ls [kkm¡Q] rc
14- O;Lr
gfjgj dkdk      5
Hkh deh ugha gksxhA eSa vukFk vkSj cslgkjk ugha gw¡A esjs èku ij rks rqe lc ekSt dj jgh gksA ysfdu
vc eSa rqe lcksa dks crkmQ¡xk---vkfnA¸
gfjgj dkdk ftl oDr ;g lc cksy jgs Fks] ml oDr BkoqQjckjh osQ iqtkjh th muosQ nkyku
ij gh fojkteku FksA okf"kZd gqekèk
15
 osQ fy, og ?kh vkSj 'kdhy ysus vk, FksA ykSVdj mUgksaus
egar th dks foLrkj osQ lkFk lkjh ckr crkbZA muosQ dku [kM+s gks x,A og fnu mUgsa cgqr 'kqHk
eglwl gqvkA ml fnu dks mUgksaus ,sls gh xq”kj tkus nsuk mfpr ugha le>kA rR{k.k
16
 Vhdkµfryd
yxk] oaQèks ij jkeukeh fy[kh pknj Mky BkoqQjckjh ls py iMs+A la;ksx vPNk FkkA gfjgj osQ
nkyku rd ugha tkuk iM+kA jkLrs esa gh gfjgj fey x,A xqLls esa ?kj ls fudy og [kfygku dh
vksj tk jgs FksA ysfdu egar th us mUgsa [kfygku dh vksj ugha tkus fn;kA vius lkFk BkoqQjckjh
ij ysrs vk,A fiQj ,dkar dejs esa mUgsa cSBk] [kwc izse ls le>kus yxsµ¶gfjgj! ;gk¡ dksbZ fdlh
dk ugha gSA lc ek;k dk caèku gSA rw rks èkkfeZd izo`fÙk dk vkneh gSA eSa le> ugha ik jgk gw¡
fd rqe bl caèku esa oSQls i¡Ql x,\ bZ'oj esa HkfDr yxkvksA mlosQ flok; dksbZ rqEgkjk viuk
ughaA iRuh] csVs] HkkbZ&caèkq lc LokFkZ osQ lkFkh gSaA ftl fnu mUgsa yxsxk fd rqels mudk LokFkZ
lèkus okyk ugha] ml fnu os rqEgsa iwNsaxs rd ughaA blhfy, Kkuh] lar] egkRek bZ'oj osQ flok;
fdlh vkSj esa izse ugha yxkrsA ---rqEgkjs fgLls esa ianzg ch?ks [ksr gSaA mlh osQ pyrs rqEgkjs HkkbZ osQ
ifjokj rqEgsa idM+s gq, gSaA rqe ,d fnu dgdj rks ns[k yks fd viuk [ksr mUgsa u nsdj nwljs
dks fy[k nksxs] og rqels cksyuk can dj nsaxsA [kwu dk fj'rk [kRe gks tk,xkA rqEgkjs Hkys osQ fy,
eSa cgqr fnuksa ls lksp jgk Fkk ysfdu ladkspo'k ugha dg jgk FkkA vkt dg nsrk gw¡] rqe vius
fgLls dk [ksr BkoqQjth osQ uke ij fy[k nksA lhèks cSoqaQB dks izkIr djksxsA rhuksa yksd esa rqEgkjh
dhfrZ txexk mBsxhA tc rd pk¡n&lwjt jgsaxs] rc rd yksx rqEgsa ;kn djsaxsA BkoqQjth osQ uke
ij ”kehu fy[k nsuk] rqEgkjs thou dk egknku gksxkA lkèkq&lar rqEgkjs ik¡o i[kkjsaxsA lHkh rqEgkjk
;'kksxku djsaxsA rqEgkjk ;g thou lkFkZd gks tk,xkA viuh 'ks"k ¯”knxh rqe blh BkoqQjckjh esa
xq”kkjuk] rqEgsa fdlh ph”k dh deh ugha gksxhA ,d ek¡xksxs rks pkj gkf”kj dh tk,¡xhA ge rqEgsa
flj&vk¡[kksa ij mBkdj j[ksaxsA BkoqQjth osQ lkFk&lkFk rqEgkjh vkjrh Hkh yxk,¡xsA HkkbZ dk ifjokj
rqEgkjs fy, oqQN ugha djsxkA irk ugha iwoZtUe esa rqeus dkSu&lk iki fd;k Fkk fd rqEgkjh nksuksa
ifRu;k¡ vdkye`R;q dks izIr gqb±A rqeus vkSykn dk eq¡ag rd ugha ns[kkA viuk ;g tUe rqe
vdkjFk
17
 u tkus nksA bZ'oj dks ,d Hkj nksxs rks nl Hkj ikvksxsA eSa vius fy, rks rqels ek¡x ugha
jgk gw¡A rqEgkjk ;g yksd vkSj ijyksd nksuksa cu tk,¡] bldh jkg eSa rqEgsa crk jgk gw¡---A¸
15- gou esa iz;qDr gksus okyh lkexzh  16- mlh iy  17- csdkj
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