NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - ओस, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 8

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - ओस, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


vksl/23
vksl
gjh ?kkl ij fc[ksj nh gSa
;s fdlus eksrh dh yfM+;k¡\
dkSu jkr esa xw¡Fk x;k gS
;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡\
tqxuw ls txex txex ;s
dkSu pedrs gSa ;ksa pepe\
uHk osQ uUgsa rkjksa ls ;s
dkSu nedrs gSa ;ksa nene\
yqVk x;k gS dkSu tkSgjh
vius ?kj dk Hkjk [k”kkuk\
iÙkksa ij] iwQyksa ij] ix ix
fc[kjs gq, jru gSa ukukA
cM+s lcsjs euk jgk gS
dkSu [kq'kh esa ;g nhokyh\
ou miou esa tyk nh gS
fdlus nhikoyh fujkyh\
th gksrk] bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkm¡Q\
budh 'kksHkk fuj[k fuj[k dj
bu ij dfork ,d cukm¡QA
µ lksguyky f}osnh
pkSFkk ikB
2020-21
Page 2


vksl/23
vksl
gjh ?kkl ij fc[ksj nh gSa
;s fdlus eksrh dh yfM+;k¡\
dkSu jkr esa xw¡Fk x;k gS
;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡\
tqxuw ls txex txex ;s
dkSu pedrs gSa ;ksa pepe\
uHk osQ uUgsa rkjksa ls ;s
dkSu nedrs gSa ;ksa nene\
yqVk x;k gS dkSu tkSgjh
vius ?kj dk Hkjk [k”kkuk\
iÙkksa ij] iwQyksa ij] ix ix
fc[kjs gq, jru gSa ukukA
cM+s lcsjs euk jgk gS
dkSu [kq'kh esa ;g nhokyh\
ou miou esa tyk nh gS
fdlus nhikoyh fujkyh\
th gksrk] bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkm¡Q\
budh 'kksHkk fuj[k fuj[k dj
bu ij dfork ,d cukm¡QA
µ lksguyky f}osnh
pkSFkk ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/24
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
xw¡Fkuk & fijksuk
mTToy & pedrk gqvk] mtyk
tqxuw & ,d dhM+k (jkr esa mM+us
ij bldh nqe ls jks'kuh
fudyrh gS)
uHk & vkdk'k] vkleku
tkSgjh & jRuksa dh tk¡p&ij[k djus
okyk
[k”kkuk & jQi;k] lksuk&pk¡nh j[kus
dk LFkku] dks'k] /ukxkj
jru & jRu
ukuk & vusd
fujkyh & lqanj] euksgj
vatfy & nksuksa gFksfy;ksa dks
feykus ls cuus okyh
eqnzk
th & eu
'kksHkk & lkSan;Z
fuj[k&fuj[k & ns[k&ns[kdj
cgqewY; & dherh] ewY;oku
1- dfork ls
(d) dfork esa jru fdls dgk x;k gS vkSj os dgk¡&dgk¡ fc[kjs gq, gSa\
([k) vksl d.kksa dks ns[kdj dfo dk eu D;k djuk pkgrk gS\
2- dfork ls vkxs
(d) irk djks fd lqcg osQ le; [kqys LFkkuksa ij vksl dh cw¡nsa oSQls
cu tkrh gSa\ bls vius f'k{kd dks crkvksA
([k) D;k vksl] dksgjk vkSj o"kkZ esa dksbZ laca/ gS\ blosQ cuus
vkSj gksus osQ dkj.kksa dk irk yxkvks vkSj mls vius <ax ls
fy[kdj f'k{kd dks fn[kkvksA
(x) lwjt fudyus osQ oqQN le; ckn vksl dgk¡ pyh tkrh gS\
bldk mÙkj rqe vius fe=kksa] cM+ksa] iqLrdksa vkSj baVjusV dh
lgk;rk ls izkIr djks vkSj f'k{kd dks crkvksA
2020-21
Page 3


vksl/23
vksl
gjh ?kkl ij fc[ksj nh gSa
;s fdlus eksrh dh yfM+;k¡\
dkSu jkr esa xw¡Fk x;k gS
;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡\
tqxuw ls txex txex ;s
dkSu pedrs gSa ;ksa pepe\
uHk osQ uUgsa rkjksa ls ;s
dkSu nedrs gSa ;ksa nene\
yqVk x;k gS dkSu tkSgjh
vius ?kj dk Hkjk [k”kkuk\
iÙkksa ij] iwQyksa ij] ix ix
fc[kjs gq, jru gSa ukukA
cM+s lcsjs euk jgk gS
dkSu [kq'kh esa ;g nhokyh\
ou miou esa tyk nh gS
fdlus nhikoyh fujkyh\
th gksrk] bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkm¡Q\
budh 'kksHkk fuj[k fuj[k dj
bu ij dfork ,d cukm¡QA
µ lksguyky f}osnh
pkSFkk ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/24
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
xw¡Fkuk & fijksuk
mTToy & pedrk gqvk] mtyk
tqxuw & ,d dhM+k (jkr esa mM+us
ij bldh nqe ls jks'kuh
fudyrh gS)
uHk & vkdk'k] vkleku
tkSgjh & jRuksa dh tk¡p&ij[k djus
okyk
[k”kkuk & jQi;k] lksuk&pk¡nh j[kus
dk LFkku] dks'k] /ukxkj
jru & jRu
ukuk & vusd
fujkyh & lqanj] euksgj
vatfy & nksuksa gFksfy;ksa dks
feykus ls cuus okyh
eqnzk
th & eu
'kksHkk & lkSan;Z
fuj[k&fuj[k & ns[k&ns[kdj
cgqewY; & dherh] ewY;oku
1- dfork ls
(d) dfork esa jru fdls dgk x;k gS vkSj os dgk¡&dgk¡ fc[kjs gq, gSa\
([k) vksl d.kksa dks ns[kdj dfo dk eu D;k djuk pkgrk gS\
2- dfork ls vkxs
(d) irk djks fd lqcg osQ le; [kqys LFkkuksa ij vksl dh cw¡nsa oSQls
cu tkrh gSa\ bls vius f'k{kd dks crkvksA
([k) D;k vksl] dksgjk vkSj o"kkZ esa dksbZ laca/ gS\ blosQ cuus
vkSj gksus osQ dkj.kksa dk irk yxkvks vkSj mls vius <ax ls
fy[kdj f'k{kd dks fn[kkvksA
(x) lwjt fudyus osQ oqQN le; ckn vksl dgk¡ pyh tkrh gS\
bldk mÙkj rqe vius fe=kksa] cM+ksa] iqLrdksa vkSj baVjusV dh
lgk;rk ls izkIr djks vkSj f'k{kd dks crkvksA
2020-21
vksl/25
3- rqEgkjh dYiuk
¶budh 'kksHkk fuj[k&fuj[k dj]
 bu ij dfork ,d cukm¡QA¸
dfo vksl dh lqanjrk ij ,d dfork cukuk pkgrk gSA
;fn rqe dfo osQ LFkku ij gksrs] rks dkSu&lh dfork cukrs\
vius euilan fo"k; ij dksbZ dfork cukvksA
4- ekSle dh ckr
(d) rqEgkjs fopkj ls ;g fdl ekSle dh dfork gks ldrh gS\
([k) rqEgkjs izns'k esa dkSu&dkSu ls ekSle vkrs gSa\ mldh lwph cukvksA
(x) rqEgsa dkSu lk ekSle lcls vf/d ilan gS vkSj D;ksa\
5- vatfy esa
¶th gksrk bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkÅ¡¸
dfo vksl dks viuh vatfy esa Hkjuk pkgrk gSA rqe uhps nh xbZ ph”kksa esa ls fdu ph”kksa dks
viuh vatfy esa Hkj ldrs gks\ lgh (P) dk fpÉ yxkvksµ
jsr vksl /qvk¡ gok ikuh rsy yM~Mw xsan
6- myV&isQj
¶gjh ?kkl ij fc[ksj nh gSa
;s fdlus eksrh dh yfM+;k¡\¸
Åij dh iafDr;ksa dks myV&isQj dj bl rjg Hkh fy[kk tk ldrk gSµ
¶gjh ?kkl ij ;s eksrh dh yfM+;k¡ fdlus fc[ksj nh gSa\¸
blh rjg uhps fy[kh iafDr;ksa esa myV&isQj dj rqe Hkh mls vius <ax ls fy[kksA
(d) ¶dkSu jkr esa x¡wFk x;k gS
;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡\¸
([k) ¶uHk osQ uUgsa rkjksa esa ;s
dkSu nedrs gSa ;ksa nene\¸
2020-21
Page 4


vksl/23
vksl
gjh ?kkl ij fc[ksj nh gSa
;s fdlus eksrh dh yfM+;k¡\
dkSu jkr esa xw¡Fk x;k gS
;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡\
tqxuw ls txex txex ;s
dkSu pedrs gSa ;ksa pepe\
uHk osQ uUgsa rkjksa ls ;s
dkSu nedrs gSa ;ksa nene\
yqVk x;k gS dkSu tkSgjh
vius ?kj dk Hkjk [k”kkuk\
iÙkksa ij] iwQyksa ij] ix ix
fc[kjs gq, jru gSa ukukA
cM+s lcsjs euk jgk gS
dkSu [kq'kh esa ;g nhokyh\
ou miou esa tyk nh gS
fdlus nhikoyh fujkyh\
th gksrk] bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkm¡Q\
budh 'kksHkk fuj[k fuj[k dj
bu ij dfork ,d cukm¡QA
µ lksguyky f}osnh
pkSFkk ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/24
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
xw¡Fkuk & fijksuk
mTToy & pedrk gqvk] mtyk
tqxuw & ,d dhM+k (jkr esa mM+us
ij bldh nqe ls jks'kuh
fudyrh gS)
uHk & vkdk'k] vkleku
tkSgjh & jRuksa dh tk¡p&ij[k djus
okyk
[k”kkuk & jQi;k] lksuk&pk¡nh j[kus
dk LFkku] dks'k] /ukxkj
jru & jRu
ukuk & vusd
fujkyh & lqanj] euksgj
vatfy & nksuksa gFksfy;ksa dks
feykus ls cuus okyh
eqnzk
th & eu
'kksHkk & lkSan;Z
fuj[k&fuj[k & ns[k&ns[kdj
cgqewY; & dherh] ewY;oku
1- dfork ls
(d) dfork esa jru fdls dgk x;k gS vkSj os dgk¡&dgk¡ fc[kjs gq, gSa\
([k) vksl d.kksa dks ns[kdj dfo dk eu D;k djuk pkgrk gS\
2- dfork ls vkxs
(d) irk djks fd lqcg osQ le; [kqys LFkkuksa ij vksl dh cw¡nsa oSQls
cu tkrh gSa\ bls vius f'k{kd dks crkvksA
([k) D;k vksl] dksgjk vkSj o"kkZ esa dksbZ laca/ gS\ blosQ cuus
vkSj gksus osQ dkj.kksa dk irk yxkvks vkSj mls vius <ax ls
fy[kdj f'k{kd dks fn[kkvksA
(x) lwjt fudyus osQ oqQN le; ckn vksl dgk¡ pyh tkrh gS\
bldk mÙkj rqe vius fe=kksa] cM+ksa] iqLrdksa vkSj baVjusV dh
lgk;rk ls izkIr djks vkSj f'k{kd dks crkvksA
2020-21
vksl/25
3- rqEgkjh dYiuk
¶budh 'kksHkk fuj[k&fuj[k dj]
 bu ij dfork ,d cukm¡QA¸
dfo vksl dh lqanjrk ij ,d dfork cukuk pkgrk gSA
;fn rqe dfo osQ LFkku ij gksrs] rks dkSu&lh dfork cukrs\
vius euilan fo"k; ij dksbZ dfork cukvksA
4- ekSle dh ckr
(d) rqEgkjs fopkj ls ;g fdl ekSle dh dfork gks ldrh gS\
([k) rqEgkjs izns'k esa dkSu&dkSu ls ekSle vkrs gSa\ mldh lwph cukvksA
(x) rqEgsa dkSu lk ekSle lcls vf/d ilan gS vkSj D;ksa\
5- vatfy esa
¶th gksrk bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkÅ¡¸
dfo vksl dks viuh vatfy esa Hkjuk pkgrk gSA rqe uhps nh xbZ ph”kksa esa ls fdu ph”kksa dks
viuh vatfy esa Hkj ldrs gks\ lgh (P) dk fpÉ yxkvksµ
jsr vksl /qvk¡ gok ikuh rsy yM~Mw xsan
6- myV&isQj
¶gjh ?kkl ij fc[ksj nh gSa
;s fdlus eksrh dh yfM+;k¡\¸
Åij dh iafDr;ksa dks myV&isQj dj bl rjg Hkh fy[kk tk ldrk gSµ
¶gjh ?kkl ij ;s eksrh dh yfM+;k¡ fdlus fc[ksj nh gSa\¸
blh rjg uhps fy[kh iafDr;ksa esa myV&isQj dj rqe Hkh mls vius <ax ls fy[kksA
(d) ¶dkSu jkr esa x¡wFk x;k gS
;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡\¸
([k) ¶uHk osQ uUgsa rkjksa esa ;s
dkSu nedrs gSa ;ksa nene\¸
2020-21
nwokZ/26
7- 'kCnksa dh igsyh
¶;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡¸
Åij dh iafDr esa mTToy 'kCn esa ^t* o.kZ nks ckj vk;k gS ijarq ;g vk/k (T ) gSA rqe Hkh blh
rjg osQ oqQN vkSj 'kCn [kks”kksA è;ku jgs] ml 'kCn esa dksbZ ,d o.kZ (v{kj) nks ckj vk;k gks]
exj vk/k&vk/kA bl dke esa rqe 'kCndks'k dh lgk;rk ys ldrs gksA ns[ksa] dkSu lcls vf/d
'kCn [kks”k ikrk gSA
8- dkSu ,slk
uhps fy[kh ph”kksa tSlh oqQN vkSj ph”kksa osQ uke lkspdj fy[kksµ
(d) tqxuw tSls pedhys ---------------------------------------
([k) rkjksa tSls f>yfey ---------------------------------------
(x) ghjksa tSls nedrs ---------------------------------------
(?k) iwQyksa tSls lqanj ---------------------------------------
9- cw>ks eryc
¶th gksrk] bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkm¡Q¸
^?kj* 'kCn dk iz;ksx ge dbZ rjg ls dj ldrs
gSaA tSlsµ
(d) og ?kj x;kA ---------------------------------------
([k) ;g ckr esjs eu esa ?kj dj xbZA ---------------------------------------
(x) ;g rks ?kj&?kj dh ckr gSA ---------------------------------------
(?k) vkvks] ?kj&?kj [ksysaA ---------------------------------------
^cl* 'kCn dk iz;ksx dbZ rjg ls
fd;k tk ldrk gSA rqe ^cl*
'kCn dk iz;ksx djrs gq, vius
eu ls oqQN okD; cukvksA
(laosQrµcl] cl&cl] cl bruk lk)
2020-21
Page 5


vksl/23
vksl
gjh ?kkl ij fc[ksj nh gSa
;s fdlus eksrh dh yfM+;k¡\
dkSu jkr esa xw¡Fk x;k gS
;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡\
tqxuw ls txex txex ;s
dkSu pedrs gSa ;ksa pepe\
uHk osQ uUgsa rkjksa ls ;s
dkSu nedrs gSa ;ksa nene\
yqVk x;k gS dkSu tkSgjh
vius ?kj dk Hkjk [k”kkuk\
iÙkksa ij] iwQyksa ij] ix ix
fc[kjs gq, jru gSa ukukA
cM+s lcsjs euk jgk gS
dkSu [kq'kh esa ;g nhokyh\
ou miou esa tyk nh gS
fdlus nhikoyh fujkyh\
th gksrk] bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkm¡Q\
budh 'kksHkk fuj[k fuj[k dj
bu ij dfork ,d cukm¡QA
µ lksguyky f}osnh
pkSFkk ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/24
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
xw¡Fkuk & fijksuk
mTToy & pedrk gqvk] mtyk
tqxuw & ,d dhM+k (jkr esa mM+us
ij bldh nqe ls jks'kuh
fudyrh gS)
uHk & vkdk'k] vkleku
tkSgjh & jRuksa dh tk¡p&ij[k djus
okyk
[k”kkuk & jQi;k] lksuk&pk¡nh j[kus
dk LFkku] dks'k] /ukxkj
jru & jRu
ukuk & vusd
fujkyh & lqanj] euksgj
vatfy & nksuksa gFksfy;ksa dks
feykus ls cuus okyh
eqnzk
th & eu
'kksHkk & lkSan;Z
fuj[k&fuj[k & ns[k&ns[kdj
cgqewY; & dherh] ewY;oku
1- dfork ls
(d) dfork esa jru fdls dgk x;k gS vkSj os dgk¡&dgk¡ fc[kjs gq, gSa\
([k) vksl d.kksa dks ns[kdj dfo dk eu D;k djuk pkgrk gS\
2- dfork ls vkxs
(d) irk djks fd lqcg osQ le; [kqys LFkkuksa ij vksl dh cw¡nsa oSQls
cu tkrh gSa\ bls vius f'k{kd dks crkvksA
([k) D;k vksl] dksgjk vkSj o"kkZ esa dksbZ laca/ gS\ blosQ cuus
vkSj gksus osQ dkj.kksa dk irk yxkvks vkSj mls vius <ax ls
fy[kdj f'k{kd dks fn[kkvksA
(x) lwjt fudyus osQ oqQN le; ckn vksl dgk¡ pyh tkrh gS\
bldk mÙkj rqe vius fe=kksa] cM+ksa] iqLrdksa vkSj baVjusV dh
lgk;rk ls izkIr djks vkSj f'k{kd dks crkvksA
2020-21
vksl/25
3- rqEgkjh dYiuk
¶budh 'kksHkk fuj[k&fuj[k dj]
 bu ij dfork ,d cukm¡QA¸
dfo vksl dh lqanjrk ij ,d dfork cukuk pkgrk gSA
;fn rqe dfo osQ LFkku ij gksrs] rks dkSu&lh dfork cukrs\
vius euilan fo"k; ij dksbZ dfork cukvksA
4- ekSle dh ckr
(d) rqEgkjs fopkj ls ;g fdl ekSle dh dfork gks ldrh gS\
([k) rqEgkjs izns'k esa dkSu&dkSu ls ekSle vkrs gSa\ mldh lwph cukvksA
(x) rqEgsa dkSu lk ekSle lcls vf/d ilan gS vkSj D;ksa\
5- vatfy esa
¶th gksrk bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkÅ¡¸
dfo vksl dks viuh vatfy esa Hkjuk pkgrk gSA rqe uhps nh xbZ ph”kksa esa ls fdu ph”kksa dks
viuh vatfy esa Hkj ldrs gks\ lgh (P) dk fpÉ yxkvksµ
jsr vksl /qvk¡ gok ikuh rsy yM~Mw xsan
6- myV&isQj
¶gjh ?kkl ij fc[ksj nh gSa
;s fdlus eksrh dh yfM+;k¡\¸
Åij dh iafDr;ksa dks myV&isQj dj bl rjg Hkh fy[kk tk ldrk gSµ
¶gjh ?kkl ij ;s eksrh dh yfM+;k¡ fdlus fc[ksj nh gSa\¸
blh rjg uhps fy[kh iafDr;ksa esa myV&isQj dj rqe Hkh mls vius <ax ls fy[kksA
(d) ¶dkSu jkr esa x¡wFk x;k gS
;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡\¸
([k) ¶uHk osQ uUgsa rkjksa esa ;s
dkSu nedrs gSa ;ksa nene\¸
2020-21
nwokZ/26
7- 'kCnksa dh igsyh
¶;s mTToy ghjksa dh dfM+;k¡¸
Åij dh iafDr esa mTToy 'kCn esa ^t* o.kZ nks ckj vk;k gS ijarq ;g vk/k (T ) gSA rqe Hkh blh
rjg osQ oqQN vkSj 'kCn [kks”kksA è;ku jgs] ml 'kCn esa dksbZ ,d o.kZ (v{kj) nks ckj vk;k gks]
exj vk/k&vk/kA bl dke esa rqe 'kCndks'k dh lgk;rk ys ldrs gksA ns[ksa] dkSu lcls vf/d
'kCn [kks”k ikrk gSA
8- dkSu ,slk
uhps fy[kh ph”kksa tSlh oqQN vkSj ph”kksa osQ uke lkspdj fy[kksµ
(d) tqxuw tSls pedhys ---------------------------------------
([k) rkjksa tSls f>yfey ---------------------------------------
(x) ghjksa tSls nedrs ---------------------------------------
(?k) iwQyksa tSls lqanj ---------------------------------------
9- cw>ks eryc
¶th gksrk] bu vksl d.kksa dks
vatfy esa Hkj ?kj ys vkm¡Q¸
^?kj* 'kCn dk iz;ksx ge dbZ rjg ls dj ldrs
gSaA tSlsµ
(d) og ?kj x;kA ---------------------------------------
([k) ;g ckr esjs eu esa ?kj dj xbZA ---------------------------------------
(x) ;g rks ?kj&?kj dh ckr gSA ---------------------------------------
(?k) vkvks] ?kj&?kj [ksysaA ---------------------------------------
^cl* 'kCn dk iz;ksx dbZ rjg ls
fd;k tk ldrk gSA rqe ^cl*
'kCn dk iz;ksx djrs gq, vius
eu ls oqQN okD; cukvksA
(laosQrµcl] cl&cl] cl bruk lk)
2020-21
vksl/27
10- :i cnydj
pedµpedukµpedkukµpedokuk
^ped* 'kCn osQ oqQN :i Åij fy[ks gSaA blh izdkj
uhps fy[ks 'kCnksa dk :i cnydj lgh txg ij Hkjks&
ned] ljd] fc[kj] cu
(d) ”kjk lk jxM+rs gh ghjs us --------------------------------------- 'kq: dj fn;kA
([k) rqe ;g deh”k fdl n”khZ ls --------------------------------------- pkgrs gks\
(x) lk¡i us /hjs&/hjs --------------------------------------- 'kq: dj fn;kA
(?k) ydh dks ew[kZ --------------------------------------- rks cgqr vklku gSA
(Ä) rqeus vc f[kykSus --------------------------------------- can dj fn,\
2020-21
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हिंदी

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video lectures

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Semester Notes

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Important questions

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हिंदी

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Free

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NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - ओस

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MCQs

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Extra Questions

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study material

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shortcuts and tricks

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कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

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practice quizzes

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NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - ओस

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past year papers

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NCERT Textbook: पाठ 4 - ओस

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कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

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Summary

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