NCERT Textbook: पाठ 7 - उठ किसान ओ, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

कक्षा - 8 हिन्दी (Class 8 Hindi) by VP Classes

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 7 - उठ किसान ओ, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

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   mB fdlku vks/45
mB fdlku vks
mB fdlku vks] mB fdlku vks]
ckny f?kj vk, gSa
rsjs gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ
lkFkh ;s vk, gSa
vkleku Hkj x;k ns[k rks
b/j ns[k rks] m/j ns[k rks
ukp jgs gSa meM+&?kqeM+ dj
dkys ckny rfud ns[k rks
rsjs izk.kksa esa Hkjus dks
u;s jkx yk, gSa
;g lans'kk ysdj vkbZ
ljl e/qj] 'khry iqjokbZ
rsjs fy,] vosQys rsjs
fy,] dgk¡ ls py dj vkbZ
fiQj os ijnslh ikgqu] lqu]
rsjs ?kj vk, gSa
mM+us okys dkys ty/j
ukp&ukp dj xjt&xjt dj
vks<+ iqQgkjksa dh flr pknj
ns[k mrjrs gSa /jrh ij
fNis [ksr esa] vk¡[kfepkSuh
lh djrs vk, gSa
lkrok¡ ikB
2020-21
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   mB fdlku vks/45
mB fdlku vks
mB fdlku vks] mB fdlku vks]
ckny f?kj vk, gSa
rsjs gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ
lkFkh ;s vk, gSa
vkleku Hkj x;k ns[k rks
b/j ns[k rks] m/j ns[k rks
ukp jgs gSa meM+&?kqeM+ dj
dkys ckny rfud ns[k rks
rsjs izk.kksa esa Hkjus dks
u;s jkx yk, gSa
;g lans'kk ysdj vkbZ
ljl e/qj] 'khry iqjokbZ
rsjs fy,] vosQys rsjs
fy,] dgk¡ ls py dj vkbZ
fiQj os ijnslh ikgqu] lqu]
rsjs ?kj vk, gSa
mM+us okys dkys ty/j
ukp&ukp dj xjt&xjt dj
vks<+ iqQgkjksa dh flr pknj
ns[k mrjrs gSa /jrh ij
fNis [ksr esa] vk¡[kfepkSuh
lh djrs vk, gSa
lkrok¡ ikB
2020-21
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vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
f?kjuk & pkjksa vksj ls vkuk] Nkuk
rfud & FkksM+k&lk
lans'kk & lekpkj] [kcj
iqjokbZ & iwoZ dh vksj ls pyus okyh
gok
'khry & BaMh
ijnslh & nwljs ns'k esa jgus okyk
ikgqu & esgeku] vfrfFk
ty/j & ikuh ls Hkjs ckny
iqQgkj & ckSNkj] uUgha&uUgha cw¡ns
flr & lI+ksQn
vks<+uk & <k¡iuk] fdlh diMs+ vkfn
ls cnu <duk
irkdk & >aMk
vk¡[k fepkSuh & ,d iy fn[kuk vkSj fNi
tkuk] yqdk&Nqih dk [ksy
xjt & cknyksa dh ”kksjnkj èofu
gjk [ksr tc ygjk,xk
gjh irkdk iQgjk,xk
fNik gqvk ckny rc mlesa
:i cny dj eqldk,xk
rsjs liuksa osQ ;s ehBs
xhr vkt Nk, gSa
µf=kykspu
2020-21
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   mB fdlku vks/45
mB fdlku vks
mB fdlku vks] mB fdlku vks]
ckny f?kj vk, gSa
rsjs gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ
lkFkh ;s vk, gSa
vkleku Hkj x;k ns[k rks
b/j ns[k rks] m/j ns[k rks
ukp jgs gSa meM+&?kqeM+ dj
dkys ckny rfud ns[k rks
rsjs izk.kksa esa Hkjus dks
u;s jkx yk, gSa
;g lans'kk ysdj vkbZ
ljl e/qj] 'khry iqjokbZ
rsjs fy,] vosQys rsjs
fy,] dgk¡ ls py dj vkbZ
fiQj os ijnslh ikgqu] lqu]
rsjs ?kj vk, gSa
mM+us okys dkys ty/j
ukp&ukp dj xjt&xjt dj
vks<+ iqQgkjksa dh flr pknj
ns[k mrjrs gSa /jrh ij
fNis [ksr esa] vk¡[kfepkSuh
lh djrs vk, gSa
lkrok¡ ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/46
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
f?kjuk & pkjksa vksj ls vkuk] Nkuk
rfud & FkksM+k&lk
lans'kk & lekpkj] [kcj
iqjokbZ & iwoZ dh vksj ls pyus okyh
gok
'khry & BaMh
ijnslh & nwljs ns'k esa jgus okyk
ikgqu & esgeku] vfrfFk
ty/j & ikuh ls Hkjs ckny
iqQgkj & ckSNkj] uUgha&uUgha cw¡ns
flr & lI+ksQn
vks<+uk & <k¡iuk] fdlh diMs+ vkfn
ls cnu <duk
irkdk & >aMk
vk¡[k fepkSuh & ,d iy fn[kuk vkSj fNi
tkuk] yqdk&Nqih dk [ksy
xjt & cknyksa dh ”kksjnkj èofu
gjk [ksr tc ygjk,xk
gjh irkdk iQgjk,xk
fNik gqvk ckny rc mlesa
:i cny dj eqldk,xk
rsjs liuksa osQ ;s ehBs
xhr vkt Nk, gSa
µf=kykspu
2020-21
   mB fdlku vks/47
1- dfork ls
uhps fy[kh iafDr;k¡ i<+ksA vkil esa ppkZ djosQ blosQ
uhps fn, x, iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nks&
(d) ¶rsjs gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ lkFkh ;s vk, gSa¸
D;k ckny gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ lkFkh gSa vFkok
fdlku osQ\ ;k nksuksa osQA
([k) ¶rsjs izk.kksa esa Hkjus dks u;k jkx yk, gSa¸
ckny ,slk D;k yk, gSa ftlls fdlku osQ
izk.kksa esa u;k jkx Hkj tk,xk\
(x) ¶;g lans'kk ys dj vkbZ] ljl e/qj 'khry iqjokbZ¸
iqjokbZ fdlku osQ fy, D;k lans'kk ysdj vkbZ gksxh\
(?k) ¶rsjs fy,] vosQys rsjs fy,] dgk¡ ls pydj vkbZ¸
D;k lpeqp iqjokbZ osQoy fdlku osQ fy, pydj vkbZ gS\ og dgk¡ ls pydj vkbZ gksxh\
2- dfork osQ vk/kj ij crkvks fd
(d) tc gjk [ksr ygjk;sxk rks D;k gksxk\
([k) cknyksa osQ f?kj vkus ij dfo fdlku dks mBus osQ fy, D;ksa dgrk gS\
(x) :i cny dj ckny fdlku osQ dkSu ls liuksa dks lkdkj djsxk\
3- fNik gS dkSu\
¶gjk [ksr tc ygjk,xk
gjh irkdk iQgjk,xk
fNik gqvk ckny rc mlesa
:i cnydj eqldk,xk¸
dfork esa ge ikrs gSa fd lkou dh gfj;kyh cknyksa osQ
dkj.k gh gqbZ gS blfy, dfo dks ml gfj;kyh esa eqLkoQjkrs
ckny gh fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA crkvks] dfo dks bu lc esa dkSu
fn[kkbZ ns ldrk gSµ
(d) xeZ gokA yw osQ FkisM+sA
([k) lkxj esa mBrh Å¡ph&Å¡ph ygjsaA
(x) lqxa/ iSQykrk gqvk iwQyA
(?k) pSu dh uhan lksrh gqbZ ckfydkA
2020-21
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   mB fdlku vks/45
mB fdlku vks
mB fdlku vks] mB fdlku vks]
ckny f?kj vk, gSa
rsjs gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ
lkFkh ;s vk, gSa
vkleku Hkj x;k ns[k rks
b/j ns[k rks] m/j ns[k rks
ukp jgs gSa meM+&?kqeM+ dj
dkys ckny rfud ns[k rks
rsjs izk.kksa esa Hkjus dks
u;s jkx yk, gSa
;g lans'kk ysdj vkbZ
ljl e/qj] 'khry iqjokbZ
rsjs fy,] vosQys rsjs
fy,] dgk¡ ls py dj vkbZ
fiQj os ijnslh ikgqu] lqu]
rsjs ?kj vk, gSa
mM+us okys dkys ty/j
ukp&ukp dj xjt&xjt dj
vks<+ iqQgkjksa dh flr pknj
ns[k mrjrs gSa /jrh ij
fNis [ksr esa] vk¡[kfepkSuh
lh djrs vk, gSa
lkrok¡ ikB
2020-21
nwokZ/46
vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
f?kjuk & pkjksa vksj ls vkuk] Nkuk
rfud & FkksM+k&lk
lans'kk & lekpkj] [kcj
iqjokbZ & iwoZ dh vksj ls pyus okyh
gok
'khry & BaMh
ijnslh & nwljs ns'k esa jgus okyk
ikgqu & esgeku] vfrfFk
ty/j & ikuh ls Hkjs ckny
iqQgkj & ckSNkj] uUgha&uUgha cw¡ns
flr & lI+ksQn
vks<+uk & <k¡iuk] fdlh diMs+ vkfn
ls cnu <duk
irkdk & >aMk
vk¡[k fepkSuh & ,d iy fn[kuk vkSj fNi
tkuk] yqdk&Nqih dk [ksy
xjt & cknyksa dh ”kksjnkj èofu
gjk [ksr tc ygjk,xk
gjh irkdk iQgjk,xk
fNik gqvk ckny rc mlesa
:i cny dj eqldk,xk
rsjs liuksa osQ ;s ehBs
xhr vkt Nk, gSa
µf=kykspu
2020-21
   mB fdlku vks/47
1- dfork ls
uhps fy[kh iafDr;k¡ i<+ksA vkil esa ppkZ djosQ blosQ
uhps fn, x, iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nks&
(d) ¶rsjs gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ lkFkh ;s vk, gSa¸
D;k ckny gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ lkFkh gSa vFkok
fdlku osQ\ ;k nksuksa osQA
([k) ¶rsjs izk.kksa esa Hkjus dks u;k jkx yk, gSa¸
ckny ,slk D;k yk, gSa ftlls fdlku osQ
izk.kksa esa u;k jkx Hkj tk,xk\
(x) ¶;g lans'kk ys dj vkbZ] ljl e/qj 'khry iqjokbZ¸
iqjokbZ fdlku osQ fy, D;k lans'kk ysdj vkbZ gksxh\
(?k) ¶rsjs fy,] vosQys rsjs fy,] dgk¡ ls pydj vkbZ¸
D;k lpeqp iqjokbZ osQoy fdlku osQ fy, pydj vkbZ gS\ og dgk¡ ls pydj vkbZ gksxh\
2- dfork osQ vk/kj ij crkvks fd
(d) tc gjk [ksr ygjk;sxk rks D;k gksxk\
([k) cknyksa osQ f?kj vkus ij dfo fdlku dks mBus osQ fy, D;ksa dgrk gS\
(x) :i cny dj ckny fdlku osQ dkSu ls liuksa dks lkdkj djsxk\
3- fNik gS dkSu\
¶gjk [ksr tc ygjk,xk
gjh irkdk iQgjk,xk
fNik gqvk ckny rc mlesa
:i cnydj eqldk,xk¸
dfork esa ge ikrs gSa fd lkou dh gfj;kyh cknyksa osQ
dkj.k gh gqbZ gS blfy, dfo dks ml gfj;kyh esa eqLkoQjkrs
ckny gh fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA crkvks] dfo dks bu lc esa dkSu
fn[kkbZ ns ldrk gSµ
(d) xeZ gokA yw osQ FkisM+sA
([k) lkxj esa mBrh Å¡ph&Å¡ph ygjsaA
(x) lqxa/ iSQykrk gqvk iwQyA
(?k) pSu dh uhan lksrh gqbZ ckfydkA
2020-21
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4- fdLe&fdLe dh [ksrh
vktdy iqjkus tekus dh vis{kk fdlku cgqr vf/d ph”kksa dh [ksrh djus yxs gSaA [ksrh dk Lo:i
cgqr fo'kky gks x;k gSA irk djks fd vktdy Hkkjr osQ yksx fdu&fdu ph”kksa dh [ksrh djrs
gSa\ vius lkfFk;ksa osQ lkFk feydj ,d lwph rS;kj djksA
5- ekr`Hkk"kk dh dfork
viuh ekr`Hkk"kk esa ^fdlku* ij fy[kh xbZ dfork dks vius fe=kksa o f'k{kd dks lqukvksA
6- [ksy&[ksy esa
¶fNis [ksr esa] vk¡[kfepkSuh lh djrs vk, gSa¸
rqe tkurs gks fd vk¡[kfepkSuh ,d [ksy gS ftlesa ,d f[kykM+h
vk¡[ksa can dj ysrk gS vkSj ckdh f[kykM+h fNi tkrs gSaA
rqe Hkh vius vkl&ikl [ksys tkus okys ,sls gh oqQN [ksyksa osQ
uke fy[kksA ;g Hkh crkvks fd bu [ksyksa dks oSQls [ksyrs gSa\
7- xjtuk&cjluk
¶mM+us okys dkys ty/j
ukp&ukp dj xjt&xjt dj
vks<+ iqQgkjksa dh flr pknj
ns[k mrjrs gSa /jrh ij¸
ckny xjt&xjt dj /jrh ij cjlrs gSa ijarq blosQ fcyoqQy myV ,d eqgkojk gSµ
tks xjtrs gSa] os cjlrs ughaA
d{kk esa ik¡p&ik¡p cPpksa osQ lewg cukdj ppkZ djks fd nksuksa ckrksa esa ls dkSu&lh ckr vfèkd lgh
gSA vius mÙkj dk dkj.k Hkh crkvksA ppkZ osQ ckn izR;sd lewg dk ,d izfrfuf/ iwjh d{kk dks
vius lewg osQ fopkj crk,xkA
8- vkSj eqgkojs
o"kkZ ls tqMs+ ;k o"kkZ osQ ckjs esa oqQN vkSj eqgkojs [kks”kksA mudk iz;ksx djrs gq, ,d&,d okD;
cukvksA
9- rfud
¶dkys ckny rfud ns[k rksA¸
rqe Hkh vius <ax ls ^rfud* 'kCn dk bLrseky djrs gq, ik¡p okD; cukvksA
2020-21
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   mB fdlku vks/45
mB fdlku vks
mB fdlku vks] mB fdlku vks]
ckny f?kj vk, gSa
rsjs gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ
lkFkh ;s vk, gSa
vkleku Hkj x;k ns[k rks
b/j ns[k rks] m/j ns[k rks
ukp jgs gSa meM+&?kqeM+ dj
dkys ckny rfud ns[k rks
rsjs izk.kksa esa Hkjus dks
u;s jkx yk, gSa
;g lans'kk ysdj vkbZ
ljl e/qj] 'khry iqjokbZ
rsjs fy,] vosQys rsjs
fy,] dgk¡ ls py dj vkbZ
fiQj os ijnslh ikgqu] lqu]
rsjs ?kj vk, gSa
mM+us okys dkys ty/j
ukp&ukp dj xjt&xjt dj
vks<+ iqQgkjksa dh flr pknj
ns[k mrjrs gSa /jrh ij
fNis [ksr esa] vk¡[kfepkSuh
lh djrs vk, gSa
lkrok¡ ikB
2020-21
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vH;kl
'kCnkFkZ
f?kjuk & pkjksa vksj ls vkuk] Nkuk
rfud & FkksM+k&lk
lans'kk & lekpkj] [kcj
iqjokbZ & iwoZ dh vksj ls pyus okyh
gok
'khry & BaMh
ijnslh & nwljs ns'k esa jgus okyk
ikgqu & esgeku] vfrfFk
ty/j & ikuh ls Hkjs ckny
iqQgkj & ckSNkj] uUgha&uUgha cw¡ns
flr & lI+ksQn
vks<+uk & <k¡iuk] fdlh diMs+ vkfn
ls cnu <duk
irkdk & >aMk
vk¡[k fepkSuh & ,d iy fn[kuk vkSj fNi
tkuk] yqdk&Nqih dk [ksy
xjt & cknyksa dh ”kksjnkj èofu
gjk [ksr tc ygjk,xk
gjh irkdk iQgjk,xk
fNik gqvk ckny rc mlesa
:i cny dj eqldk,xk
rsjs liuksa osQ ;s ehBs
xhr vkt Nk, gSa
µf=kykspu
2020-21
   mB fdlku vks/47
1- dfork ls
uhps fy[kh iafDr;k¡ i<+ksA vkil esa ppkZ djosQ blosQ
uhps fn, x, iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nks&
(d) ¶rsjs gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ lkFkh ;s vk, gSa¸
D;k ckny gjs&Hkjs lkou osQ lkFkh gSa vFkok
fdlku osQ\ ;k nksuksa osQA
([k) ¶rsjs izk.kksa esa Hkjus dks u;k jkx yk, gSa¸
ckny ,slk D;k yk, gSa ftlls fdlku osQ
izk.kksa esa u;k jkx Hkj tk,xk\
(x) ¶;g lans'kk ys dj vkbZ] ljl e/qj 'khry iqjokbZ¸
iqjokbZ fdlku osQ fy, D;k lans'kk ysdj vkbZ gksxh\
(?k) ¶rsjs fy,] vosQys rsjs fy,] dgk¡ ls pydj vkbZ¸
D;k lpeqp iqjokbZ osQoy fdlku osQ fy, pydj vkbZ gS\ og dgk¡ ls pydj vkbZ gksxh\
2- dfork osQ vk/kj ij crkvks fd
(d) tc gjk [ksr ygjk;sxk rks D;k gksxk\
([k) cknyksa osQ f?kj vkus ij dfo fdlku dks mBus osQ fy, D;ksa dgrk gS\
(x) :i cny dj ckny fdlku osQ dkSu ls liuksa dks lkdkj djsxk\
3- fNik gS dkSu\
¶gjk [ksr tc ygjk,xk
gjh irkdk iQgjk,xk
fNik gqvk ckny rc mlesa
:i cnydj eqldk,xk¸
dfork esa ge ikrs gSa fd lkou dh gfj;kyh cknyksa osQ
dkj.k gh gqbZ gS blfy, dfo dks ml gfj;kyh esa eqLkoQjkrs
ckny gh fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA crkvks] dfo dks bu lc esa dkSu
fn[kkbZ ns ldrk gSµ
(d) xeZ gokA yw osQ FkisM+sA
([k) lkxj esa mBrh Å¡ph&Å¡ph ygjsaA
(x) lqxa/ iSQykrk gqvk iwQyA
(?k) pSu dh uhan lksrh gqbZ ckfydkA
2020-21
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4- fdLe&fdLe dh [ksrh
vktdy iqjkus tekus dh vis{kk fdlku cgqr vf/d ph”kksa dh [ksrh djus yxs gSaA [ksrh dk Lo:i
cgqr fo'kky gks x;k gSA irk djks fd vktdy Hkkjr osQ yksx fdu&fdu ph”kksa dh [ksrh djrs
gSa\ vius lkfFk;ksa osQ lkFk feydj ,d lwph rS;kj djksA
5- ekr`Hkk"kk dh dfork
viuh ekr`Hkk"kk esa ^fdlku* ij fy[kh xbZ dfork dks vius fe=kksa o f'k{kd dks lqukvksA
6- [ksy&[ksy esa
¶fNis [ksr esa] vk¡[kfepkSuh lh djrs vk, gSa¸
rqe tkurs gks fd vk¡[kfepkSuh ,d [ksy gS ftlesa ,d f[kykM+h
vk¡[ksa can dj ysrk gS vkSj ckdh f[kykM+h fNi tkrs gSaA
rqe Hkh vius vkl&ikl [ksys tkus okys ,sls gh oqQN [ksyksa osQ
uke fy[kksA ;g Hkh crkvks fd bu [ksyksa dks oSQls [ksyrs gSa\
7- xjtuk&cjluk
¶mM+us okys dkys ty/j
ukp&ukp dj xjt&xjt dj
vks<+ iqQgkjksa dh flr pknj
ns[k mrjrs gSa /jrh ij¸
ckny xjt&xjt dj /jrh ij cjlrs gSa ijarq blosQ fcyoqQy myV ,d eqgkojk gSµ
tks xjtrs gSa] os cjlrs ughaA
d{kk esa ik¡p&ik¡p cPpksa osQ lewg cukdj ppkZ djks fd nksuksa ckrksa esa ls dkSu&lh ckr vfèkd lgh
gSA vius mÙkj dk dkj.k Hkh crkvksA ppkZ osQ ckn izR;sd lewg dk ,d izfrfuf/ iwjh d{kk dks
vius lewg osQ fopkj crk,xkA
8- vkSj eqgkojs
o"kkZ ls tqMs+ ;k o"kkZ osQ ckjs esa oqQN vkSj eqgkojs [kks”kksA mudk iz;ksx djrs gq, ,d&,d okD;
cukvksA
9- rfud
¶dkys ckny rfud ns[k rksA¸
rqe Hkh vius <ax ls ^rfud* 'kCn dk bLrseky djrs gq, ik¡p okD; cukvksA
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   mB fdlku vks/49
10- xhr@xkus
rqeus o"kkZ ½rq ls lacaf/r oqQN xhr@xkuksa dks vo'; lquk gksxkA vxj ugha rks blls lacafèkr oqQN
xhr@xkuksa dh lwph cukvks vkSj viuh vko';drk vkSj lqyHkrk osQ vuqlkj mUgsa lquksA muesa ls
fdlh xhr&xkus dks rqe lqfo/kuqlkj fdlh volj ij xk Hkh ldrs gksA
2020-21
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