NCERT Textbook - ल्हासा की ओर Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 9

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook - ल्हासा की ओर Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1893 esa muosQ ufugky xk¡o iangk]
f”kyk vk”kex<+ (mÙkj izns'k) eas gqvkA mudk iSr`d xk¡o duSyk FkkA
mudk ewy uke osQnkj ikaMs; FkkA mudh f'k{kk dk'kh] vkxjk vkSj ykgkSj
esa gqbZA lu~ 1930 esa mUgksaus Jhyadk tkdj ckS¼ èkeZ xzg.k dj fy;kA
rcls mudk uke jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u gks x;kA jkgqy th ikfy] izkÑr]
viHkza'k] frCcrh] phuh] tkikuh] :lh lfgr vusd Hkk"kkvksa osQ tkudkj
FksA mUgsa egkiafMr dgk tkrk FkkA lu~ 1963 esa mudk nsgkar gks x;kA
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u us miU;kl] dgkuh] vkRedFkk] ;k=kko`Ùk] thouh]
vkykspuk] 'kksèk vkfn vusd foèkkvksa esa lkfgR;&l`tu fd;kA bruk gh
ugha mUgksaus vusd xzaFkksa dk fganh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;kA esjh thou ;k=kk
(Ng Hkkx)] n'kZu&fnXn'kZu] ckbloha lnh] oksYxk ls xaxk] Hkkxks
ugha nqfu;k dks cnyks] fnekxh xqykeh] ?kqEkDdM+ 'kkL=k mudh
izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaA lkfgR; osQ vykok n'kZu] jktuhfr] èkeZ] bfrgkl]
foKku vkfn fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij jkgqy th }kjk jfpr iqLrdksa dh la[;k
yxHkx 150 gSA jkgqy th us cgqr lh yqIrizk; lkexzh dk m¼kj dj
vR;ar egRoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;k gSA
;k=kko`Ùk ys[ku esa jkgqy th dk LFkku vU;re gSA mUgksaus ?kqeDdM+h
dk 'kkL=k jpk vkSj mlls gksus okys ykHkksa dk foLrkj ls o.kZu djrs gq,
eaf”ky osQ LFkku ij ;k=kk dks gh ?kqeDdM+ dk mís'; crk;kA ?kqeDdM+h
Page 2


jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1893 esa muosQ ufugky xk¡o iangk]
f”kyk vk”kex<+ (mÙkj izns'k) eas gqvkA mudk iSr`d xk¡o duSyk FkkA
mudk ewy uke osQnkj ikaMs; FkkA mudh f'k{kk dk'kh] vkxjk vkSj ykgkSj
esa gqbZA lu~ 1930 esa mUgksaus Jhyadk tkdj ckS¼ èkeZ xzg.k dj fy;kA
rcls mudk uke jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u gks x;kA jkgqy th ikfy] izkÑr]
viHkza'k] frCcrh] phuh] tkikuh] :lh lfgr vusd Hkk"kkvksa osQ tkudkj
FksA mUgsa egkiafMr dgk tkrk FkkA lu~ 1963 esa mudk nsgkar gks x;kA
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u us miU;kl] dgkuh] vkRedFkk] ;k=kko`Ùk] thouh]
vkykspuk] 'kksèk vkfn vusd foèkkvksa esa lkfgR;&l`tu fd;kA bruk gh
ugha mUgksaus vusd xzaFkksa dk fganh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;kA esjh thou ;k=kk
(Ng Hkkx)] n'kZu&fnXn'kZu] ckbloha lnh] oksYxk ls xaxk] Hkkxks
ugha nqfu;k dks cnyks] fnekxh xqykeh] ?kqEkDdM+ 'kkL=k mudh
izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaA lkfgR; osQ vykok n'kZu] jktuhfr] èkeZ] bfrgkl]
foKku vkfn fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij jkgqy th }kjk jfpr iqLrdksa dh la[;k
yxHkx 150 gSA jkgqy th us cgqr lh yqIrizk; lkexzh dk m¼kj dj
vR;ar egRoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;k gSA
;k=kko`Ùk ys[ku esa jkgqy th dk LFkku vU;re gSA mUgksaus ?kqeDdM+h
dk 'kkL=k jpk vkSj mlls gksus okys ykHkksa dk foLrkj ls o.kZu djrs gq,
eaf”ky osQ LFkku ij ;k=kk dks gh ?kqeDdM+ dk mís'; crk;kA ?kqeDdM+h
24@f{kfrt
ls euksjatu] KkuoèkZu ,oa vKkr LFkyksa dh tkudkjh osQ lkFk&lkFk
Hkk"kk ,oa laLÑfr dk Hkh vknku&iznku gksrk gSA jkgqy th us fofHkUu
LFkkuksa osQ HkkSxksfyd o.kZu osQ vfrfjDr ogk¡ osQ tu&thou dh lqanj
>k¡dh izLrqr dh gSA
ladfyr va'k jkgqy th dh izFke frCcr ;k=kk ls fy;k x;k gS tks mUgksaus lu~
1929&30 esa usiky osQ jkLrs dh FkhA ml le; Hkkjrh;ksa dks frCcr ;k=kk dh vuqefr
ugha Fkh] blfy, mUgksaus ;g ;k=kk ,d fHk[keaxs osQ Nn~e os'k esa dh FkhA blesa frCcr
dh jktèkkuh Ygklk dh vksj tkus okys nqxZe jkLrksa dk o.kZu mUgksaus cgqr gh jkspd
'kSyh esa fd;k gSA bl ;k=kk&o`Ùkkar ls gesa ml le; osQ frCcrh lekt osQ ckjs esa
Hkh tkudkjh feyrh gSA
Page 3


jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1893 esa muosQ ufugky xk¡o iangk]
f”kyk vk”kex<+ (mÙkj izns'k) eas gqvkA mudk iSr`d xk¡o duSyk FkkA
mudk ewy uke osQnkj ikaMs; FkkA mudh f'k{kk dk'kh] vkxjk vkSj ykgkSj
esa gqbZA lu~ 1930 esa mUgksaus Jhyadk tkdj ckS¼ èkeZ xzg.k dj fy;kA
rcls mudk uke jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u gks x;kA jkgqy th ikfy] izkÑr]
viHkza'k] frCcrh] phuh] tkikuh] :lh lfgr vusd Hkk"kkvksa osQ tkudkj
FksA mUgsa egkiafMr dgk tkrk FkkA lu~ 1963 esa mudk nsgkar gks x;kA
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u us miU;kl] dgkuh] vkRedFkk] ;k=kko`Ùk] thouh]
vkykspuk] 'kksèk vkfn vusd foèkkvksa esa lkfgR;&l`tu fd;kA bruk gh
ugha mUgksaus vusd xzaFkksa dk fganh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;kA esjh thou ;k=kk
(Ng Hkkx)] n'kZu&fnXn'kZu] ckbloha lnh] oksYxk ls xaxk] Hkkxks
ugha nqfu;k dks cnyks] fnekxh xqykeh] ?kqEkDdM+ 'kkL=k mudh
izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaA lkfgR; osQ vykok n'kZu] jktuhfr] èkeZ] bfrgkl]
foKku vkfn fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij jkgqy th }kjk jfpr iqLrdksa dh la[;k
yxHkx 150 gSA jkgqy th us cgqr lh yqIrizk; lkexzh dk m¼kj dj
vR;ar egRoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;k gSA
;k=kko`Ùk ys[ku esa jkgqy th dk LFkku vU;re gSA mUgksaus ?kqeDdM+h
dk 'kkL=k jpk vkSj mlls gksus okys ykHkksa dk foLrkj ls o.kZu djrs gq,
eaf”ky osQ LFkku ij ;k=kk dks gh ?kqeDdM+ dk mís'; crk;kA ?kqeDdM+h
24@f{kfrt
ls euksjatu] KkuoèkZu ,oa vKkr LFkyksa dh tkudkjh osQ lkFk&lkFk
Hkk"kk ,oa laLÑfr dk Hkh vknku&iznku gksrk gSA jkgqy th us fofHkUu
LFkkuksa osQ HkkSxksfyd o.kZu osQ vfrfjDr ogk¡ osQ tu&thou dh lqanj
>k¡dh izLrqr dh gSA
ladfyr va'k jkgqy th dh izFke frCcr ;k=kk ls fy;k x;k gS tks mUgksaus lu~
1929&30 esa usiky osQ jkLrs dh FkhA ml le; Hkkjrh;ksa dks frCcr ;k=kk dh vuqefr
ugha Fkh] blfy, mUgksaus ;g ;k=kk ,d fHk[keaxs osQ Nn~e os'k esa dh FkhA blesa frCcr
dh jktèkkuh Ygklk dh vksj tkus okys nqxZe jkLrksa dk o.kZu mUgksaus cgqr gh jkspd
'kSyh esa fd;k gSA bl ;k=kk&o`Ùkkar ls gesa ml le; osQ frCcrh lekt osQ ckjs esa
Hkh tkudkjh feyrh gSA
og usiky ls frCcr tkus dk eq[; jkLrk gSA iQjh&dfyÄ~iksÄ~ dk jkLrk tc ugha
[kqyk Fkk] rks usiky gh ugha fganqLrku dh Hkh ph”ksa blh jkLrs frCcr tk;k djrh
FkhaA ;g O;kikfjd gh ugha lSfud jkLrk Hkh Fkk] blhfy, txg&txg I
+
kQkSth
pkSfd;k¡ vkSj fdys cus gq, gSa] ftuesa dHkh phuh iyVu jgk djrh FkhA vktdy
cgqr ls I
+
kQkSth edku fxj pqosQ gSaA nqxZ osQ fdlh Hkkx esa] tgk¡ fdlkuksa us viuk
clsjk cuk fy;k gS] ogk¡ ?kj oqQN vkckn fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA ,slk gh ifjR;Dr ,d
phuh fdyk FkkA ge ogk¡ pk; ihus osQ fy, BgjsA frCcr esa ;kf=k;ksa osQ fy, cgqr
lh rdyhI
+
ksaQ Hkh gSa vkSj oqQN vkjke dh ckrsa HkhA ogk¡ tkfr&ik¡fr] NqvkNwr dk
loky gh ugha gS vkSj u vkSjrsa ijnk gh djrh gSaA cgqr fuEuJs.kh osQ fHk[keaxksa dks
yksx pksjh osQ Mj ls ?kj osQ Hkhrj ugha vkus nsrs_ ugha rks vki fcyoqQy ?kj osQ
Hkhrj pys tk ldrs gSaA pkgs vki fcyoqQy vifjfpr gksa] rc Hkh ?kj dh cgw ;k
lklq dks viuh >ksyh esa ls pk; ns ldrs gSaA og vkiosQ fy, mls idk nsxhA
eD[ku vkSj lksMk&ued ns nhft,] og pk; pksÄh esa owQVdj mls nwèkokyh pk;
osQ jax dh cuk osQ fe^h osQ VksVhnkj cjru ([kksVh) esa j[kosQ vkidks ns nsxhA ;fn
cSBd dh txg pwYgs ls nwj gS vkSj vkidks Mj gS fd lkjk eD[ku vkidh pk;
esa ugha iM+sxk] rks vki [kqn tkdj pksÄh esa pk; eFkdj yk ldrs gSaA pk; dk jax
rS;kj gks tkus ij fiQj ued&eD[ku Mkyus dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
Ygklk dh vksj
Page 4


jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1893 esa muosQ ufugky xk¡o iangk]
f”kyk vk”kex<+ (mÙkj izns'k) eas gqvkA mudk iSr`d xk¡o duSyk FkkA
mudk ewy uke osQnkj ikaMs; FkkA mudh f'k{kk dk'kh] vkxjk vkSj ykgkSj
esa gqbZA lu~ 1930 esa mUgksaus Jhyadk tkdj ckS¼ èkeZ xzg.k dj fy;kA
rcls mudk uke jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u gks x;kA jkgqy th ikfy] izkÑr]
viHkza'k] frCcrh] phuh] tkikuh] :lh lfgr vusd Hkk"kkvksa osQ tkudkj
FksA mUgsa egkiafMr dgk tkrk FkkA lu~ 1963 esa mudk nsgkar gks x;kA
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u us miU;kl] dgkuh] vkRedFkk] ;k=kko`Ùk] thouh]
vkykspuk] 'kksèk vkfn vusd foèkkvksa esa lkfgR;&l`tu fd;kA bruk gh
ugha mUgksaus vusd xzaFkksa dk fganh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;kA esjh thou ;k=kk
(Ng Hkkx)] n'kZu&fnXn'kZu] ckbloha lnh] oksYxk ls xaxk] Hkkxks
ugha nqfu;k dks cnyks] fnekxh xqykeh] ?kqEkDdM+ 'kkL=k mudh
izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaA lkfgR; osQ vykok n'kZu] jktuhfr] èkeZ] bfrgkl]
foKku vkfn fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij jkgqy th }kjk jfpr iqLrdksa dh la[;k
yxHkx 150 gSA jkgqy th us cgqr lh yqIrizk; lkexzh dk m¼kj dj
vR;ar egRoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;k gSA
;k=kko`Ùk ys[ku esa jkgqy th dk LFkku vU;re gSA mUgksaus ?kqeDdM+h
dk 'kkL=k jpk vkSj mlls gksus okys ykHkksa dk foLrkj ls o.kZu djrs gq,
eaf”ky osQ LFkku ij ;k=kk dks gh ?kqeDdM+ dk mís'; crk;kA ?kqeDdM+h
24@f{kfrt
ls euksjatu] KkuoèkZu ,oa vKkr LFkyksa dh tkudkjh osQ lkFk&lkFk
Hkk"kk ,oa laLÑfr dk Hkh vknku&iznku gksrk gSA jkgqy th us fofHkUu
LFkkuksa osQ HkkSxksfyd o.kZu osQ vfrfjDr ogk¡ osQ tu&thou dh lqanj
>k¡dh izLrqr dh gSA
ladfyr va'k jkgqy th dh izFke frCcr ;k=kk ls fy;k x;k gS tks mUgksaus lu~
1929&30 esa usiky osQ jkLrs dh FkhA ml le; Hkkjrh;ksa dks frCcr ;k=kk dh vuqefr
ugha Fkh] blfy, mUgksaus ;g ;k=kk ,d fHk[keaxs osQ Nn~e os'k esa dh FkhA blesa frCcr
dh jktèkkuh Ygklk dh vksj tkus okys nqxZe jkLrksa dk o.kZu mUgksaus cgqr gh jkspd
'kSyh esa fd;k gSA bl ;k=kk&o`Ùkkar ls gesa ml le; osQ frCcrh lekt osQ ckjs esa
Hkh tkudkjh feyrh gSA
og usiky ls frCcr tkus dk eq[; jkLrk gSA iQjh&dfyÄ~iksÄ~ dk jkLrk tc ugha
[kqyk Fkk] rks usiky gh ugha fganqLrku dh Hkh ph”ksa blh jkLrs frCcr tk;k djrh
FkhaA ;g O;kikfjd gh ugha lSfud jkLrk Hkh Fkk] blhfy, txg&txg I
+
kQkSth
pkSfd;k¡ vkSj fdys cus gq, gSa] ftuesa dHkh phuh iyVu jgk djrh FkhA vktdy
cgqr ls I
+
kQkSth edku fxj pqosQ gSaA nqxZ osQ fdlh Hkkx esa] tgk¡ fdlkuksa us viuk
clsjk cuk fy;k gS] ogk¡ ?kj oqQN vkckn fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA ,slk gh ifjR;Dr ,d
phuh fdyk FkkA ge ogk¡ pk; ihus osQ fy, BgjsA frCcr esa ;kf=k;ksa osQ fy, cgqr
lh rdyhI
+
ksaQ Hkh gSa vkSj oqQN vkjke dh ckrsa HkhA ogk¡ tkfr&ik¡fr] NqvkNwr dk
loky gh ugha gS vkSj u vkSjrsa ijnk gh djrh gSaA cgqr fuEuJs.kh osQ fHk[keaxksa dks
yksx pksjh osQ Mj ls ?kj osQ Hkhrj ugha vkus nsrs_ ugha rks vki fcyoqQy ?kj osQ
Hkhrj pys tk ldrs gSaA pkgs vki fcyoqQy vifjfpr gksa] rc Hkh ?kj dh cgw ;k
lklq dks viuh >ksyh esa ls pk; ns ldrs gSaA og vkiosQ fy, mls idk nsxhA
eD[ku vkSj lksMk&ued ns nhft,] og pk; pksÄh esa owQVdj mls nwèkokyh pk;
osQ jax dh cuk osQ fe^h osQ VksVhnkj cjru ([kksVh) esa j[kosQ vkidks ns nsxhA ;fn
cSBd dh txg pwYgs ls nwj gS vkSj vkidks Mj gS fd lkjk eD[ku vkidh pk;
esa ugha iM+sxk] rks vki [kqn tkdj pksÄh esa pk; eFkdj yk ldrs gSaA pk; dk jax
rS;kj gks tkus ij fiQj ued&eD[ku Mkyus dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
Ygklk dh vksj
26@f{kfrt
ifjR;Dr phuh fdys ls tc ge pyus yxs] rks ,d vkneh jkgnkjh ek¡xus
vk;kA geus og nksuksa fpVsa mls ns nhaA 'kk;n mlh fnu ge FkksÄ~yk osQ igys osQ
vkf[kjh xk¡o esa igq¡p x,A ;gk¡ Hkh lqefr osQ tku&igpku osQ vkneh Fks vkSj
fHk[keaxss jgrs Hkh Bgjus osQ fy, vPNh txg feyhA ik¡p lky ckn ge blh jkLrs
ykSVs Fks vkSj fHk[keaxs ugha] ,d Hknz ;k=kh osQ os'k esa ?kksM+ksa ij lokj gksdj vk, Fks_
foaQrq ml oDr fdlh us gesa jgus osQ fy, txg ugha nh] vkSj ge xk¡o osQ ,d
lcls xjhc >ksiM+s esa Bgjs FksA cgqr oqQN yksxksa dh ml oDr dh eukso`fÙk ij gh
fuHkZj gS] [kkldj 'kke osQ oDr NÄ~ ihdj cgqr de gks'k&gokl dks nq#Lr j[krs
gSaA
vc gesa lcls fodV Mk¡M+k FkksÄ~yk ikj djuk FkkA Mk¡M+s frCcr esa lcls [krjs
dh txgsa gSaA lksyg&l=kg g”kkj iQhV dh mQ¡pkbZ gksus osQ dkj.k muosQ nksuksa rjI
+
kQ
ehyksa rd dksbZ xk¡o&fxjk¡o ugha gksrsA ufn;ksa osQ eksM+ vkSj igkM+ksa osQ dksuksa osQ
dkj.k cgqr nwj rd vkneh dks ns[kk ugha tk ldrkA MkoqQvksa osQ fy, ;gh lcls
vPNh txg gSA frCcr esa xk¡o esa vkdj [kwu gks tk,] rc rks [kwuh dks l”kk Hkh
fey ldrh gS] ysfdu bu futZu LFkkuksa esa ejs gq, vknfe;ksa osQ fy, dksbZ ijokg
ugha djrkA ljdkj [kqfI
+
kQ;k&foHkkx vkSj iqfyl ij mruk [kpZ ugha djrh vkSj ogk¡
xokg Hkh rks dksbZ ugha fey ldrkA MoSQr ifgys vkneh dks ekj Mkyrs gSa] mlosQ
ckn ns[krs gSa fd oqQN iSlk gS fd ughaA gfFk;kj dk dkuwu u jgus osQ dkj.k ;gk¡
ykBh dh rjg yksx fiLrkSy] canwd fy, fiQjrs gSaA MkowQ ;fn tku ls u ekjs rks
[kqn mls vius izk.kksa dk [krjk gSA xk¡o eas gesa ekywe gqvk fd fiNys gh lky
FkksÄ~yk osQ ikl [kwu gks x;kA 'kk;n [kwu dh ge mruh ijokg ugha djrs] D;ksafd
ge fHk[keaxs Fks vkSj tgk¡&dgha oSlh lwjr ns[krs] Vksih mrkj thHk fudky]
¶oqQph&oqQph (n;k&n;k) ,d iSlk¸ dgrs Hkh[k ek¡xus yxrsA ysfdu igkM+ dh
mQ¡ph p<+kbZ Fkh] ihB ij lkeku ykndj oSQls pyrs\ vkSj vxyk iM+ko 16&17
ehy ls de ugha FkkA eSaus lqefr ls dgk fd ;gk¡ ls yÄ~dksj rd osQ fy, nks ?kksM+s
Page 5


jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1893 esa muosQ ufugky xk¡o iangk]
f”kyk vk”kex<+ (mÙkj izns'k) eas gqvkA mudk iSr`d xk¡o duSyk FkkA
mudk ewy uke osQnkj ikaMs; FkkA mudh f'k{kk dk'kh] vkxjk vkSj ykgkSj
esa gqbZA lu~ 1930 esa mUgksaus Jhyadk tkdj ckS¼ èkeZ xzg.k dj fy;kA
rcls mudk uke jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u gks x;kA jkgqy th ikfy] izkÑr]
viHkza'k] frCcrh] phuh] tkikuh] :lh lfgr vusd Hkk"kkvksa osQ tkudkj
FksA mUgsa egkiafMr dgk tkrk FkkA lu~ 1963 esa mudk nsgkar gks x;kA
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u us miU;kl] dgkuh] vkRedFkk] ;k=kko`Ùk] thouh]
vkykspuk] 'kksèk vkfn vusd foèkkvksa esa lkfgR;&l`tu fd;kA bruk gh
ugha mUgksaus vusd xzaFkksa dk fganh esa vuqokn Hkh fd;kA esjh thou ;k=kk
(Ng Hkkx)] n'kZu&fnXn'kZu] ckbloha lnh] oksYxk ls xaxk] Hkkxks
ugha nqfu;k dks cnyks] fnekxh xqykeh] ?kqEkDdM+ 'kkL=k mudh
izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSaA lkfgR; osQ vykok n'kZu] jktuhfr] èkeZ] bfrgkl]
foKku vkfn fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij jkgqy th }kjk jfpr iqLrdksa dh la[;k
yxHkx 150 gSA jkgqy th us cgqr lh yqIrizk; lkexzh dk m¼kj dj
vR;ar egRoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;k gSA
;k=kko`Ùk ys[ku esa jkgqy th dk LFkku vU;re gSA mUgksaus ?kqeDdM+h
dk 'kkL=k jpk vkSj mlls gksus okys ykHkksa dk foLrkj ls o.kZu djrs gq,
eaf”ky osQ LFkku ij ;k=kk dks gh ?kqeDdM+ dk mís'; crk;kA ?kqeDdM+h
24@f{kfrt
ls euksjatu] KkuoèkZu ,oa vKkr LFkyksa dh tkudkjh osQ lkFk&lkFk
Hkk"kk ,oa laLÑfr dk Hkh vknku&iznku gksrk gSA jkgqy th us fofHkUu
LFkkuksa osQ HkkSxksfyd o.kZu osQ vfrfjDr ogk¡ osQ tu&thou dh lqanj
>k¡dh izLrqr dh gSA
ladfyr va'k jkgqy th dh izFke frCcr ;k=kk ls fy;k x;k gS tks mUgksaus lu~
1929&30 esa usiky osQ jkLrs dh FkhA ml le; Hkkjrh;ksa dks frCcr ;k=kk dh vuqefr
ugha Fkh] blfy, mUgksaus ;g ;k=kk ,d fHk[keaxs osQ Nn~e os'k esa dh FkhA blesa frCcr
dh jktèkkuh Ygklk dh vksj tkus okys nqxZe jkLrksa dk o.kZu mUgksaus cgqr gh jkspd
'kSyh esa fd;k gSA bl ;k=kk&o`Ùkkar ls gesa ml le; osQ frCcrh lekt osQ ckjs esa
Hkh tkudkjh feyrh gSA
og usiky ls frCcr tkus dk eq[; jkLrk gSA iQjh&dfyÄ~iksÄ~ dk jkLrk tc ugha
[kqyk Fkk] rks usiky gh ugha fganqLrku dh Hkh ph”ksa blh jkLrs frCcr tk;k djrh
FkhaA ;g O;kikfjd gh ugha lSfud jkLrk Hkh Fkk] blhfy, txg&txg I
+
kQkSth
pkSfd;k¡ vkSj fdys cus gq, gSa] ftuesa dHkh phuh iyVu jgk djrh FkhA vktdy
cgqr ls I
+
kQkSth edku fxj pqosQ gSaA nqxZ osQ fdlh Hkkx esa] tgk¡ fdlkuksa us viuk
clsjk cuk fy;k gS] ogk¡ ?kj oqQN vkckn fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA ,slk gh ifjR;Dr ,d
phuh fdyk FkkA ge ogk¡ pk; ihus osQ fy, BgjsA frCcr esa ;kf=k;ksa osQ fy, cgqr
lh rdyhI
+
ksaQ Hkh gSa vkSj oqQN vkjke dh ckrsa HkhA ogk¡ tkfr&ik¡fr] NqvkNwr dk
loky gh ugha gS vkSj u vkSjrsa ijnk gh djrh gSaA cgqr fuEuJs.kh osQ fHk[keaxksa dks
yksx pksjh osQ Mj ls ?kj osQ Hkhrj ugha vkus nsrs_ ugha rks vki fcyoqQy ?kj osQ
Hkhrj pys tk ldrs gSaA pkgs vki fcyoqQy vifjfpr gksa] rc Hkh ?kj dh cgw ;k
lklq dks viuh >ksyh esa ls pk; ns ldrs gSaA og vkiosQ fy, mls idk nsxhA
eD[ku vkSj lksMk&ued ns nhft,] og pk; pksÄh esa owQVdj mls nwèkokyh pk;
osQ jax dh cuk osQ fe^h osQ VksVhnkj cjru ([kksVh) esa j[kosQ vkidks ns nsxhA ;fn
cSBd dh txg pwYgs ls nwj gS vkSj vkidks Mj gS fd lkjk eD[ku vkidh pk;
esa ugha iM+sxk] rks vki [kqn tkdj pksÄh esa pk; eFkdj yk ldrs gSaA pk; dk jax
rS;kj gks tkus ij fiQj ued&eD[ku Mkyus dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
Ygklk dh vksj
26@f{kfrt
ifjR;Dr phuh fdys ls tc ge pyus yxs] rks ,d vkneh jkgnkjh ek¡xus
vk;kA geus og nksuksa fpVsa mls ns nhaA 'kk;n mlh fnu ge FkksÄ~yk osQ igys osQ
vkf[kjh xk¡o esa igq¡p x,A ;gk¡ Hkh lqefr osQ tku&igpku osQ vkneh Fks vkSj
fHk[keaxss jgrs Hkh Bgjus osQ fy, vPNh txg feyhA ik¡p lky ckn ge blh jkLrs
ykSVs Fks vkSj fHk[keaxs ugha] ,d Hknz ;k=kh osQ os'k esa ?kksM+ksa ij lokj gksdj vk, Fks_
foaQrq ml oDr fdlh us gesa jgus osQ fy, txg ugha nh] vkSj ge xk¡o osQ ,d
lcls xjhc >ksiM+s esa Bgjs FksA cgqr oqQN yksxksa dh ml oDr dh eukso`fÙk ij gh
fuHkZj gS] [kkldj 'kke osQ oDr NÄ~ ihdj cgqr de gks'k&gokl dks nq#Lr j[krs
gSaA
vc gesa lcls fodV Mk¡M+k FkksÄ~yk ikj djuk FkkA Mk¡M+s frCcr esa lcls [krjs
dh txgsa gSaA lksyg&l=kg g”kkj iQhV dh mQ¡pkbZ gksus osQ dkj.k muosQ nksuksa rjI
+
kQ
ehyksa rd dksbZ xk¡o&fxjk¡o ugha gksrsA ufn;ksa osQ eksM+ vkSj igkM+ksa osQ dksuksa osQ
dkj.k cgqr nwj rd vkneh dks ns[kk ugha tk ldrkA MkoqQvksa osQ fy, ;gh lcls
vPNh txg gSA frCcr esa xk¡o esa vkdj [kwu gks tk,] rc rks [kwuh dks l”kk Hkh
fey ldrh gS] ysfdu bu futZu LFkkuksa esa ejs gq, vknfe;ksa osQ fy, dksbZ ijokg
ugha djrkA ljdkj [kqfI
+
kQ;k&foHkkx vkSj iqfyl ij mruk [kpZ ugha djrh vkSj ogk¡
xokg Hkh rks dksbZ ugha fey ldrkA MoSQr ifgys vkneh dks ekj Mkyrs gSa] mlosQ
ckn ns[krs gSa fd oqQN iSlk gS fd ughaA gfFk;kj dk dkuwu u jgus osQ dkj.k ;gk¡
ykBh dh rjg yksx fiLrkSy] canwd fy, fiQjrs gSaA MkowQ ;fn tku ls u ekjs rks
[kqn mls vius izk.kksa dk [krjk gSA xk¡o eas gesa ekywe gqvk fd fiNys gh lky
FkksÄ~yk osQ ikl [kwu gks x;kA 'kk;n [kwu dh ge mruh ijokg ugha djrs] D;ksafd
ge fHk[keaxs Fks vkSj tgk¡&dgha oSlh lwjr ns[krs] Vksih mrkj thHk fudky]
¶oqQph&oqQph (n;k&n;k) ,d iSlk¸ dgrs Hkh[k ek¡xus yxrsA ysfdu igkM+ dh
mQ¡ph p<+kbZ Fkh] ihB ij lkeku ykndj oSQls pyrs\ vkSj vxyk iM+ko 16&17
ehy ls de ugha FkkA eSaus lqefr ls dgk fd ;gk¡ ls yÄ~dksj rd osQ fy, nks ?kksM+s
jkgqy lkaÑR;k;u@27
dj yks] lkeku Hkh j[k ysaxs vkSj p<+s pysaxsA
nwljs fnu ge ?kksM+ksa ij lokj gksdj mQij dh vksj pysA Mk¡M+s ls ifgys ,d
txg pk; ih vkSj nksigj osQ oDr Mk¡M+s osQ mQij tk igq¡psA ge leqnzry ls
17&18 g”kkj iQhV mQ¡ps [kM+s FksA gekjh nfD[ku rjI
+
kQ iwjc ls ifPNe dh vksj
fgeky; osQ g”kkjksa 'osr f'k[kj pys x, FksA HkhVs dh vksj nh[kus okys igkM+
fcyoqQy uaxs Fks] u ogk¡ cjI
+
kQ dh lI
+
ksQnh Fkh] u fdlh rjg dh gfj;kyhA mÙkj
dh rjI
+
kQ cgqr de cjI
+
kQ okyh pksfV;k¡ fn[kkbZ iM+rh FkhaA loksZPp LFkku ij Mk¡M+s
osQ nsork dk LFkku Fkk] tks iRFkjksa osQ <sj] tkuojksa dh lhaxksa vkSj jax&fcjaxs diM+s
dh >afM;ksa ls ltk;k x;k FkkA vc gesa cjkcj mrjkbZ ij pyuk FkkA p<+kbZ rks
oqQN nwj FkksM+h eqf'dy Fkh] ysfdu mrjkbZ fcyoqQy ughaA 'kk;n nks&,d vkSj
lokj lkFkh gekjs lkFk py jgs FksA esjk ?kksM+k oqQN èkhes pyus yxkA eSaus le>k
fd p<+kbZ dh FkdkoV osQ dkj.k ,slk dj jgk gS] vkSj mls ekjuk ugha pkgrk FkkA
èkhjs&èkhjs og cgqr fiNM+ x;k vkSj eSa nksfUDoDLrks dh rjg vius ?kksM+s ij >werk
gqvk pyk tk jgk FkkA tku ugha iM+rk Fkk fd ?kksM+k vkxs tk jgk gS ;k ihNsA tc
eSa ”kksj nsus yxrk] rks og vkSj lqLr iM+ tkrkA ,d txg nks jkLrs iwQV jgs Fks]
eSa ck,¡ dk jkLrk ys ehy&Ms<+ ehy pyk x;kA vkxs ,d ?kj esa iwNus ls irk yxk
fd yÄ~dksj dk jkLrk nkfgus okyk FkkA fiQj ykSVdj mlh dks idM+kA pkj&ik¡p
cts osQ djhc eSa xk¡o ls ehy&Hkj ij Fkk] rks lqefr bar”kkj djrs gq, feysA
eaxksyksa dk eq¡g oSls gh yky gksrk gS vkSj vc rks og iwjs xqLls esa FksA mUgksaus
dgkµ¶eSaus nks Vksdjh oaQMs iw¡Q Mkys] rhu&rhu ckj pk; dks xje fd;kA¸ eSaus
cgqr ujeh ls tokc fn;kµ¶ysfdu esjk dlwj ugha gS fe=k! ns[k ugha jgs gks]
oSQlk ?kksM+k eq>s feyk gS! eSa rks jkr rd igq¡pus dh mEehn j[krk FkkA¸ [kSj]
lqefr dks ftruh tYnh xqLlk vkrk Fkk] mruh gh tYnh og BaMk Hkh gks tkrk
FkkA yÄ~dksj esa og ,d vPNh txg ij Bgjs FksA ;gk¡ Hkh muosQ vPNs ;teku
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