NCERT Textbook - Rattrap Class 12 Notes | EduRev

English Class 12

Class 12 : NCERT Textbook - Rattrap Class 12 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


32/Flamingo
The Rattrap
About the author
Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940) was a Swedish writer whose
stories have been translated into many languages. A
universal theme runs through all of them — a belief
that the essential goodness in a human being can be
awakened through understanding and love. This story
is set amidst the mines of Sweden, rich in iron ore,
which figure large in the history and legends of that
country. The story is told somewhat in the manner of a
fairy tale.
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
— keep body and soul together — hunger gleamed in his eyes
— plods along the road — unwonted joy
— impenetrable prison — nodded a haughty consent
— eased his way — fallen into a line of thought
— things have gone downhill
Once upon a time there was a man who went around selling
small rattraps of wire. He made them himself at odd
moments, from the material he got by begging in the stores
or at the big farms. But even so, the business was not
especially profitable, so he had to resort to both begging
and petty thievery to keep body and soul together. Even so,
his clothes were in rags, his cheeks were sunken, and
hunger gleamed in his eyes.
No one can imagine how sad and monotonous life can
appear to such a vagabond, who plods along the road, left
to his own meditations. But one day this man had fallen
into a line of thought, which really seemed to him
entertaining. He had naturally been thinking of his rattraps
when suddenly he was struck by the idea that the whole
4 4 4 4 4
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


32/Flamingo
The Rattrap
About the author
Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940) was a Swedish writer whose
stories have been translated into many languages. A
universal theme runs through all of them — a belief
that the essential goodness in a human being can be
awakened through understanding and love. This story
is set amidst the mines of Sweden, rich in iron ore,
which figure large in the history and legends of that
country. The story is told somewhat in the manner of a
fairy tale.
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
— keep body and soul together — hunger gleamed in his eyes
— plods along the road — unwonted joy
— impenetrable prison — nodded a haughty consent
— eased his way — fallen into a line of thought
— things have gone downhill
Once upon a time there was a man who went around selling
small rattraps of wire. He made them himself at odd
moments, from the material he got by begging in the stores
or at the big farms. But even so, the business was not
especially profitable, so he had to resort to both begging
and petty thievery to keep body and soul together. Even so,
his clothes were in rags, his cheeks were sunken, and
hunger gleamed in his eyes.
No one can imagine how sad and monotonous life can
appear to such a vagabond, who plods along the road, left
to his own meditations. But one day this man had fallen
into a line of thought, which really seemed to him
entertaining. He had naturally been thinking of his rattraps
when suddenly he was struck by the idea that the whole
4 4 4 4 4
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
The Rattrap/33
world about him — the whole world with its lands and
seas, its cities and villages — was nothing but a big rattrap.
It had never existed for any other purpose than to set baits
for people. It offered riches and joys, shelter and food, heat
and clothing, exactly as the rattrap offered cheese and
pork, and as soon as anyone let himself be tempted to
touch the bait, it closed in on him, and then everything
came to an end.
The world had, of course, never been very kind to him,
so it gave him unwonted joy to think ill of it in this way. It
became a cherished pastime of his, during many dreary
ploddings, to think of people he knew who had let
themselves be caught in the dangerous snare, and of others
who were still circling around the bait.
One dark evening as he was trudging along the road
he caught sight of a little gray cottage by the roadside, and
he knocked on the door to ask shelter for the night. Nor
was he refused. Instead of the sour faces which ordinarily
met him, the owner, who was an old man without wife or
child, was happy to get someone to talk to in his loneliness.
Immediately he put the porridge pot on the fire and gave
him supper; then he carved off such a big slice from his
tobacco roll that it was enough both for the stranger’s pipe
and his own. Finally he got out an old pack of cards and
played ‘mjolis’ with his guest until bedtime.
The old man was just as generous with his confidences
as with his porridge and tobacco. The guest was informed
at once that in his days of prosperity his host had been a
crofter at Ramsjo Ironworks and had worked on the land.
Now that he was no longer able to do day labour, it was his
cow which supported him. Yes, that bossy was
extraordinary. She could give milk for the creamery every
day, and last month he had received all of thirty kronor in
payment.
The stranger must have seemed incredulous, for the
old man got up and went to the window, took down a leather
pouch which hung on a nail in the very window frame, and
picked out three wrinkled ten-kronor bills. These he held
up before the eyes of his guest, nodding knowingly, and
..
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


32/Flamingo
The Rattrap
About the author
Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940) was a Swedish writer whose
stories have been translated into many languages. A
universal theme runs through all of them — a belief
that the essential goodness in a human being can be
awakened through understanding and love. This story
is set amidst the mines of Sweden, rich in iron ore,
which figure large in the history and legends of that
country. The story is told somewhat in the manner of a
fairy tale.
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
— keep body and soul together — hunger gleamed in his eyes
— plods along the road — unwonted joy
— impenetrable prison — nodded a haughty consent
— eased his way — fallen into a line of thought
— things have gone downhill
Once upon a time there was a man who went around selling
small rattraps of wire. He made them himself at odd
moments, from the material he got by begging in the stores
or at the big farms. But even so, the business was not
especially profitable, so he had to resort to both begging
and petty thievery to keep body and soul together. Even so,
his clothes were in rags, his cheeks were sunken, and
hunger gleamed in his eyes.
No one can imagine how sad and monotonous life can
appear to such a vagabond, who plods along the road, left
to his own meditations. But one day this man had fallen
into a line of thought, which really seemed to him
entertaining. He had naturally been thinking of his rattraps
when suddenly he was struck by the idea that the whole
4 4 4 4 4
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
The Rattrap/33
world about him — the whole world with its lands and
seas, its cities and villages — was nothing but a big rattrap.
It had never existed for any other purpose than to set baits
for people. It offered riches and joys, shelter and food, heat
and clothing, exactly as the rattrap offered cheese and
pork, and as soon as anyone let himself be tempted to
touch the bait, it closed in on him, and then everything
came to an end.
The world had, of course, never been very kind to him,
so it gave him unwonted joy to think ill of it in this way. It
became a cherished pastime of his, during many dreary
ploddings, to think of people he knew who had let
themselves be caught in the dangerous snare, and of others
who were still circling around the bait.
One dark evening as he was trudging along the road
he caught sight of a little gray cottage by the roadside, and
he knocked on the door to ask shelter for the night. Nor
was he refused. Instead of the sour faces which ordinarily
met him, the owner, who was an old man without wife or
child, was happy to get someone to talk to in his loneliness.
Immediately he put the porridge pot on the fire and gave
him supper; then he carved off such a big slice from his
tobacco roll that it was enough both for the stranger’s pipe
and his own. Finally he got out an old pack of cards and
played ‘mjolis’ with his guest until bedtime.
The old man was just as generous with his confidences
as with his porridge and tobacco. The guest was informed
at once that in his days of prosperity his host had been a
crofter at Ramsjo Ironworks and had worked on the land.
Now that he was no longer able to do day labour, it was his
cow which supported him. Yes, that bossy was
extraordinary. She could give milk for the creamery every
day, and last month he had received all of thirty kronor in
payment.
The stranger must have seemed incredulous, for the
old man got up and went to the window, took down a leather
pouch which hung on a nail in the very window frame, and
picked out three wrinkled ten-kronor bills. These he held
up before the eyes of his guest, nodding knowingly, and
..
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
34/Flamingo
then stuffed them back into the
pouch.
The next day both men got up
in good season. The crofter was in
a hurry to milk his cow, and the
other man probably thought he
should not stay in bed when the
head of the house had gotten up.
They left the cottage at the same
time. The crofter locked the door
and put the key in his pocket. The
man with the rattraps said good
bye and thank you, and thereupon
each went his own way.
But half an hour later the
rattrap peddler stood again before
the door. He did not try to get in,
however. He only went up to the window, smashed a pane,
stuck in his hand, and got hold of the pouch with the
thirty kronor. He took the money and thrust it into his
own pocket. Then he hung the leather pouch very carefully
back in its place and went away.
 As he walked along with the money in his pocket he
felt quite pleased with his smartness. He realised, of course,
that at first he dared not continue on the public highway,
but must turn off the road, into the woods. During the
first hours this caused him no difficulty. Later in the day
it became worse, for it was a big and confusing forest which
he had gotten into. He tried, to be sure, to walk in a definite
direction, but the paths twisted back and forth so strangely!
He walked and walked without coming to the end of the
wood, and finally he realised that he had only been walking
around in the same part of the forest. All at once he recalled
his thoughts about the world and the rattrap. Now his
own turn had come. He had let himself be fooled by a bait
and had been caught. The whole forest, with its trunks
and branches, its thickets and fallen logs, closed in upon
him like an impenetrable prison from which he could
never escape.
1 1 1 1 1. From where did the peddler get
the idea of the world being a
rattrap?
2 2 2 2 2. Why was he amused by this
idea?
3 3 3 3 3. Did the peddler expect the kind
of hospitality that he received
from the crofter?
4 4 4 4 4. Why was the crofter so talkative
and friendly with the peddler?
5 5 5 5 5. Why did he show the thirty
kroner to the peddler?
6 6 6 6 6. Did the peddler respect the
confidence reposed in him by
the crofter?
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


32/Flamingo
The Rattrap
About the author
Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940) was a Swedish writer whose
stories have been translated into many languages. A
universal theme runs through all of them — a belief
that the essential goodness in a human being can be
awakened through understanding and love. This story
is set amidst the mines of Sweden, rich in iron ore,
which figure large in the history and legends of that
country. The story is told somewhat in the manner of a
fairy tale.
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
— keep body and soul together — hunger gleamed in his eyes
— plods along the road — unwonted joy
— impenetrable prison — nodded a haughty consent
— eased his way — fallen into a line of thought
— things have gone downhill
Once upon a time there was a man who went around selling
small rattraps of wire. He made them himself at odd
moments, from the material he got by begging in the stores
or at the big farms. But even so, the business was not
especially profitable, so he had to resort to both begging
and petty thievery to keep body and soul together. Even so,
his clothes were in rags, his cheeks were sunken, and
hunger gleamed in his eyes.
No one can imagine how sad and monotonous life can
appear to such a vagabond, who plods along the road, left
to his own meditations. But one day this man had fallen
into a line of thought, which really seemed to him
entertaining. He had naturally been thinking of his rattraps
when suddenly he was struck by the idea that the whole
4 4 4 4 4
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
The Rattrap/33
world about him — the whole world with its lands and
seas, its cities and villages — was nothing but a big rattrap.
It had never existed for any other purpose than to set baits
for people. It offered riches and joys, shelter and food, heat
and clothing, exactly as the rattrap offered cheese and
pork, and as soon as anyone let himself be tempted to
touch the bait, it closed in on him, and then everything
came to an end.
The world had, of course, never been very kind to him,
so it gave him unwonted joy to think ill of it in this way. It
became a cherished pastime of his, during many dreary
ploddings, to think of people he knew who had let
themselves be caught in the dangerous snare, and of others
who were still circling around the bait.
One dark evening as he was trudging along the road
he caught sight of a little gray cottage by the roadside, and
he knocked on the door to ask shelter for the night. Nor
was he refused. Instead of the sour faces which ordinarily
met him, the owner, who was an old man without wife or
child, was happy to get someone to talk to in his loneliness.
Immediately he put the porridge pot on the fire and gave
him supper; then he carved off such a big slice from his
tobacco roll that it was enough both for the stranger’s pipe
and his own. Finally he got out an old pack of cards and
played ‘mjolis’ with his guest until bedtime.
The old man was just as generous with his confidences
as with his porridge and tobacco. The guest was informed
at once that in his days of prosperity his host had been a
crofter at Ramsjo Ironworks and had worked on the land.
Now that he was no longer able to do day labour, it was his
cow which supported him. Yes, that bossy was
extraordinary. She could give milk for the creamery every
day, and last month he had received all of thirty kronor in
payment.
The stranger must have seemed incredulous, for the
old man got up and went to the window, took down a leather
pouch which hung on a nail in the very window frame, and
picked out three wrinkled ten-kronor bills. These he held
up before the eyes of his guest, nodding knowingly, and
..
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
34/Flamingo
then stuffed them back into the
pouch.
The next day both men got up
in good season. The crofter was in
a hurry to milk his cow, and the
other man probably thought he
should not stay in bed when the
head of the house had gotten up.
They left the cottage at the same
time. The crofter locked the door
and put the key in his pocket. The
man with the rattraps said good
bye and thank you, and thereupon
each went his own way.
But half an hour later the
rattrap peddler stood again before
the door. He did not try to get in,
however. He only went up to the window, smashed a pane,
stuck in his hand, and got hold of the pouch with the
thirty kronor. He took the money and thrust it into his
own pocket. Then he hung the leather pouch very carefully
back in its place and went away.
 As he walked along with the money in his pocket he
felt quite pleased with his smartness. He realised, of course,
that at first he dared not continue on the public highway,
but must turn off the road, into the woods. During the
first hours this caused him no difficulty. Later in the day
it became worse, for it was a big and confusing forest which
he had gotten into. He tried, to be sure, to walk in a definite
direction, but the paths twisted back and forth so strangely!
He walked and walked without coming to the end of the
wood, and finally he realised that he had only been walking
around in the same part of the forest. All at once he recalled
his thoughts about the world and the rattrap. Now his
own turn had come. He had let himself be fooled by a bait
and had been caught. The whole forest, with its trunks
and branches, its thickets and fallen logs, closed in upon
him like an impenetrable prison from which he could
never escape.
1 1 1 1 1. From where did the peddler get
the idea of the world being a
rattrap?
2 2 2 2 2. Why was he amused by this
idea?
3 3 3 3 3. Did the peddler expect the kind
of hospitality that he received
from the crofter?
4 4 4 4 4. Why was the crofter so talkative
and friendly with the peddler?
5 5 5 5 5. Why did he show the thirty
kroner to the peddler?
6 6 6 6 6. Did the peddler respect the
confidence reposed in him by
the crofter?
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
The Rattrap/35
It was late in December. Darkness was already
descending over the forest. This increased the danger, and
increased also his gloom and despair. Finally he saw no
way out, and he sank down on the ground, tired to death,
thinking that his last moment had come. But just as he
laid his head on the ground, he heard a sound—a hard
regular thumping. There was no doubt as to what that
was. He raised himself. ‘‘Those are the hammer strokes
from an iron mill’’, he thought. ‘‘There must be people near
by’’. He summoned all his strength, got up, and staggered
in the direction of the sound.
The Ramsjo Ironworks, which are now closed down,
were, not so long ago, a large plant, with smelter, rolling
mill, and forge. In the summertime long lines of heavily
loaded barges and scows slid down the canal, which led to
a large inland lake, and in the wintertime the roads near
the mill were black from all the coal dust which sifted
down from the big charcoal crates.
During one of the long dark evenings just before
Christmas, the master smith and his helper sat in the
dark forge near the furnace waiting for the pig iron, which
had been put in the fire, to be ready to put on the anvil.
Every now and then one of them got up to stir the glowing
mass with a long iron bar, returning in a few moments,
dripping with perspiration, though, as was the custom, he
wore nothing but a long shirt and a pair of wooden shoes.
All the time there were many sounds to be heard in
the forge. The big bellows groaned and the burning coal
cracked. The fire boy shovelled charcoal into the maw of
the furnace with a great deal of clatter. Outside roared the
waterfall, and a sharp north wind whipped the rain against
the brick-tiled roof.
It was probably on account of all this noise that the
blacksmith did not notice that a man had opened the gate
and entered the forge, until he stood close up to the furnace.
Surely it was nothing unusual for poor vagabonds
without any better shelter for the night to be attracted to
the forge by the glow of light which escaped through the
sooty panes, and to come in to warm themselves in front of
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


32/Flamingo
The Rattrap
About the author
Selma Lagerlof (1858-1940) was a Swedish writer whose
stories have been translated into many languages. A
universal theme runs through all of them — a belief
that the essential goodness in a human being can be
awakened through understanding and love. This story
is set amidst the mines of Sweden, rich in iron ore,
which figure large in the history and legends of that
country. The story is told somewhat in the manner of a
fairy tale.
Notice these expressions in the text.
Infer their meaning from the context.
— keep body and soul together — hunger gleamed in his eyes
— plods along the road — unwonted joy
— impenetrable prison — nodded a haughty consent
— eased his way — fallen into a line of thought
— things have gone downhill
Once upon a time there was a man who went around selling
small rattraps of wire. He made them himself at odd
moments, from the material he got by begging in the stores
or at the big farms. But even so, the business was not
especially profitable, so he had to resort to both begging
and petty thievery to keep body and soul together. Even so,
his clothes were in rags, his cheeks were sunken, and
hunger gleamed in his eyes.
No one can imagine how sad and monotonous life can
appear to such a vagabond, who plods along the road, left
to his own meditations. But one day this man had fallen
into a line of thought, which really seemed to him
entertaining. He had naturally been thinking of his rattraps
when suddenly he was struck by the idea that the whole
4 4 4 4 4
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
The Rattrap/33
world about him — the whole world with its lands and
seas, its cities and villages — was nothing but a big rattrap.
It had never existed for any other purpose than to set baits
for people. It offered riches and joys, shelter and food, heat
and clothing, exactly as the rattrap offered cheese and
pork, and as soon as anyone let himself be tempted to
touch the bait, it closed in on him, and then everything
came to an end.
The world had, of course, never been very kind to him,
so it gave him unwonted joy to think ill of it in this way. It
became a cherished pastime of his, during many dreary
ploddings, to think of people he knew who had let
themselves be caught in the dangerous snare, and of others
who were still circling around the bait.
One dark evening as he was trudging along the road
he caught sight of a little gray cottage by the roadside, and
he knocked on the door to ask shelter for the night. Nor
was he refused. Instead of the sour faces which ordinarily
met him, the owner, who was an old man without wife or
child, was happy to get someone to talk to in his loneliness.
Immediately he put the porridge pot on the fire and gave
him supper; then he carved off such a big slice from his
tobacco roll that it was enough both for the stranger’s pipe
and his own. Finally he got out an old pack of cards and
played ‘mjolis’ with his guest until bedtime.
The old man was just as generous with his confidences
as with his porridge and tobacco. The guest was informed
at once that in his days of prosperity his host had been a
crofter at Ramsjo Ironworks and had worked on the land.
Now that he was no longer able to do day labour, it was his
cow which supported him. Yes, that bossy was
extraordinary. She could give milk for the creamery every
day, and last month he had received all of thirty kronor in
payment.
The stranger must have seemed incredulous, for the
old man got up and went to the window, took down a leather
pouch which hung on a nail in the very window frame, and
picked out three wrinkled ten-kronor bills. These he held
up before the eyes of his guest, nodding knowingly, and
..
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
34/Flamingo
then stuffed them back into the
pouch.
The next day both men got up
in good season. The crofter was in
a hurry to milk his cow, and the
other man probably thought he
should not stay in bed when the
head of the house had gotten up.
They left the cottage at the same
time. The crofter locked the door
and put the key in his pocket. The
man with the rattraps said good
bye and thank you, and thereupon
each went his own way.
But half an hour later the
rattrap peddler stood again before
the door. He did not try to get in,
however. He only went up to the window, smashed a pane,
stuck in his hand, and got hold of the pouch with the
thirty kronor. He took the money and thrust it into his
own pocket. Then he hung the leather pouch very carefully
back in its place and went away.
 As he walked along with the money in his pocket he
felt quite pleased with his smartness. He realised, of course,
that at first he dared not continue on the public highway,
but must turn off the road, into the woods. During the
first hours this caused him no difficulty. Later in the day
it became worse, for it was a big and confusing forest which
he had gotten into. He tried, to be sure, to walk in a definite
direction, but the paths twisted back and forth so strangely!
He walked and walked without coming to the end of the
wood, and finally he realised that he had only been walking
around in the same part of the forest. All at once he recalled
his thoughts about the world and the rattrap. Now his
own turn had come. He had let himself be fooled by a bait
and had been caught. The whole forest, with its trunks
and branches, its thickets and fallen logs, closed in upon
him like an impenetrable prison from which he could
never escape.
1 1 1 1 1. From where did the peddler get
the idea of the world being a
rattrap?
2 2 2 2 2. Why was he amused by this
idea?
3 3 3 3 3. Did the peddler expect the kind
of hospitality that he received
from the crofter?
4 4 4 4 4. Why was the crofter so talkative
and friendly with the peddler?
5 5 5 5 5. Why did he show the thirty
kroner to the peddler?
6 6 6 6 6. Did the peddler respect the
confidence reposed in him by
the crofter?
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
The Rattrap/35
It was late in December. Darkness was already
descending over the forest. This increased the danger, and
increased also his gloom and despair. Finally he saw no
way out, and he sank down on the ground, tired to death,
thinking that his last moment had come. But just as he
laid his head on the ground, he heard a sound—a hard
regular thumping. There was no doubt as to what that
was. He raised himself. ‘‘Those are the hammer strokes
from an iron mill’’, he thought. ‘‘There must be people near
by’’. He summoned all his strength, got up, and staggered
in the direction of the sound.
The Ramsjo Ironworks, which are now closed down,
were, not so long ago, a large plant, with smelter, rolling
mill, and forge. In the summertime long lines of heavily
loaded barges and scows slid down the canal, which led to
a large inland lake, and in the wintertime the roads near
the mill were black from all the coal dust which sifted
down from the big charcoal crates.
During one of the long dark evenings just before
Christmas, the master smith and his helper sat in the
dark forge near the furnace waiting for the pig iron, which
had been put in the fire, to be ready to put on the anvil.
Every now and then one of them got up to stir the glowing
mass with a long iron bar, returning in a few moments,
dripping with perspiration, though, as was the custom, he
wore nothing but a long shirt and a pair of wooden shoes.
All the time there were many sounds to be heard in
the forge. The big bellows groaned and the burning coal
cracked. The fire boy shovelled charcoal into the maw of
the furnace with a great deal of clatter. Outside roared the
waterfall, and a sharp north wind whipped the rain against
the brick-tiled roof.
It was probably on account of all this noise that the
blacksmith did not notice that a man had opened the gate
and entered the forge, until he stood close up to the furnace.
Surely it was nothing unusual for poor vagabonds
without any better shelter for the night to be attracted to
the forge by the glow of light which escaped through the
sooty panes, and to come in to warm themselves in front of
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
36/Flamingo
the fire. The blacksmiths glanced only casually and
indifferently at the intruder. He looked the way people of
his type usually did, with a long beard, dirty, ragged, and
with a bunch of rattraps dangling on his chest.
He asked permission to stay, and the master blacksmith
nodded a haughty consent without honouring him with a
single word.
The tramp did not say anything, either. He had not
come there to talk but only to warm himself and sleep.
In those days the Ramsjo iron mill was owned by a
very prominent ironmaster, whose greatest ambition was
to ship out good iron to the market. He watched both night
and day to see that the work was done as well as possible,
and at this very moment he came into the forge on one of
his nightly rounds of inspection.
Naturally the first thing he saw was the tall ragamuffin
who had eased his way so close to the furnace that steam
rose from his wet rags. The ironmaster did not follow the
example of the blacksmiths, who had hardly deigned to
look at the stranger. He walked close up to him, looked
him over very carefully, then tore off his slouch hat to get
a better view of his face.
‘‘But of course it is you, Nils Olof!’’ he said. “How you
do look!”
The man with the rattraps had never before seen the
ironmaster at Ramsjo and did not even know what his
name was. But it occurred to him that if the fine gentleman
thought he was an old acquaintance, he might perhaps
throw him a couple of kronor. Therefore he did not want to
undeceive him all at once.
‘‘Yes, God knows things have gone downhill with me’’,
he said.
‘‘You should not have resigned from the regiment’’, said
the ironmaster. ‘‘That was the mistake. If only I had still
been in the service at the time, it never would have happened.
Well, now of course you will come home with me.’’
To go along up to the manor house and be received by
the owner like an old regimental comrade — that, however,
did not please the tramp.
..
..
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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