NCERT Textbook - Balmukund Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Created by: Anant Ahuja

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Balmukund Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


44/vkjksg
tks fy[kuk Fkk] og fy[kk x;kA vc [kqyklk ckr ;g gS
fd ,d ckj ^'kks* vkSj ^M~;wVh* dk eqdkfcyk dhft,A
(f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s)
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr
tUe% lu~~ 1865] xzke xqfM+;kuh] f”kyk jksgrd
(gfj;k.kk)
izeq[k laiknu % v[kckj&,&pqukj] fganqLrku]
fganh caxoklh] Hkkjrfe=k vkfn
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s] fp_s vkSj
[kr] [ksy rek'kk
e`R;q % lu~~ 1907
xqIr th dh vkjafHkd f'k{kk mnwZ esa gqbZA ckn esa
mUgksaus fganh lh[khA fofèkor~ f'k{kk fefMy rd
izkIr dh] exj Lokè;k; ls dkI
+
kQh Kku vftZr fd;kA os [kM+h cksyh vkSj vk/qfud
fganh lkfgR; dks LFkkfir djus okys ys[kdksa esa ls ,d FksA mUgsa Hkkjrsanq&;qx vkSj
f}osnh&;qx osQ chp dh dM+h osQ :i esa ns[kk tkrk gSA
ckyeqoaqQn xqIr jk"Vªh; uotkxj.k osQ lfozQ; i=kdkj FksA ml nkSj osQ vU;
i=kdkjksa dh rjg os lkfgR;&l``tu esa Hkh lfozQ; jgsA i=kdkfjrk muosQ fy,
Lokèkhurk&laxzke dk gfFk;kj FkhA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ ys[ku esa fuHkhZdrk iwjh
rjg ekStwn gSA lkFk gh mlesa O;aX;&fouksn dk Hkh iqV fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA mUgksaus
ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh oqQN jpukvksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd,A os 'kCnksa osQ vn~Hkqr
ikj[kh FksA vufLFkjrk 'kCn dh 'kq¼rk dks ysdj mUgksaus egkohj izlkn f}osnh ls
yach cgl dhA bl rjg osQ vU; vusd 'kCnksa ij mUgksaus cgl pykbZA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


44/vkjksg
tks fy[kuk Fkk] og fy[kk x;kA vc [kqyklk ckr ;g gS
fd ,d ckj ^'kks* vkSj ^M~;wVh* dk eqdkfcyk dhft,A
(f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s)
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr
tUe% lu~~ 1865] xzke xqfM+;kuh] f”kyk jksgrd
(gfj;k.kk)
izeq[k laiknu % v[kckj&,&pqukj] fganqLrku]
fganh caxoklh] Hkkjrfe=k vkfn
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s] fp_s vkSj
[kr] [ksy rek'kk
e`R;q % lu~~ 1907
xqIr th dh vkjafHkd f'k{kk mnwZ esa gqbZA ckn esa
mUgksaus fganh lh[khA fofèkor~ f'k{kk fefMy rd
izkIr dh] exj Lokè;k; ls dkI
+
kQh Kku vftZr fd;kA os [kM+h cksyh vkSj vk/qfud
fganh lkfgR; dks LFkkfir djus okys ys[kdksa esa ls ,d FksA mUgsa Hkkjrsanq&;qx vkSj
f}osnh&;qx osQ chp dh dM+h osQ :i esa ns[kk tkrk gSA
ckyeqoaqQn xqIr jk"Vªh; uotkxj.k osQ lfozQ; i=kdkj FksA ml nkSj osQ vU;
i=kdkjksa dh rjg os lkfgR;&l``tu esa Hkh lfozQ; jgsA i=kdkfjrk muosQ fy,
Lokèkhurk&laxzke dk gfFk;kj FkhA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ ys[ku esa fuHkhZdrk iwjh
rjg ekStwn gSA lkFk gh mlesa O;aX;&fouksn dk Hkh iqV fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA mUgksaus
ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh oqQN jpukvksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd,A os 'kCnksa osQ vn~Hkqr
ikj[kh FksA vufLFkjrk 'kCn dh 'kq¼rk dks ysdj mUgksaus egkohj izlkn f}osnh ls
yach cgl dhA bl rjg osQ vU; vusd 'kCnksa ij mUgksaus cgl pykbZA
© NCERT
not to be republished
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k/45
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k mudh lokZfèkd p£pr O;aX; Ñfr ^f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s* dk
,d va'k gSA ;g ikB ok;ljk; d”kZu (tks 1899&1904 ,oa 1904&1905 rd
nks ckj ok;ljk; jgs) osQ 'kklu esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh fLFkfr dk [kqyklk djrk gSA
dgus dks muosQ 'kklu dky esa fodkl osQ cgqr lkjs dk;Z gq,] u,&u, vk;ksx
cuk, x,] foaQrq mu lcdk mís'; 'kklu esa xksjksa dk opZLo LFkkfir djuk ,oa
lkFk gh bl ns'k osQ lalk/uksa dk vaxzs”kksa osQ fgr esa lokZsÙke mi;ksx djuk FkkA
gj Lrj ij d”kZu us vaxzs”kksa dk opZLo LFkkfir djus dh dksf'k'k dhA os ljdkjh
fujaoqQ'krk osQ i{kèkj FksA fygktk izsl dh Lora=krk rd ij mUgksaus izfrca/ yxk
fn;kA varr% dkSafly esa euilan vaxzs”k lnL; fu;qDr djokus osQ eqís ij mUgsa
ns'k&fons'k nksuksa txgksa ij uhpk ns[kuk iM+kA {kqC/ gksdj mUgksaus bLrhI
+
kQk ns fn;k
vkSj okil baXySaM pys x,A
ikB esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh csclh] nq[k ,oa ykpkjh dks O;aX;kRed <ax ls ykWMZ d”kZu
dh ykpkjh ls tksM+us dh dksf'k'k dh xbZ gSA lkFk gh ;g fn[kkus dh dksf'k'k dh
xbZ gS fd 'kklu osQ vkrrk;h :i ls gj fdlh dks d"V gksrk gSµ pkgs og
lkekU; turk gks ;k fiQj ykWMZ d”kZu tSlk ok;ljk;A ;g ml le; fy[kk x;k
x| dk uewuk gS] tc izsl ij ikcanh dk nkSj py jgk FkkA ,slh fLFkfr esa
fouksnfiz;rk] pqycqykiu] lathnxh] uohu Hkk"kk&iz;ksx ,oa jokuxh osQ lkFk gh ;g
,d lkgfld x| dk Hkh uewuk gSA
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr/45
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


44/vkjksg
tks fy[kuk Fkk] og fy[kk x;kA vc [kqyklk ckr ;g gS
fd ,d ckj ^'kks* vkSj ^M~;wVh* dk eqdkfcyk dhft,A
(f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s)
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr
tUe% lu~~ 1865] xzke xqfM+;kuh] f”kyk jksgrd
(gfj;k.kk)
izeq[k laiknu % v[kckj&,&pqukj] fganqLrku]
fganh caxoklh] Hkkjrfe=k vkfn
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s] fp_s vkSj
[kr] [ksy rek'kk
e`R;q % lu~~ 1907
xqIr th dh vkjafHkd f'k{kk mnwZ esa gqbZA ckn esa
mUgksaus fganh lh[khA fofèkor~ f'k{kk fefMy rd
izkIr dh] exj Lokè;k; ls dkI
+
kQh Kku vftZr fd;kA os [kM+h cksyh vkSj vk/qfud
fganh lkfgR; dks LFkkfir djus okys ys[kdksa esa ls ,d FksA mUgsa Hkkjrsanq&;qx vkSj
f}osnh&;qx osQ chp dh dM+h osQ :i esa ns[kk tkrk gSA
ckyeqoaqQn xqIr jk"Vªh; uotkxj.k osQ lfozQ; i=kdkj FksA ml nkSj osQ vU;
i=kdkjksa dh rjg os lkfgR;&l``tu esa Hkh lfozQ; jgsA i=kdkfjrk muosQ fy,
Lokèkhurk&laxzke dk gfFk;kj FkhA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ ys[ku esa fuHkhZdrk iwjh
rjg ekStwn gSA lkFk gh mlesa O;aX;&fouksn dk Hkh iqV fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA mUgksaus
ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh oqQN jpukvksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd,A os 'kCnksa osQ vn~Hkqr
ikj[kh FksA vufLFkjrk 'kCn dh 'kq¼rk dks ysdj mUgksaus egkohj izlkn f}osnh ls
yach cgl dhA bl rjg osQ vU; vusd 'kCnksa ij mUgksaus cgl pykbZA
© NCERT
not to be republished
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k/45
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k mudh lokZfèkd p£pr O;aX; Ñfr ^f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s* dk
,d va'k gSA ;g ikB ok;ljk; d”kZu (tks 1899&1904 ,oa 1904&1905 rd
nks ckj ok;ljk; jgs) osQ 'kklu esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh fLFkfr dk [kqyklk djrk gSA
dgus dks muosQ 'kklu dky esa fodkl osQ cgqr lkjs dk;Z gq,] u,&u, vk;ksx
cuk, x,] foaQrq mu lcdk mís'; 'kklu esa xksjksa dk opZLo LFkkfir djuk ,oa
lkFk gh bl ns'k osQ lalk/uksa dk vaxzs”kksa osQ fgr esa lokZsÙke mi;ksx djuk FkkA
gj Lrj ij d”kZu us vaxzs”kksa dk opZLo LFkkfir djus dh dksf'k'k dhA os ljdkjh
fujaoqQ'krk osQ i{kèkj FksA fygktk izsl dh Lora=krk rd ij mUgksaus izfrca/ yxk
fn;kA varr% dkSafly esa euilan vaxzs”k lnL; fu;qDr djokus osQ eqís ij mUgsa
ns'k&fons'k nksuksa txgksa ij uhpk ns[kuk iM+kA {kqC/ gksdj mUgksaus bLrhI
+
kQk ns fn;k
vkSj okil baXySaM pys x,A
ikB esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh csclh] nq[k ,oa ykpkjh dks O;aX;kRed <ax ls ykWMZ d”kZu
dh ykpkjh ls tksM+us dh dksf'k'k dh xbZ gSA lkFk gh ;g fn[kkus dh dksf'k'k dh
xbZ gS fd 'kklu osQ vkrrk;h :i ls gj fdlh dks d"V gksrk gSµ pkgs og
lkekU; turk gks ;k fiQj ykWMZ d”kZu tSlk ok;ljk;A ;g ml le; fy[kk x;k
x| dk uewuk gS] tc izsl ij ikcanh dk nkSj py jgk FkkA ,slh fLFkfr esa
fouksnfiz;rk] pqycqykiu] lathnxh] uohu Hkk"kk&iz;ksx ,oa jokuxh osQ lkFk gh ;g
,d lkgfld x| dk Hkh uewuk gSA
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr/45
© NCERT
not to be republished
46/vkjksg
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k
ekb ykWMZ! var dks vkiosQ 'kklu&dky dk bl ns'k esa var gks x;kA vc vki
bl ns'k ls vyx gksrs gSaA bl lalkj esa lc ckrksa dk var gSA blls vkiosQ
'kklu&dky dk Hkh var gksrk] pkgs vkidh ,d ckj dh dYiuk osQ vuqlkj vki
;gk¡ osQ fpjLFkkbZ okbljk; Hkh gks tkrsA foaQrq bruh tYnh og le; iwjk gks
tk,xk] ,slk fopkj u vki gh dk Fkk] u bl ns'k osQ fuokfl;ksa dkA blls tku
iM+rk gS fd vkiosQ vkSj ;gk¡ osQ fuokfl;ksa osQ chp esa dksbZ rhljh 'kfDr vkSj
Hkh gS] ftl ij ;gk¡ okyksa dk rks D;k] vkidk Hkh dkcw ugha gSA
fcNM+u&le; cM+k d#.kksRiknd gksrk gSA vkidks fcNM+rs ns[kdj vkt ân;
esa cM+k nq[k gSA ekb ykWMZ! vkiosQ nwljh ckj bl ns'k esa vkus ls Hkkjroklh fdlh
izdkj izlUu u FksA os ;gh pkgrs Fks fd vki fiQj u vkosaA ij vki vk, vkSj
mlls ;gk¡ osQ yksx cgqr gh nqf[kr gq,A os fnu&jkr ;gh eukrs Fks fd tYn Jheku~
;gk¡ ls ièkkjsaA ij vgks! vkt vkiosQ tkus ij g"kZ dh txg fo"kkn gksrk gSA blh
ls tkuk fd fcNM+u&le; cM+k d#.kksRiknd gksrk gS] cM+k ifo=k] cM+k fueZy vkSj
cM+k dksey gksrk gSA oSj&Hkko NwVdj 'kkar jl dk vkfoHkkZo ml le; gksrk gSA
ekb ykWMZ dk ns'k ns[kus dk bl nhu czkã.k dks dHkh bl tUe esa lkSHkkX; ugha
gqvkA blls ugha tkurk fd ogk¡ fcNM+us osQ le; yksxksa dk D;k Hkko gksrk gSA ij
bl ns'k osQ i'kq&if{k;ksa dks Hkh fcNM+us osQ le; mnkl ns[kk gSA ,d ckj f'ko'kaHkq
osQ nks xk;sa FkhaA muesa ,d vfèkd cyokyh FkhA og dHkh&dHkh vius lhaxksa dh
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


44/vkjksg
tks fy[kuk Fkk] og fy[kk x;kA vc [kqyklk ckr ;g gS
fd ,d ckj ^'kks* vkSj ^M~;wVh* dk eqdkfcyk dhft,A
(f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s)
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr
tUe% lu~~ 1865] xzke xqfM+;kuh] f”kyk jksgrd
(gfj;k.kk)
izeq[k laiknu % v[kckj&,&pqukj] fganqLrku]
fganh caxoklh] Hkkjrfe=k vkfn
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s] fp_s vkSj
[kr] [ksy rek'kk
e`R;q % lu~~ 1907
xqIr th dh vkjafHkd f'k{kk mnwZ esa gqbZA ckn esa
mUgksaus fganh lh[khA fofèkor~ f'k{kk fefMy rd
izkIr dh] exj Lokè;k; ls dkI
+
kQh Kku vftZr fd;kA os [kM+h cksyh vkSj vk/qfud
fganh lkfgR; dks LFkkfir djus okys ys[kdksa esa ls ,d FksA mUgsa Hkkjrsanq&;qx vkSj
f}osnh&;qx osQ chp dh dM+h osQ :i esa ns[kk tkrk gSA
ckyeqoaqQn xqIr jk"Vªh; uotkxj.k osQ lfozQ; i=kdkj FksA ml nkSj osQ vU;
i=kdkjksa dh rjg os lkfgR;&l``tu esa Hkh lfozQ; jgsA i=kdkfjrk muosQ fy,
Lokèkhurk&laxzke dk gfFk;kj FkhA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ ys[ku esa fuHkhZdrk iwjh
rjg ekStwn gSA lkFk gh mlesa O;aX;&fouksn dk Hkh iqV fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA mUgksaus
ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh oqQN jpukvksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd,A os 'kCnksa osQ vn~Hkqr
ikj[kh FksA vufLFkjrk 'kCn dh 'kq¼rk dks ysdj mUgksaus egkohj izlkn f}osnh ls
yach cgl dhA bl rjg osQ vU; vusd 'kCnksa ij mUgksaus cgl pykbZA
© NCERT
not to be republished
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k/45
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k mudh lokZfèkd p£pr O;aX; Ñfr ^f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s* dk
,d va'k gSA ;g ikB ok;ljk; d”kZu (tks 1899&1904 ,oa 1904&1905 rd
nks ckj ok;ljk; jgs) osQ 'kklu esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh fLFkfr dk [kqyklk djrk gSA
dgus dks muosQ 'kklu dky esa fodkl osQ cgqr lkjs dk;Z gq,] u,&u, vk;ksx
cuk, x,] foaQrq mu lcdk mís'; 'kklu esa xksjksa dk opZLo LFkkfir djuk ,oa
lkFk gh bl ns'k osQ lalk/uksa dk vaxzs”kksa osQ fgr esa lokZsÙke mi;ksx djuk FkkA
gj Lrj ij d”kZu us vaxzs”kksa dk opZLo LFkkfir djus dh dksf'k'k dhA os ljdkjh
fujaoqQ'krk osQ i{kèkj FksA fygktk izsl dh Lora=krk rd ij mUgksaus izfrca/ yxk
fn;kA varr% dkSafly esa euilan vaxzs”k lnL; fu;qDr djokus osQ eqís ij mUgsa
ns'k&fons'k nksuksa txgksa ij uhpk ns[kuk iM+kA {kqC/ gksdj mUgksaus bLrhI
+
kQk ns fn;k
vkSj okil baXySaM pys x,A
ikB esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh csclh] nq[k ,oa ykpkjh dks O;aX;kRed <ax ls ykWMZ d”kZu
dh ykpkjh ls tksM+us dh dksf'k'k dh xbZ gSA lkFk gh ;g fn[kkus dh dksf'k'k dh
xbZ gS fd 'kklu osQ vkrrk;h :i ls gj fdlh dks d"V gksrk gSµ pkgs og
lkekU; turk gks ;k fiQj ykWMZ d”kZu tSlk ok;ljk;A ;g ml le; fy[kk x;k
x| dk uewuk gS] tc izsl ij ikcanh dk nkSj py jgk FkkA ,slh fLFkfr esa
fouksnfiz;rk] pqycqykiu] lathnxh] uohu Hkk"kk&iz;ksx ,oa jokuxh osQ lkFk gh ;g
,d lkgfld x| dk Hkh uewuk gSA
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr/45
© NCERT
not to be republished
46/vkjksg
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k
ekb ykWMZ! var dks vkiosQ 'kklu&dky dk bl ns'k esa var gks x;kA vc vki
bl ns'k ls vyx gksrs gSaA bl lalkj esa lc ckrksa dk var gSA blls vkiosQ
'kklu&dky dk Hkh var gksrk] pkgs vkidh ,d ckj dh dYiuk osQ vuqlkj vki
;gk¡ osQ fpjLFkkbZ okbljk; Hkh gks tkrsA foaQrq bruh tYnh og le; iwjk gks
tk,xk] ,slk fopkj u vki gh dk Fkk] u bl ns'k osQ fuokfl;ksa dkA blls tku
iM+rk gS fd vkiosQ vkSj ;gk¡ osQ fuokfl;ksa osQ chp esa dksbZ rhljh 'kfDr vkSj
Hkh gS] ftl ij ;gk¡ okyksa dk rks D;k] vkidk Hkh dkcw ugha gSA
fcNM+u&le; cM+k d#.kksRiknd gksrk gSA vkidks fcNM+rs ns[kdj vkt ân;
esa cM+k nq[k gSA ekb ykWMZ! vkiosQ nwljh ckj bl ns'k esa vkus ls Hkkjroklh fdlh
izdkj izlUu u FksA os ;gh pkgrs Fks fd vki fiQj u vkosaA ij vki vk, vkSj
mlls ;gk¡ osQ yksx cgqr gh nqf[kr gq,A os fnu&jkr ;gh eukrs Fks fd tYn Jheku~
;gk¡ ls ièkkjsaA ij vgks! vkt vkiosQ tkus ij g"kZ dh txg fo"kkn gksrk gSA blh
ls tkuk fd fcNM+u&le; cM+k d#.kksRiknd gksrk gS] cM+k ifo=k] cM+k fueZy vkSj
cM+k dksey gksrk gSA oSj&Hkko NwVdj 'kkar jl dk vkfoHkkZo ml le; gksrk gSA
ekb ykWMZ dk ns'k ns[kus dk bl nhu czkã.k dks dHkh bl tUe esa lkSHkkX; ugha
gqvkA blls ugha tkurk fd ogk¡ fcNM+us osQ le; yksxksa dk D;k Hkko gksrk gSA ij
bl ns'k osQ i'kq&if{k;ksa dks Hkh fcNM+us osQ le; mnkl ns[kk gSA ,d ckj f'ko'kaHkq
osQ nks xk;sa FkhaA muesa ,d vfèkd cyokyh FkhA og dHkh&dHkh vius lhaxksa dh
© NCERT
not to be republished
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k/47
VDdj ls nwljh detksj xk; dks fxjk nsrh FkhA ,d fnu og VDdj ekjus okyh
xk; iqjksfgr dks ns nh xbZA ns[kk fd nqcZy xk; mlosQ pys tkus ls izlUu ugha
gqbZ] ojap ml fnu og Hkw[kh [kM+h jgh] pkjk Nqvk rd ughaA ekb ykWMZ! ftl
ns'k osQ i'kqvksa osQ fcNM+rs le; ;g n'kk gksrh gS] ogk¡ euq";ksa dh oSQlh n'kk
gks ldrh gS] bldk vank”k yxkuk dfBu ugha gSA
vkxs Hkh bl ns'k esa tks izèkku 'kkld vk,] var esa mudks tkuk iM+kA blls
vkidk tkuk Hkh ijaijk dh pky ls oqQN vyx ugha gS] rFkkfi vkiosQ
'kklu&dky dk ukVd ?kksj nq[kkar gS] vkSj vfèkd vk'p;Z dh ckr ;g gS fd
n'kZd rks D;k] Lo;a lw=kèkkj Hkh ugha tkurk Fkk fd mlus tks [ksy lq[kkar le>dj
[ksyuk vkajHk fd;k Fkk] og nq[kkar gks tkosxkA ftlosQ vkfn esa lq[k Fkk] eè; esa
lhek ls ckgj lq[k Fkk] mldk var ,sls ?kksj nq[k osQ lkFk oSQls gqvk\ vkg!
?keaMh f[kykM+h le>rk gS fd nwljksa dks viuh yhyk fn[kkrk gw¡A foaQrq ijns osQ
ihNs ,d vkSj gh yhyke; dh yhyk gks jgh gS] ;g mls [kcj ugha!
bl ckj cacbZ* esa mrjdj ekb ykWMZ! vkius tks bjkns ”kkfgj fd, Fks] ”kjk
nsf[k, rks muesa ls dkSu&dkSu iwjs gq,\ vkius dgk Fkk fd ;gk¡ ls tkrs le;
Hkkjro"kZ dks ,slk dj tkm¡Qxk fd esjs ckn vkus okys cMs+ ykVksa dks o"kks± rd oqQN
djuk u iM+sxk] os fdrus gh o"kks± lq[k dh uhan lkssrs jgsaxsA foaQrq ckr myVh gqbZA
vkidks Lo;a bl ckj cspSuh mBkuh iM+h gS vkSj bl ns'k esa tSlh v'kkafr vki
iSQyk pys gSa] mlosQ feVkus esa vkiosQ in ij vkus okyksa dks u tkus dc rd
uhan vkSj Hkw[k gjke djuk iM+sxkA bl ckj vkius viuk fcLrjk xje jk[k ij
j[kk gS vkSj Hkkjrokfl;ksa dks xje ros ij ikuh dh cw¡nksa dh Hkk¡fr upk;k gSA vki
Lo;a Hkh [kq'k u gks losQ vkSj ;gk¡ dh iztk dks lq[kh u gksus fn;k] bldk yksxksa
osQ fpÙk ij cM+k gh nq[k gSA
* orZeku esa eaqcbZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


44/vkjksg
tks fy[kuk Fkk] og fy[kk x;kA vc [kqyklk ckr ;g gS
fd ,d ckj ^'kks* vkSj ^M~;wVh* dk eqdkfcyk dhft,A
(f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s)
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr
tUe% lu~~ 1865] xzke xqfM+;kuh] f”kyk jksgrd
(gfj;k.kk)
izeq[k laiknu % v[kckj&,&pqukj] fganqLrku]
fganh caxoklh] Hkkjrfe=k vkfn
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s] fp_s vkSj
[kr] [ksy rek'kk
e`R;q % lu~~ 1907
xqIr th dh vkjafHkd f'k{kk mnwZ esa gqbZA ckn esa
mUgksaus fganh lh[khA fofèkor~ f'k{kk fefMy rd
izkIr dh] exj Lokè;k; ls dkI
+
kQh Kku vftZr fd;kA os [kM+h cksyh vkSj vk/qfud
fganh lkfgR; dks LFkkfir djus okys ys[kdksa esa ls ,d FksA mUgsa Hkkjrsanq&;qx vkSj
f}osnh&;qx osQ chp dh dM+h osQ :i esa ns[kk tkrk gSA
ckyeqoaqQn xqIr jk"Vªh; uotkxj.k osQ lfozQ; i=kdkj FksA ml nkSj osQ vU;
i=kdkjksa dh rjg os lkfgR;&l``tu esa Hkh lfozQ; jgsA i=kdkfjrk muosQ fy,
Lokèkhurk&laxzke dk gfFk;kj FkhA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ ys[ku esa fuHkhZdrk iwjh
rjg ekStwn gSA lkFk gh mlesa O;aX;&fouksn dk Hkh iqV fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA mUgksaus
ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh oqQN jpukvksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd,A os 'kCnksa osQ vn~Hkqr
ikj[kh FksA vufLFkjrk 'kCn dh 'kq¼rk dks ysdj mUgksaus egkohj izlkn f}osnh ls
yach cgl dhA bl rjg osQ vU; vusd 'kCnksa ij mUgksaus cgl pykbZA
© NCERT
not to be republished
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k/45
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k mudh lokZfèkd p£pr O;aX; Ñfr ^f'ko'kaHkq osQ fp_s* dk
,d va'k gSA ;g ikB ok;ljk; d”kZu (tks 1899&1904 ,oa 1904&1905 rd
nks ckj ok;ljk; jgs) osQ 'kklu esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh fLFkfr dk [kqyklk djrk gSA
dgus dks muosQ 'kklu dky esa fodkl osQ cgqr lkjs dk;Z gq,] u,&u, vk;ksx
cuk, x,] foaQrq mu lcdk mís'; 'kklu esa xksjksa dk opZLo LFkkfir djuk ,oa
lkFk gh bl ns'k osQ lalk/uksa dk vaxzs”kksa osQ fgr esa lokZsÙke mi;ksx djuk FkkA
gj Lrj ij d”kZu us vaxzs”kksa dk opZLo LFkkfir djus dh dksf'k'k dhA os ljdkjh
fujaoqQ'krk osQ i{kèkj FksA fygktk izsl dh Lora=krk rd ij mUgksaus izfrca/ yxk
fn;kA varr% dkSafly esa euilan vaxzs”k lnL; fu;qDr djokus osQ eqís ij mUgsa
ns'k&fons'k nksuksa txgksa ij uhpk ns[kuk iM+kA {kqC/ gksdj mUgksaus bLrhI
+
kQk ns fn;k
vkSj okil baXySaM pys x,A
ikB esa Hkkjrh;ksa dh csclh] nq[k ,oa ykpkjh dks O;aX;kRed <ax ls ykWMZ d”kZu
dh ykpkjh ls tksM+us dh dksf'k'k dh xbZ gSA lkFk gh ;g fn[kkus dh dksf'k'k dh
xbZ gS fd 'kklu osQ vkrrk;h :i ls gj fdlh dks d"V gksrk gSµ pkgs og
lkekU; turk gks ;k fiQj ykWMZ d”kZu tSlk ok;ljk;A ;g ml le; fy[kk x;k
x| dk uewuk gS] tc izsl ij ikcanh dk nkSj py jgk FkkA ,slh fLFkfr esa
fouksnfiz;rk] pqycqykiu] lathnxh] uohu Hkk"kk&iz;ksx ,oa jokuxh osQ lkFk gh ;g
,d lkgfld x| dk Hkh uewuk gSA
ckyeqoqaQn xqIr/45
© NCERT
not to be republished
46/vkjksg
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k
ekb ykWMZ! var dks vkiosQ 'kklu&dky dk bl ns'k esa var gks x;kA vc vki
bl ns'k ls vyx gksrs gSaA bl lalkj esa lc ckrksa dk var gSA blls vkiosQ
'kklu&dky dk Hkh var gksrk] pkgs vkidh ,d ckj dh dYiuk osQ vuqlkj vki
;gk¡ osQ fpjLFkkbZ okbljk; Hkh gks tkrsA foaQrq bruh tYnh og le; iwjk gks
tk,xk] ,slk fopkj u vki gh dk Fkk] u bl ns'k osQ fuokfl;ksa dkA blls tku
iM+rk gS fd vkiosQ vkSj ;gk¡ osQ fuokfl;ksa osQ chp esa dksbZ rhljh 'kfDr vkSj
Hkh gS] ftl ij ;gk¡ okyksa dk rks D;k] vkidk Hkh dkcw ugha gSA
fcNM+u&le; cM+k d#.kksRiknd gksrk gSA vkidks fcNM+rs ns[kdj vkt ân;
esa cM+k nq[k gSA ekb ykWMZ! vkiosQ nwljh ckj bl ns'k esa vkus ls Hkkjroklh fdlh
izdkj izlUu u FksA os ;gh pkgrs Fks fd vki fiQj u vkosaA ij vki vk, vkSj
mlls ;gk¡ osQ yksx cgqr gh nqf[kr gq,A os fnu&jkr ;gh eukrs Fks fd tYn Jheku~
;gk¡ ls ièkkjsaA ij vgks! vkt vkiosQ tkus ij g"kZ dh txg fo"kkn gksrk gSA blh
ls tkuk fd fcNM+u&le; cM+k d#.kksRiknd gksrk gS] cM+k ifo=k] cM+k fueZy vkSj
cM+k dksey gksrk gSA oSj&Hkko NwVdj 'kkar jl dk vkfoHkkZo ml le; gksrk gSA
ekb ykWMZ dk ns'k ns[kus dk bl nhu czkã.k dks dHkh bl tUe esa lkSHkkX; ugha
gqvkA blls ugha tkurk fd ogk¡ fcNM+us osQ le; yksxksa dk D;k Hkko gksrk gSA ij
bl ns'k osQ i'kq&if{k;ksa dks Hkh fcNM+us osQ le; mnkl ns[kk gSA ,d ckj f'ko'kaHkq
osQ nks xk;sa FkhaA muesa ,d vfèkd cyokyh FkhA og dHkh&dHkh vius lhaxksa dh
© NCERT
not to be republished
fonkbZ&laHkk"k.k/47
VDdj ls nwljh detksj xk; dks fxjk nsrh FkhA ,d fnu og VDdj ekjus okyh
xk; iqjksfgr dks ns nh xbZA ns[kk fd nqcZy xk; mlosQ pys tkus ls izlUu ugha
gqbZ] ojap ml fnu og Hkw[kh [kM+h jgh] pkjk Nqvk rd ughaA ekb ykWMZ! ftl
ns'k osQ i'kqvksa osQ fcNM+rs le; ;g n'kk gksrh gS] ogk¡ euq";ksa dh oSQlh n'kk
gks ldrh gS] bldk vank”k yxkuk dfBu ugha gSA
vkxs Hkh bl ns'k esa tks izèkku 'kkld vk,] var esa mudks tkuk iM+kA blls
vkidk tkuk Hkh ijaijk dh pky ls oqQN vyx ugha gS] rFkkfi vkiosQ
'kklu&dky dk ukVd ?kksj nq[kkar gS] vkSj vfèkd vk'p;Z dh ckr ;g gS fd
n'kZd rks D;k] Lo;a lw=kèkkj Hkh ugha tkurk Fkk fd mlus tks [ksy lq[kkar le>dj
[ksyuk vkajHk fd;k Fkk] og nq[kkar gks tkosxkA ftlosQ vkfn esa lq[k Fkk] eè; esa
lhek ls ckgj lq[k Fkk] mldk var ,sls ?kksj nq[k osQ lkFk oSQls gqvk\ vkg!
?keaMh f[kykM+h le>rk gS fd nwljksa dks viuh yhyk fn[kkrk gw¡A foaQrq ijns osQ
ihNs ,d vkSj gh yhyke; dh yhyk gks jgh gS] ;g mls [kcj ugha!
bl ckj cacbZ* esa mrjdj ekb ykWMZ! vkius tks bjkns ”kkfgj fd, Fks] ”kjk
nsf[k, rks muesa ls dkSu&dkSu iwjs gq,\ vkius dgk Fkk fd ;gk¡ ls tkrs le;
Hkkjro"kZ dks ,slk dj tkm¡Qxk fd esjs ckn vkus okys cMs+ ykVksa dks o"kks± rd oqQN
djuk u iM+sxk] os fdrus gh o"kks± lq[k dh uhan lkssrs jgsaxsA foaQrq ckr myVh gqbZA
vkidks Lo;a bl ckj cspSuh mBkuh iM+h gS vkSj bl ns'k esa tSlh v'kkafr vki
iSQyk pys gSa] mlosQ feVkus esa vkiosQ in ij vkus okyksa dks u tkus dc rd
uhan vkSj Hkw[k gjke djuk iM+sxkA bl ckj vkius viuk fcLrjk xje jk[k ij
j[kk gS vkSj Hkkjrokfl;ksa dks xje ros ij ikuh dh cw¡nksa dh Hkk¡fr upk;k gSA vki
Lo;a Hkh [kq'k u gks losQ vkSj ;gk¡ dh iztk dks lq[kh u gksus fn;k] bldk yksxksa
osQ fpÙk ij cM+k gh nq[k gSA
* orZeku esa eaqcbZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
48/vkjksg
fopkfj, rks] D;k 'kku vkidh bl ns'k esa Fkh vkSj vc D;k gks xbZ! fdrus
m¡Qps gksdj vki fdrus uhps fxjs! vfyI
+
kQ ySyk osQ vygnhu us fpjkx jxM+dj
vkSj vcqyglu us cxnkn osQ [kyhI
+
kQk dh xíh ij vk¡[k [kksydj og 'kku u
ns[kh] tks fnYyh&njckj esa vkius ns[khA vkidh vkSj vkidh ysMh dh oqQlhZ lksus
dh Fkh vkSj vkiosQ izHkq egkjkt osQ NksVs HkkbZ vkSj mudh iRuh dh pk¡nh dhA
vki nkfgus Fks] og ck,¡] vki izFke Fks] og nwljsA bl ns'k osQ lc jbZlksa us
vkidks lyke igys fd;k vkSj ckn'kkg osQ HkkbZ dks ihNsA tqywl esa vkidk gkFkh
lcls vkxs vkSj lcls m¡Qpk Fkk_ gkSnk] p¡oj] N=k vkfn lcls c<+&p<+dj FksA
lkjka'k ;g gS fd bZ'oj vkSj egkjkt ,MoMZ osQ ckn bl ns'k esa vki gh dk ,d
ntkZ FkkA foaQrq vc ns[krs gSa fd taxh ykV osQ eqdkcys esa vkius iV[kuh [kkbZ]
flj osQ cy uhps vk jgs! vkiosQ Lons'k esa ogh m¡Qps ekus x,] vkidks lkI
+
kQ
uhpk ns[kuk iM+k! in&R;kx dh èkedh ls Hkh m¡Qps u gks losQA
vki cgqr èkhj&xaHkhj izfl¼ FksA ml lkjh èkhjrk&xaHkhjrk dk vkius bl ckj
dkSafly esa csdkuwuh dkuwu ikl djrs vkSj dUkoksosQ'ku oDr`rk nsrs le; fnokyk
fudky fn;kA ;g fnokyk rks bl ns'k esa gqvkA mèkj foyk;r esa vkiosQ ckj&ckj
bLrhI
+
kQk nsus dh èkedh us izdk'k dj fn;k fd tM+ fgy xbZ gSA var esa ogk¡ Hkh
vkidks fnokfy;k gksuk iM+k vkSj èkhjrk&xaHkhjrk osQ lkFk n`<+rk dks Hkh frykatfy
nsuh iM+hA bl ns'k osQ gkfde vkidh rky ij ukprs Fks] jktk&egkjktk Mksjh
fgykus ls lkeus gkFk ck¡èks gkftj gksrs FksA vkiosQ ,d b'kkjs esa izy; gksrh FkhA
fdrus gh jktksa dks e^h osQ f[kykSus dh Hkk¡fr vkius rksM+&iQksM+ MkykA fdrus gh
e^h&dkB osQ f[kykSus vkidh Ñik osQ tknw ls cMs+&cMs+ inkfèkdkjh cu x,A
vkiosQ bl b'kkjs esa bl ns'k dh f'k{kk ik;eky gks xbZ] Lokèkhurk mM+ xbZA cax
ns'k osQ flj ij vkjg j[kk x;kA vkg] brus cMs+ ekb ykWMZ dk ;g ntkZ gqvk fd
iQkSth vI
+
kQlj muosQ bfPNr in ij fu;r u gks ldk vkSj mudks mlh xqLls osQ
ekjs bLrhI
+
kQk nkf[ky djuk iM+k] og Hkh ea”kwj gks x;kA mudk j[kk;k ,d vkneh
ukSdj u j[kk] myVk mUgha dks fudy tkus dk gqDe feyk!
© NCERT
not to be republished
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