NCERT Textbook - Bricks, Beads and Bones Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Bricks, Beads and Bones Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1
Bricks, Beads and Bones
The Harappan Civilisation
THEME
ONE
The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most
distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley
civilisation. Made of a stone called steatite, seals
like this one often contain animal motifs and signs
from a script that remains undeciphered. Yet we
know a great deal about the lives of the people who
lived in the region from what they left behind –
their houses, pots, ornaments, tools and seals – in
other words, from archaeological evidence. Let us
see what we know about the Harappan civilisation,
and how we know about it. We will explore how
archaeological material is interpreted and how
interpretations sometimes change. Of course, there
are some aspects of the civilisation that are as yet
unknown and may even remain so.
Terms, places, times
The Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan culture.
Archaeologists use the term “culture” for a group of objects,
distinctive in style, that are usually found together within a specific
geographical area and period of time. In the case of the Harappan
culture, these distinctive objects include seals, beads, weights, stone
blades (Fig. 1.2) and even baked bricks. These objects were found
from areas as far apart as Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan
(Pakistan) and Gujarat (Map 1).
Named after Harappa, the first site where this unique culture
was discovered (p. 6), the civilisation is dated between c. 2600 and
1900 BCE. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early
Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area. The Harappan
civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to
distinguish it from these cultures.
Fig. 1.1
A Harappan seal
Fig. 1.2
Beads, weights, blades
2020-21
Page 2


1
Bricks, Beads and Bones
The Harappan Civilisation
THEME
ONE
The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most
distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley
civilisation. Made of a stone called steatite, seals
like this one often contain animal motifs and signs
from a script that remains undeciphered. Yet we
know a great deal about the lives of the people who
lived in the region from what they left behind –
their houses, pots, ornaments, tools and seals – in
other words, from archaeological evidence. Let us
see what we know about the Harappan civilisation,
and how we know about it. We will explore how
archaeological material is interpreted and how
interpretations sometimes change. Of course, there
are some aspects of the civilisation that are as yet
unknown and may even remain so.
Terms, places, times
The Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan culture.
Archaeologists use the term “culture” for a group of objects,
distinctive in style, that are usually found together within a specific
geographical area and period of time. In the case of the Harappan
culture, these distinctive objects include seals, beads, weights, stone
blades (Fig. 1.2) and even baked bricks. These objects were found
from areas as far apart as Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan
(Pakistan) and Gujarat (Map 1).
Named after Harappa, the first site where this unique culture
was discovered (p. 6), the civilisation is dated between c. 2600 and
1900 BCE. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early
Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area. The Harappan
civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to
distinguish it from these cultures.
Fig. 1.1
A Harappan seal
Fig. 1.2
Beads, weights, blades
2020-21
 THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY 2
Map 1
Some important
Mature Harappan sites
Sketch map not to scale
Manda
Harappa
Banawali
Rakhigarhi
Mitathal
Ganweriwala
Kot Diji
Chanhudaro
Amri
Balakot
Mohenjodaro
Sutkagendor
Dholavira
Lothal
Nageshwar
Rangpur
Kalibangan
Jhelum
Chenab
Ravi
Indus
Yamuna
Ganga
Chambal
Sabarmati
Arabian Sea
Mahi
Narmada
Sutlej
1. Beginnings
There were several archaeological cultures in the
region prior to the Mature Harappan. These cultures
were associated with distinctive pottery, evidence of
agriculture and pastoralism, and some crafts.
Settlements were generally small, and there were
virtually no large buildings. It appears that there
was a break between the Early Harappan and the
Harappan civilisation, evident from large-scale
burning at some sites, as well as the abandonment
of certain settlements.
2. Subsistence Strategies
If you look at Maps 1 and 2 you will notice that the
Mature Harappan culture developed in some of the
areas occupied by the Early Harappan cultures.
These cultures also shared certain common elements
including subsistence strategies. The Harappans ate
a wide range of plant and animal products, including
fish. Archaeologists have been able to reconstruct
dietary practices from finds of charred grains and
seeds. These are studied by archaeo-botanists,  who
are specialists in ancient plant remains. Grains
Early and Mature
Harappan cultures
Look at these figures for the
number of settlements in Sind
and Cholistan (the desert area
of Pakistan bordering the Thar
Desert).
SIND CHOLISTAN
Total number 106 239
of sites
Early Harappan 52 37
sites
Mature 65 136
Harappan sites
Mature Harappan 43 132
settlements on
new sites
Early Harappan 29 33
sites abandoned
You will find certain
abbreviations, related to
dates, in this book.
BP stands for Before
Present
BCE stands for Before
Common Era
CE stands for the Common
Era. The present year is
2015 according to this
dating system.
c. stands for the Latin
word circa and means
“approximate.”
2020-21
Page 3


1
Bricks, Beads and Bones
The Harappan Civilisation
THEME
ONE
The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most
distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley
civilisation. Made of a stone called steatite, seals
like this one often contain animal motifs and signs
from a script that remains undeciphered. Yet we
know a great deal about the lives of the people who
lived in the region from what they left behind –
their houses, pots, ornaments, tools and seals – in
other words, from archaeological evidence. Let us
see what we know about the Harappan civilisation,
and how we know about it. We will explore how
archaeological material is interpreted and how
interpretations sometimes change. Of course, there
are some aspects of the civilisation that are as yet
unknown and may even remain so.
Terms, places, times
The Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan culture.
Archaeologists use the term “culture” for a group of objects,
distinctive in style, that are usually found together within a specific
geographical area and period of time. In the case of the Harappan
culture, these distinctive objects include seals, beads, weights, stone
blades (Fig. 1.2) and even baked bricks. These objects were found
from areas as far apart as Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan
(Pakistan) and Gujarat (Map 1).
Named after Harappa, the first site where this unique culture
was discovered (p. 6), the civilisation is dated between c. 2600 and
1900 BCE. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early
Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area. The Harappan
civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to
distinguish it from these cultures.
Fig. 1.1
A Harappan seal
Fig. 1.2
Beads, weights, blades
2020-21
 THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY 2
Map 1
Some important
Mature Harappan sites
Sketch map not to scale
Manda
Harappa
Banawali
Rakhigarhi
Mitathal
Ganweriwala
Kot Diji
Chanhudaro
Amri
Balakot
Mohenjodaro
Sutkagendor
Dholavira
Lothal
Nageshwar
Rangpur
Kalibangan
Jhelum
Chenab
Ravi
Indus
Yamuna
Ganga
Chambal
Sabarmati
Arabian Sea
Mahi
Narmada
Sutlej
1. Beginnings
There were several archaeological cultures in the
region prior to the Mature Harappan. These cultures
were associated with distinctive pottery, evidence of
agriculture and pastoralism, and some crafts.
Settlements were generally small, and there were
virtually no large buildings. It appears that there
was a break between the Early Harappan and the
Harappan civilisation, evident from large-scale
burning at some sites, as well as the abandonment
of certain settlements.
2. Subsistence Strategies
If you look at Maps 1 and 2 you will notice that the
Mature Harappan culture developed in some of the
areas occupied by the Early Harappan cultures.
These cultures also shared certain common elements
including subsistence strategies. The Harappans ate
a wide range of plant and animal products, including
fish. Archaeologists have been able to reconstruct
dietary practices from finds of charred grains and
seeds. These are studied by archaeo-botanists,  who
are specialists in ancient plant remains. Grains
Early and Mature
Harappan cultures
Look at these figures for the
number of settlements in Sind
and Cholistan (the desert area
of Pakistan bordering the Thar
Desert).
SIND CHOLISTAN
Total number 106 239
of sites
Early Harappan 52 37
sites
Mature 65 136
Harappan sites
Mature Harappan 43 132
settlements on
new sites
Early Harappan 29 33
sites abandoned
You will find certain
abbreviations, related to
dates, in this book.
BP stands for Before
Present
BCE stands for Before
Common Era
CE stands for the Common
Era. The present year is
2015 according to this
dating system.
c. stands for the Latin
word circa and means
“approximate.”
2020-21
3
found at Harappan sites include
wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea
and sesame. Millets are found
from sites in Gujarat. Finds of
rice are relatively rare.
Animal bones found at Harappan
sites include those of cattle, sheep,
goat, buffalo and pig. Studies
done by archaeo-zoologists or zoo-
archaeologists indicate that these
animals were domesticated.
Bones of wild species such as
boar, deer and gharial are
also found. We do not know
whether the Harappans hunted
these animals themselves or
obtained meat from other hunting
communities. Bones of fish and
fowl are also found.
2.1 Agricultural technologies
While the prevalence of
agriculture is indicated by finds
of grain, it is more difficult to
reconstruct actual agricultural practices. Were
seeds broadcast (scattered) on ploughed lands?
Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture
indicate that the bull was known, and
archaeologists extrapolate from this that oxen
were used for ploughing. Moreover, terracotta
models of the plough have been found at sites in
Cholistan and at Banawali (Haryana).
Archaeologists have also found evidence of a
ploughed field at Kalibangan (Rajasthan),
associated with Early Harappan levels (see p. 20).
The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to
each other, suggesting that two different crops
were grown together.
Archaeologists have also tried to identify the
tools used for harvesting. Did the Harappans use
stone blades set in wooden handles or did they use
metal tools?
Most Harappan sites are located in semi-arid
lands, where irrigation was probably required for
agriculture. Traces of canals have been found at
the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan, but
not in Punjab or Sind. It is possible that ancient
Ü Discuss...
Are there any similarities or
differences in the distribution
of settlements shown on Maps
1 and 2?
Fig. 1.3
A terracotta bull
BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES
Map 2
Areas of Early Harappan
occupation
Sketch map not to scale
AMRI-NAL
Arabian Sea
DAMB
SADAA T
Indus
KOT
DIJI
SISWAL
2020-21
Page 4


1
Bricks, Beads and Bones
The Harappan Civilisation
THEME
ONE
The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most
distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley
civilisation. Made of a stone called steatite, seals
like this one often contain animal motifs and signs
from a script that remains undeciphered. Yet we
know a great deal about the lives of the people who
lived in the region from what they left behind –
their houses, pots, ornaments, tools and seals – in
other words, from archaeological evidence. Let us
see what we know about the Harappan civilisation,
and how we know about it. We will explore how
archaeological material is interpreted and how
interpretations sometimes change. Of course, there
are some aspects of the civilisation that are as yet
unknown and may even remain so.
Terms, places, times
The Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan culture.
Archaeologists use the term “culture” for a group of objects,
distinctive in style, that are usually found together within a specific
geographical area and period of time. In the case of the Harappan
culture, these distinctive objects include seals, beads, weights, stone
blades (Fig. 1.2) and even baked bricks. These objects were found
from areas as far apart as Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan
(Pakistan) and Gujarat (Map 1).
Named after Harappa, the first site where this unique culture
was discovered (p. 6), the civilisation is dated between c. 2600 and
1900 BCE. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early
Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area. The Harappan
civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to
distinguish it from these cultures.
Fig. 1.1
A Harappan seal
Fig. 1.2
Beads, weights, blades
2020-21
 THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY 2
Map 1
Some important
Mature Harappan sites
Sketch map not to scale
Manda
Harappa
Banawali
Rakhigarhi
Mitathal
Ganweriwala
Kot Diji
Chanhudaro
Amri
Balakot
Mohenjodaro
Sutkagendor
Dholavira
Lothal
Nageshwar
Rangpur
Kalibangan
Jhelum
Chenab
Ravi
Indus
Yamuna
Ganga
Chambal
Sabarmati
Arabian Sea
Mahi
Narmada
Sutlej
1. Beginnings
There were several archaeological cultures in the
region prior to the Mature Harappan. These cultures
were associated with distinctive pottery, evidence of
agriculture and pastoralism, and some crafts.
Settlements were generally small, and there were
virtually no large buildings. It appears that there
was a break between the Early Harappan and the
Harappan civilisation, evident from large-scale
burning at some sites, as well as the abandonment
of certain settlements.
2. Subsistence Strategies
If you look at Maps 1 and 2 you will notice that the
Mature Harappan culture developed in some of the
areas occupied by the Early Harappan cultures.
These cultures also shared certain common elements
including subsistence strategies. The Harappans ate
a wide range of plant and animal products, including
fish. Archaeologists have been able to reconstruct
dietary practices from finds of charred grains and
seeds. These are studied by archaeo-botanists,  who
are specialists in ancient plant remains. Grains
Early and Mature
Harappan cultures
Look at these figures for the
number of settlements in Sind
and Cholistan (the desert area
of Pakistan bordering the Thar
Desert).
SIND CHOLISTAN
Total number 106 239
of sites
Early Harappan 52 37
sites
Mature 65 136
Harappan sites
Mature Harappan 43 132
settlements on
new sites
Early Harappan 29 33
sites abandoned
You will find certain
abbreviations, related to
dates, in this book.
BP stands for Before
Present
BCE stands for Before
Common Era
CE stands for the Common
Era. The present year is
2015 according to this
dating system.
c. stands for the Latin
word circa and means
“approximate.”
2020-21
3
found at Harappan sites include
wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea
and sesame. Millets are found
from sites in Gujarat. Finds of
rice are relatively rare.
Animal bones found at Harappan
sites include those of cattle, sheep,
goat, buffalo and pig. Studies
done by archaeo-zoologists or zoo-
archaeologists indicate that these
animals were domesticated.
Bones of wild species such as
boar, deer and gharial are
also found. We do not know
whether the Harappans hunted
these animals themselves or
obtained meat from other hunting
communities. Bones of fish and
fowl are also found.
2.1 Agricultural technologies
While the prevalence of
agriculture is indicated by finds
of grain, it is more difficult to
reconstruct actual agricultural practices. Were
seeds broadcast (scattered) on ploughed lands?
Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture
indicate that the bull was known, and
archaeologists extrapolate from this that oxen
were used for ploughing. Moreover, terracotta
models of the plough have been found at sites in
Cholistan and at Banawali (Haryana).
Archaeologists have also found evidence of a
ploughed field at Kalibangan (Rajasthan),
associated with Early Harappan levels (see p. 20).
The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to
each other, suggesting that two different crops
were grown together.
Archaeologists have also tried to identify the
tools used for harvesting. Did the Harappans use
stone blades set in wooden handles or did they use
metal tools?
Most Harappan sites are located in semi-arid
lands, where irrigation was probably required for
agriculture. Traces of canals have been found at
the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan, but
not in Punjab or Sind. It is possible that ancient
Ü Discuss...
Are there any similarities or
differences in the distribution
of settlements shown on Maps
1 and 2?
Fig. 1.3
A terracotta bull
BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES
Map 2
Areas of Early Harappan
occupation
Sketch map not to scale
AMRI-NAL
Arabian Sea
DAMB
SADAA T
Indus
KOT
DIJI
SISWAL
2020-21
 THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY 4
Ü Do you think these
tools could have been used
for harvesting?
Fig. 1.5
Reservoir at Dholavira
Note the masonry work.
Ü Archaeologists use present-day analogies to try
and understand what ancient artefacts were used
for. Mackay was comparing present-day querns
with what he found. Is this a useful strategy?
Ü Discuss...
What is the evidence used by
archaeologists to reconstruct
dietary practices?
Fig. 1.4
Copper tools
Fig. 1.6
Saddle quern
Source 1
canals silted up long ago. It is also likely that water
drawn from wells was used for irrigation. Besides,
water reservoirs found in Dholavira (Gujarat) may
have been used to store water for agriculture.
How artefacts are identified
Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels
for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal
and terracotta. This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on
excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site:
Saddle querns … are found in considerable numbers
… and they seem to have been the only means in use
for grinding cereals. As a rule, they were roughly made
of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly
show signs of hard usage. As their bases are usually
convex, they must have been set in the earth or in
mud to prevent their rocking. Two main types have
been found: those on which another smaller stone was
pushed or rolled to and fro, and others with which a
second stone was used as a pounder, eventually
making a large cavity in the nether stone. Querns of
the former type were probably used solely for grain;
the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and
spices for making curries. In fact, stones of this latter
type are dubbed “curry stones” by our workmen and
our cook asked for the loan of one from the museum
for use in the kitchen.
FROM ERNEST MACKAY, Further Excavations at
Mohenjodaro, 1937.
2020-21
Page 5


1
Bricks, Beads and Bones
The Harappan Civilisation
THEME
ONE
The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most
distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley
civilisation. Made of a stone called steatite, seals
like this one often contain animal motifs and signs
from a script that remains undeciphered. Yet we
know a great deal about the lives of the people who
lived in the region from what they left behind –
their houses, pots, ornaments, tools and seals – in
other words, from archaeological evidence. Let us
see what we know about the Harappan civilisation,
and how we know about it. We will explore how
archaeological material is interpreted and how
interpretations sometimes change. Of course, there
are some aspects of the civilisation that are as yet
unknown and may even remain so.
Terms, places, times
The Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan culture.
Archaeologists use the term “culture” for a group of objects,
distinctive in style, that are usually found together within a specific
geographical area and period of time. In the case of the Harappan
culture, these distinctive objects include seals, beads, weights, stone
blades (Fig. 1.2) and even baked bricks. These objects were found
from areas as far apart as Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan
(Pakistan) and Gujarat (Map 1).
Named after Harappa, the first site where this unique culture
was discovered (p. 6), the civilisation is dated between c. 2600 and
1900 BCE. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early
Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area. The Harappan
civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to
distinguish it from these cultures.
Fig. 1.1
A Harappan seal
Fig. 1.2
Beads, weights, blades
2020-21
 THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY 2
Map 1
Some important
Mature Harappan sites
Sketch map not to scale
Manda
Harappa
Banawali
Rakhigarhi
Mitathal
Ganweriwala
Kot Diji
Chanhudaro
Amri
Balakot
Mohenjodaro
Sutkagendor
Dholavira
Lothal
Nageshwar
Rangpur
Kalibangan
Jhelum
Chenab
Ravi
Indus
Yamuna
Ganga
Chambal
Sabarmati
Arabian Sea
Mahi
Narmada
Sutlej
1. Beginnings
There were several archaeological cultures in the
region prior to the Mature Harappan. These cultures
were associated with distinctive pottery, evidence of
agriculture and pastoralism, and some crafts.
Settlements were generally small, and there were
virtually no large buildings. It appears that there
was a break between the Early Harappan and the
Harappan civilisation, evident from large-scale
burning at some sites, as well as the abandonment
of certain settlements.
2. Subsistence Strategies
If you look at Maps 1 and 2 you will notice that the
Mature Harappan culture developed in some of the
areas occupied by the Early Harappan cultures.
These cultures also shared certain common elements
including subsistence strategies. The Harappans ate
a wide range of plant and animal products, including
fish. Archaeologists have been able to reconstruct
dietary practices from finds of charred grains and
seeds. These are studied by archaeo-botanists,  who
are specialists in ancient plant remains. Grains
Early and Mature
Harappan cultures
Look at these figures for the
number of settlements in Sind
and Cholistan (the desert area
of Pakistan bordering the Thar
Desert).
SIND CHOLISTAN
Total number 106 239
of sites
Early Harappan 52 37
sites
Mature 65 136
Harappan sites
Mature Harappan 43 132
settlements on
new sites
Early Harappan 29 33
sites abandoned
You will find certain
abbreviations, related to
dates, in this book.
BP stands for Before
Present
BCE stands for Before
Common Era
CE stands for the Common
Era. The present year is
2015 according to this
dating system.
c. stands for the Latin
word circa and means
“approximate.”
2020-21
3
found at Harappan sites include
wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea
and sesame. Millets are found
from sites in Gujarat. Finds of
rice are relatively rare.
Animal bones found at Harappan
sites include those of cattle, sheep,
goat, buffalo and pig. Studies
done by archaeo-zoologists or zoo-
archaeologists indicate that these
animals were domesticated.
Bones of wild species such as
boar, deer and gharial are
also found. We do not know
whether the Harappans hunted
these animals themselves or
obtained meat from other hunting
communities. Bones of fish and
fowl are also found.
2.1 Agricultural technologies
While the prevalence of
agriculture is indicated by finds
of grain, it is more difficult to
reconstruct actual agricultural practices. Were
seeds broadcast (scattered) on ploughed lands?
Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture
indicate that the bull was known, and
archaeologists extrapolate from this that oxen
were used for ploughing. Moreover, terracotta
models of the plough have been found at sites in
Cholistan and at Banawali (Haryana).
Archaeologists have also found evidence of a
ploughed field at Kalibangan (Rajasthan),
associated with Early Harappan levels (see p. 20).
The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to
each other, suggesting that two different crops
were grown together.
Archaeologists have also tried to identify the
tools used for harvesting. Did the Harappans use
stone blades set in wooden handles or did they use
metal tools?
Most Harappan sites are located in semi-arid
lands, where irrigation was probably required for
agriculture. Traces of canals have been found at
the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan, but
not in Punjab or Sind. It is possible that ancient
Ü Discuss...
Are there any similarities or
differences in the distribution
of settlements shown on Maps
1 and 2?
Fig. 1.3
A terracotta bull
BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES
Map 2
Areas of Early Harappan
occupation
Sketch map not to scale
AMRI-NAL
Arabian Sea
DAMB
SADAA T
Indus
KOT
DIJI
SISWAL
2020-21
 THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY 4
Ü Do you think these
tools could have been used
for harvesting?
Fig. 1.5
Reservoir at Dholavira
Note the masonry work.
Ü Archaeologists use present-day analogies to try
and understand what ancient artefacts were used
for. Mackay was comparing present-day querns
with what he found. Is this a useful strategy?
Ü Discuss...
What is the evidence used by
archaeologists to reconstruct
dietary practices?
Fig. 1.4
Copper tools
Fig. 1.6
Saddle quern
Source 1
canals silted up long ago. It is also likely that water
drawn from wells was used for irrigation. Besides,
water reservoirs found in Dholavira (Gujarat) may
have been used to store water for agriculture.
How artefacts are identified
Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels
for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal
and terracotta. This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on
excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site:
Saddle querns … are found in considerable numbers
… and they seem to have been the only means in use
for grinding cereals. As a rule, they were roughly made
of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly
show signs of hard usage. As their bases are usually
convex, they must have been set in the earth or in
mud to prevent their rocking. Two main types have
been found: those on which another smaller stone was
pushed or rolled to and fro, and others with which a
second stone was used as a pounder, eventually
making a large cavity in the nether stone. Querns of
the former type were probably used solely for grain;
the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and
spices for making curries. In fact, stones of this latter
type are dubbed “curry stones” by our workmen and
our cook asked for the loan of one from the museum
for use in the kitchen.
FROM ERNEST MACKAY, Further Excavations at
Mohenjodaro, 1937.
2020-21
5
Ü How is the Lower Town
different from the Citadel?
3. Mohenjodaro
A Planned Urban Centre
Perhaps the most unique feature of the Harappan
civilisation was the development of urban centres.
Let us look at one such centre, Mohenjodaro,
more closely. Although Mohenjodaro is the most
well-known site, the first site to be discovered
was Harappa.
The settlement is divided into two sections, one
smaller but higher and the other much larger but
Fig. 1.7
Layout of Mohenjodaro
BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES
metres
2020-21
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